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GENERAL BOOTH 

AND 

THE SALVATION ARMY 



GENERAL BOOTH 



AND 



THE SALVATION ARMY 



BY 

A. M. NICOL 



HERBERT AND DANIEL 
21 MADDOX STREET 
LONDON, W. 

c Wi 3 



CONTENTS 

CHAPTER I 

GENERAL BOOTH'S RULING PASSION 

PAGE 

Mr. Cecil Rhodes and the Army Chief Chartist Movement 
versus Methodism The Moral of Fakenham A High Day 
of Salvation Wounding the General Dialogue and Prayer 
with Mrs. Asquith What is the Salvation Army? A 
Stupendous List East London and the Discovery of the 
General's Destiny . . ' . . . 1 

CHAPTER II 

A MODERN CATHERINE OF SIENA 

Points in common with Saint Catherine Mrs. Booth's first 
Sermon A stormy Recitation Excommunicated from 
Methodism Mrs. Booth's Love Match A classic Love 
Letter Her Views on Sex Her Government of Home 
Martyrdom The Loss to the Army A Husband's Tribute 30 

CHAPTER III 

THE MAKING OF A GENERAL 

A Midsummer Night's Dream Banging Theology against the 
Wall A Vision of East London " Can you say the Lord's 
Prayer in Latin ? " The Converted Milkman The Burkers 
The Volunteer Movement makes the Salvation Army 
The Outcome of a Revised Sentence . 57 



265294 



vi GENERAL BOOTH 

CHAPTER IV 

AND THE MAKING OF AN ARMY 

PAGE 

A World-wide Ideal The raison d'etre of the Deed Poll- 
Doctrines settled for ever A Sect of Sects Powers of the 
General Expansion by Growth, not Dictation How 
Germany was Invaded The latest Deed and the thin end 
of the Democratic Wedge If a General become Bankrupt, 
what then ? Applying the Powers under the Trust Deed to 
the making of an Army The Havoc of a New Despotism . 83 

CHAPTER V 

IS GENERAL BOOTH INFALLIBLE? 

General Booth's Spiritual claims Headquarters always true 
and right " Fundamental Rules" Why are one class of 
Officers paid and another unpaid ? Strange Alliance of 
Secular and Spiritual Arms General Booth's Universal 
Kingdom The Army Padlocked Children taught Heresy 110 

CHAPTER VI 

A TRAVELLING POPE 

General Booth's Parish Before the Japanese Emperor in Salva- 
tion Uniform Kissing Jerusalem Lepers " Bread and 
Milk, please" Life on Board Ship "General" Moses 
" A Son of Humanity" . . ... 132 



CHAPTER VII 

THE BRAIN CENTRE OF THE ARMY 

International Headquarters Trunk Departments The System 
of Reporting, Councils, and Secretaryship Past Failures 
at Supervision Disagreements and the General's Veto 
Details of the Daily Life . . ... 



CONTENTS vii 

CHAPTER VIII 

SALVATION ARMY SAINTS 

PAGE 

Professor Drummond and the Mysterious in Religion Jacob 
Yonker His Conversion and Work His Will Hedwig 
von Haartman Her Letters Her Work Jack Stoker 
His Conversion His Work . . . 172 

CHAPTER IX 

SOCIAL SALVATION 

The Social Scheme The Farm Colony In Darkest England and A 
the Way Out 104,000 subscribed in a few weeks Some 
Criticisms Some Encouraging Features Some Recent 
Developments . . . . . 188 

CHAPTER X 

THE QUESTION OF NUMBERS 

A Question of Policy Some Statistics Difficulty of Retaining 
Recruits Some Reasons New Methods Required Sensa- 
tional Accompaniments of the Penitent Form Noisy 
Advertisement . . . ... 212 

CHAPTER XI 

RIFTS IN THE FAMILY LUTE 

Family Hierarchy and its Failure The First Salvation Army 
Split A Booth rises against a Booth Ballington Booth 
against General Booth's System A Dramatic Combat 
between Brother and Sister in New York A Second Son's 
Rebellion The Story of the Clibborns' Secession Why the 
General does not see his Children A Reconciliation Pro- 
posal . . . . ... 231 

CHAPTER XII 

GENERAL BOOTH THE MAN 

His Appearance A Man of Action and Intuition His Loyalty 
to Friends Contradictions His Moral Courage A Strik- 
ing Episode The Qualities of a Statesman . . . 26 i 



viii GENERAL BOOTH 

CHAPTER XIII 

GENERAL BOOTHS ELISHA 

PAGE 

His Skill as Organiser The Army will Endure His Habit of 
Command A Fervid Orator Mr. Bramwell Booth and 
Mr. W. T. Stead Is Brought to Trial and Acquitted His 
High Aims in Slum Work His Business Capacity . . 282 

CHAPTER XIV 

THE SALVATION ARMY EMPIRE 

General Booth's Imperial Views Centralisation Failure with 
the Latin Races Some Measure of Success in Scandinavia 
and Protestant Countries Among the Hindoos in India 
Failure in Japan and Korea His World-wide Empire . 309 

CHAPTER XV 

AND WHAT OF THE FUTURE ? 

The Growth of Toleration The Army Respected General 
Booth on the Future of the Army Is the Army Faithful to 
Itself ? An Example . . ... 325 

CHAPTER XVI 

THUMBNAIL SKETCHES OF MODERN SALVATIONISTS 

Mrs. Bramwell Booth Miss Eva Booth Mrs. Booth-Hellberg 
Commander Booth-TuckerThomas McKie Adelaide Cox 
John A. Carleton Elijah Cadman George Scott Railton 
John Lawley David Lamb . ... 339 

APPENDIX 

THE ARMY AND ITS CRITICS 

Finance The Income of Staff Officers The "Style" of the 
Staff Officers Emigration The Prison Work of the Army 
The Men's Social Work The Failure of the Social Scheme 369 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

THE GENERAL .... Photogravure Frontispiece 

TO FACE PAGE 

A FARTHING BREAKFAST AT A SLUM POST ... 47 

SUNDAY FREE BREAKFAST, BLACKFRIARS ... 74 

Low CASTE CONVERTS . . . . . .144 

MR. AND MRS. BRAMWELL BOOTH . . . .156 

COMMANDER BOOTH-TUCKER . . . . .164 

THE GENERAL AND MR. BRAMWELL BOOTH DISCUSSING 

THE FARM COLONY . . . . . .188 

A TYPICAL " HALLELUJAH LASS " . . . . .226 

MlSS EVANGELINE BOOTH AND HER FATHER . .241 

GENERAL BOOTH AND THE BISHOP OF HEREFORD, 1910 . 277 
WILLIAM BOOTH, D.C.L. ...... 280 

THE AUTHOR, 1911 369 



PREFACE 

I BELIEVE there exists a peculiarly wide need for such 
a review of the operations of the Salvation Army 
as I have attempted to give in the following pages. 
My credentials for thus adding to the literature 
upon the movement are as follows : For nearly 
thirty years I was closely associated with its leaders, 
and more or less actively employed in advancing its 
religious and social endeavours. 

I began my Salvationist career in the capacity of 
Treasurer of a small Corps, and finished it a Com- 
missioner in its ranks. I may claim, therefore, the 
right to describe, review, and, in a friendly spirit, 
criticise the teaching and work of the Army. 

When I entered its ranks I was promised no guaran- 
teed salary and no " soft job " at any of its Head- 
quarters. Those entitled to my respect predicted 
that I should suffer in health and in reputation, 
and that I might prove a dismal failure as a Salvation 
Army Captain. I cheerfully accepted these risks, 
however, as also did my partner in life. The aims of 
the Army appealed to us ; its achievements dazzled 
us. We sold up a little home and parted with lovable 
friends to embark upon this problematical career. 

The actual step came about in this way : While 

ix 



x GENERAL BOOTH 

sitting in my office one day a telegram was handed in. 
I had just finished reading a thrilling newspaper 
description of the trial and imprisonment of eleven 
members of the Army at Forfar. A hot sense of shame 
flushed my cheeks as I read the verdict of the magis- 
trate, and I longed to take part in the struggle for 
religious liberty in that town. The telegram ran as 
follows : 

" Serious fight at Forfar. Officers imprisoned. 
Can you take their place at once ? 

" BRAMWELL BOOTH." 

The receipt of that telegram gave me one of the 
happiest thrills of my life. I felt as proud as if I had 
received the V.C. for performing some act of valour 
on the battlefield, and it was with a stinging sense of 
regret that I was prevented, owing to a business 
agreement, from complying, there and then, with this 
call to suffer for Christ's sake. Within a month, how- 
ever, of the receipt of that telegraphic call to action, I 
was placed in charge of an Army Corps at Kilsyth, 
in the South of Scotland, clothed in all the dignity of a 
Captain of the Salvation Army ! My first week's 
salary amounted to the interesting sum of Is. Ijd., 
the best week's wage that I had earned up to that 
time ; so I then reckoned ! 

The apartments provided for us were in keeping 
with the stipend. With a chaff sack on which to sleep 
at night and lacking the usual cooking requisites, we 
that is my wife and I pocketed our discomfiture, 



x 

and diffused smiles among the ten soldiers who formed 
our fighting battalions. 

I did not prove a " dismal failure " at Kilsyth at 
least so I was informed by the Headquarters officials 
of the Army. 

I was next given the command of work in a poor 
and squalid district of Middlesbrough, an appointment 
which I hailed with pleasure, having the notion that 
there was then more practical heathenism to the 
square inch in that northern hive of industry than in 
any other part of the United Kingdom. But I did not 
succeed at all well at Middlesbrough. I was stationed 
in the midst of too much poverty to be content with the 
means at my disposal for aiding its victims. Then I 
was confronted with the failure of the Army to retain 
its converts. It was here that I received my first 
disappointment in " revival " work, to which I attached 
the utmost importance, and by which I hoped the world 
would eventually be introduced to a reign of peace 
and righteousness. 

Major James Dowdle and other successful officers 
of the Army had been stationed in Middlesbrough 
and had gained altogether 10,000 converts, but the 
strength of the three Corps in the town did not exceed 
400, and many of the members belonging to the Corps 
wore no uniform, only attended meetings on Sundays, 
smoked tobacco, and were worldly in their attire. 
The officers in the district were given to complaining, 
quarrelling with their leaders, flirting with girls, and 
contracting private and official debts. The members 
of the Corps did not live at peace among themselves. 



xii GENERAL BOOTH 

They were divided into cliques, and when they spoke 
of their experiences of the grace of God at work 
and at home, they would " hit " at their fellow-soldiers 
and create an uncomfortable feeling in the meeting. 

I remember on one occasion it was a Holiness 
meeting a female soldier (who was in the habit of 
shouting " Hallelujah ! " when the officer said any- 
thing that pleased her) saying, " God is against 
hypocrisy, and there are hypocrites in this meeting," 
and pointing with her finger to a woman whom I con- 
sidered singularly well balanced in her disposition and 
consistent in her home affairs, said, " and she is one of 
them ! " These people made the loudest professions 
and did the least work. Still, if I did not make the 
Corps a success, the experience was profitable. 

My next appointment was to staff work as aide-de- 
camp to Major Thomas Blandy, of the Eastern 
Counties. Then followed the Divisional commands of 
Scotland and London, which filled four years of my 
time. On the whole I did not care for this side of staff 
life ; I was not adapted for it. 

The appointment as the First Foreign Secretary was 
more congenial to my tastes. In this position for three 
years I witnessed remarkable demonstrations of the 
application of the Army's methods of evangelisation 
to the continent of Europe. 

The conclusions that I arrived at then I adhere to 
still. In Latin-speaking communities the Army's 
methods failed. They were too English, too vulgar, 
too much of an outrage upon the generally accepted 
idea of the worship of God, and the confession and 



PREFACE xiii 

absolution of sin. People at first came in crowds to the 
gatherings of the Army, and not a few were drawn to 
the penitent form and attracted for a season to the 
service of the Army. But the Army had nothing, and 
still has nothing, to offer the lapsed children of the 
Roman Catholic Church who were or are restored 
to faith in God by means of its services. A meeting 
of the Army in Italy or France, for instance, is the 
same in spirit, character, and method as it is in Drury 
Lane or Newcastle. The leaders of the Army not 
including the General have an innate aversion and 
prejudice to Roman Catholicism, and it is therefore 
not surprising that after twenty years' work in France 
the Army is in a worse condition numerically than it 
was at the end of its first ten years. 

The explanation is simple. It took General Booth 
twelve years in London to find an answer to the cry 
" How to reach the masses ? " But neither he nor his 
officers spent ten days in France studying the same 
question from the standpoint of the Frenchman. 
" The Army was a success in England, and it must be 
in France ! " So they concluded, and having com- 
missioned its best officers to apply an English ritual 
to the people of a Catholic-minded nation, and one 
which these same officers could not alter without ob- 
taining the consent of Headquarters, it is not surprising 
that the result, so far, is failure. 

Where the Army succeeds in France the recruits 
are generally gained from people who have been in- 
fluenced by Protestant teaching. The Army will have 
to learn Latin before it understands the magnitude 



xiv GENERAL BOOTH 

of its task, and to unlearn its creed and code of dis- 
cipline, if it is to lift, religiously, the masses of the 
people out of their metaphysical and materialistic 
apostasy from the faith of their mothers and fathers. 
But all this by the way. 

In the same capacity of Foreign Secretary I visited 
other parts of the Continent, such as Scandinavia, 
Germany, and the Netherlands, and found that where 
the Army operated upon a Protestant stratum its 
officers met with a response similar to that in England. 

I also accompanied the General to India, Japan, 
Canada, the United States, South Africa, Palestine, 
and other parts of the world, and as, during part of 
this travelling career, I also acted as Editor-in-Chief 
for the Army's periodical literature, it follows that I 
could scarcely fail to understand and appreciate the 
Army's great work and its Herculean attack upon evils 
that are as old and as tenacious as sin. 

Two years ago I ceased to be an officer ; it is unneces- 
sary to enter into the circumstances which led to that 
severance. In no way do they reflect upon the General 
or any of his officers. I may be permitted to say, 
however, that in bringing before the public this 
impartial picture of the life of General Booth and the 
work of the Salvation Army, my sincere wish is that 
it will disseminate a more reliable knowledge of the 
movement than is usually obtained from ordinary 
sources. 

Up to the present the public estimate of the Salva- 
tion Army has largely been based upon gratuitous 
reports and laudatory reviews by persons who have 



PREFACE xv 

not had the advantage of a practical, close, and 
continuous acquaintance with its principal operations. 
I hope that I may not be considered egotistical when 
I say that I possess these advantages. 

Now. after two years' study of the movement, from 
an impartial attitude, I see it in, I hope, a clearer 
and fuller light. 

Within the narrow limits of the space allotted to me, 
I have attempted to deal directly and indirectly with 
such pertinent questions as the spiritual authority 
of the General and the teaching which this organisation 
is inculcating in the minds of tens of thousands of 
children and youths. 

General Booth claims for himself an authority that 
no Catholic would dream of ascribing to the Pope of 
Rome, or Mahomedan to the Prophet. 

The system of the Army is an interesting study in 
these democratic days, and I try to explain and 
illustrate its application to the various departments 
under the control of the Chief of the Staff. 

The Army has recently been adversely criticised 
and the divisions in the Booth family drawn across 
the path of the present. I hope that I shed some new 
light upon these matters. 

The General refuses to tell his friends the census 
of the Army in England and throughout the world ; 
but I have felt that the time has arrived when the facts 
should be made public property. For doing so, I 
shall be held up to a measure of contempt by former 
comrades, though I am inclined to think that I shall 
have rendered the Army the best service I ever did 



xvi GENERAL BOOTH 

by what I have done in this matter. The Army has 
far more to gain than lose by keeping this subject 
no longer in the dark. 

These pages constitute, therefore, the sincere tribute 
and judgment of a candid friend upon the Salvation 
Army. No ulterior motive has inspired the effort, 
and I would not have attempted it had not many old 
comrades and others asked me to embody in some 
form the story of the Army's evolution as I have seen 
it. It is launched with the earnest hope that it may 
prove of interest, enlightenment, and assistance to all 
who are concerned for the success of every honest 
endeavour to ameliorate the moral and social con- 
ditions of the unfortunate and vicious classes of 
society, and that it may encourage the faith of all 
who are engaged in the service of God and man to hold 
fast the first principles faith in God and the " salva- 
bility " of even the most abandoned sons and daughters 
of man. 

A. M. NICOL. 



GENEBAL BOOTH 

AND THE SALVATION ARMY 

CHAPTER I 
GENERAL BOOTH'S RULING PASSION 

Mr. Cecil Rhodes and the Army Chief Chartist Movement versus 
Methodism The Moral of Fakenham A High Day of Salvation 
Wounding the General Dialogue and Prayer with Mrs. 
Asquith What is the Salvation Army? A Stupendous List- 
East London and the Discovery of the General's Destiny 

" I CAN never look upon suffering of any kind without 
asking myself two questions : What is the cause of it ? 
and what can I do to alleviate the sufferer ? This 
habit has become a second nature with me." 

In these words General Booth replied to a question 
put by the late Mr. Cecil Rhodes, when that Colossus 
first inspected the Salvation Army's Land and Indus- 
trial Colony at Hadleigh, Essex. 

Mr. Rhodes was deeply interested in this Colony 
as an experiment in dealing with and reforming the 
derelict labour of the city. It was called, under 
General Booth's Darkest England Scheme, " The Home 



2 GENERAL BOOTH 

' Colony," and, .was created to further the physical 
and moral regeneration of poor and submerged men 
who had previously undergone a probation in the 
Army's workshops and " elevators " in the City 
Colony. 

The linking of the two Colonies impressed the South 
African statesman as based upon sound principles, 
and as the two men one who thought in Continents, 
and the other in Conquests which he determined to 
achieve for the Master he served walked about the 
Colony, they saw the promise of at least a most useful 
effort. 

All around them were tramps, hooligans, broken- 
down clerks, tradesmen, doctors, lawyers and other 
professionals, employed in making dams, wells, and 
outhouses, as well as engaged in various branches of 
market-gardening and farm- work. The fact carried 
with it a splendid moral and a great possibility, and the 
characteristic question that Cecil Rhodes put to his 
host was, as near as I can now remember, " Tell me, 
Booth, how is it that the submerged miserables 
appeal to you ? " General Booth's reply, given in the 
words of my opening paragraph, pleased the statesman. 
It revealed the man. 

They had met before, however, at Cape Town, when 
Cecil Rhodes was Premier of the parent Colony, and 
when the Salvation Army's Social Redemptive Scheme 
was just beginning to assume shape and form. 
General Booth, who was journeying to Australia by 
the long sea route, called at Cape Town, and was 
received by the Premier at Parliament Buildings. 



GENERAL BOOTH AND CECIL RHODES 3 

In the course of a long conversation they exchanged 
views upon the future of the English-speaking race 
and of South Africa. With amazing frankness, Mr. 
Rhodes declared that his own ambition was to paint 
the whole of the map of South Africa red, from the 
Zambesi down. He traced the line of his plans on a 
map hanging on the walls of his office, and then dilated 
upon the permanent and material benefits that would 
accrue to South Africa and the Empire should his 
dreams ever be realised. " Our destiny," he said, " is 
to rule this continent." 

General Booth was charmed with Mr. Rhodes. 
Here was a man who saw visions and dreamed dreams. 
Here was a man with power behind him, with wealth 
and position and influence, by which he could translate 
his dreams into realities. He honoured and admired 
him, for despite his protestations of cosmopolitanism, 
General Booth is at root an Englishman, and a genuine 
believer in the superiority of the British race. He is 
English, but English with an overwhelming passion 
for the conquest of the world to Christ. 

When Mr. Rhodes had finished the outline of 
his ambition for South Africa, he turned to the 
General and said, " Now what do you think of my 
dream ? " 

The General replied, " The dream of a Caesar, sir ; 
but," with characteristic egotism, he added, " what 
do you think of mine, Mr. Rhodes ? " And the General 
proceeded : 

" I dream day and night of making new men out of 
the waste of humanity. To me men, especially the 



4 GENERAL BOOTH 

worst, possess the attraction of gold mines. The 
greatest sinners are the greatest sufferers, and I want 
to have a hand at their salvation. 

" You are determined, I gather, to conquer this 
continent. I too have an ambition. It is to conquer 
a Dark Continent of human misery and sorrow. Quite 
recently I was moved to make a closer survey of this 
continent. I will not weary you with the statistics 
of its population and doings, nor the motives that led 
me into it. I was simply drawn thither by the attrac- 
tion that the poor ever exercise upon me. 

"It is pretty well known that at the time I was 
spending frequent intervals by the bedside of my dying 
wife, and it may be that the sight of her suffering made 
me feel more deeply for the sufferings of others. At 
any rate, when it was especially cold at nights my mind 
went down to the Thames Embankment and speculated 
as to what I could do to alleviate the miseries of the 
homeless crowds that I had seen there. 

" I went through the Starvation World. You do 
not know much of that world, Mr. Rhodes, in this 
sunny land. What a world it is ! aggravated by the 
fact that it need not exist. 

" Then I looked at the Vicious World the drunk- 
ards, gamblers, harlots, and the poor spendthrifts. 
Here I saw men, women, and children by the thousand, 
who were redeemable and savable. 

" I travelled through the Criminal World. Oh, these 
habitations of crime ! I never look upon a prison 
without an inward shudder and a longing to get through 
the doors and do something for the men shut up there 
like wild animals. For there must be a way of deliver- 
ing them. 

" Then I turned to my own people, the people whom 



GENERAL BOOTH AND CECIL RHODES 5 

God, I believe, has given me. I asked them to go into 
these dark worlds with the Light of God, the compassion 
of the Christ, and the touch of our common humanity, 
and to say to the miserable denizens of these worlds, 
4 Come with us ; here is work for you and shelter for 
you, and hope for you. You need not starve, if you 
will but work. You need not commit suicide there 
is salvation for you.' ' 

Then the Commander-in-Chief of the Salvation 
Army drew a picture of his own people battling with 
the breakers of vice, launching their Social Lifeboats, 
and saving men, women, and children, and passing 
them on, after a period of training, to a New World. 
After a pause, he wound up an appeal to Mr. Rhodes 
with this question : " And why should not South 
Africa be that New World ? " 

Mr. Rhodes was stirred by the eloquence of the 
social evangelist before him. He was not accustomed 
to listen to such a story in his private room at Parlia- 
ment Buildings, but he held his emotions with the bit 
of an iron will. 

" General Booth," he observed, " I perceive the 
difference between us. You are first a Christian and 
then an Englishman, whereas I am an Englishman 
first and last, General." Then, lifting the pointer 
again to the northern latitude of Rhodesia on the 
map, he said, " If I can help you with a slice of land 
up there, let me know when you are ready." 

And the two men parted General Booth to wander 
through the world a little longer with his Lamp of 
Hope, and the Colossus to apply his intellect to his 



6 GENERAL BOOTH 

Empire-building projects and die and be buried among 
the Matoppo Hills. 

The two incidents accentuate, I think, the constitu- 
tional difference that often exists between one great 
man and another. Rhodes was a Napoleon of Empire : 
Booth is one of humanity. The Imperialist rightly 
divined the man when he declared General Booth to be 
" first a Christian," for without that key to his charac- 
ter the leader of the Salvation Army becomes an in- 
tricate human puzzle. The phraseology and mannerism 
of the Methodist evangelist have long since lost their 
influence upon the personality of the Salvation 
Army General. He is an old man now, in quest 
of more power for his organisation. That passion 
has led him up the giddy flights of fame, and yet, 
as he told Mr. Rhodes, and tells men in all walks 
of life, " I was once very wicked, very wicked 
indeed." 

He cheated at marbles when at school, made love 
to a pretty girl, and pursued the inclination of a not 
very generous disposition. Then he got converted at 
the age of fifteen, and as in the case of St. Paul, the 
effect of that experience was to change the whole 
current of his thought and ambition. The vain youth 
of fifteen became a preacher at that age. 

He took religion with Puritanic seriousness ; he 
recollected, after his conversion, that he had not paid 
a schoolmate a sixpence that he had won unfairly at 
a game of marbles. He searched the pages of the 
Scripture for all texts having a bearing upon the 
doctrine of restitution, and confessed to his companion 



GENERAL BOOTH'S BOYISH DREAMS 7 

his sin and restored to him the sixpence ! He apolo- 
gised to the girl with " a pair of blue eyes and golden 
ringlets " that he had been playing with her affections, 
and begged her to forgive him ! He read Paley's 
Evidences of Christianity at nights after the house- 
hold had gone to bed, and testified to his parents in the 
morning that he was " saved from hell and the fear of 
the grave " ! He organised mission parties to preach 
the Gospel to the loafing, argumentative crowds at the 
Meadow Flats of his native town. Methodism intro- 
duced him to class meetings, preaching services, 
prayer meetings, and an occasional fortnight's revival 
mission. But all these only seemed to touch the fringe 
of the world of misery, to the needs of which, even in 
these days, his eyes had been partially opened. 

" What shall I do with my life ? " he asked himself 
many a night. He saw the failure that his father had 
made of his. He considered the rich what had 
wealth done to save men ? Young as he was, he was 
given to dreaming over the state of the world, and 
was often a sympathetic listener to the oratory of the 
Chartist leaders, who had many ardent followers in 
the town of Nottingham. He had discussed with his 
companions the Chartist programme of Political Re- 
form, and when he became " a decided Christian," 
Chartist principles shrank, in his judgment, into so 
much mere polish of the outer evils that the leaders 
deplored. 

He stood on the sidewalks of his native town and 
watched long lines of working men and women march 
past, waving banners, demanding higher wages, less 



8 GENERAL BOOTH 

number of hours of labour, vote by ballot, annual 
parliaments, and other political reforms. He saw 
Democracy in the travail of a new birth, and heard 
their leaders denounce the grinding tyranny of Capi- 
talism. He was moved, stirred, agitated. Something 
ought to be done. The people were starving, and 
children were crying for bread. He had heard with his 
own ears the same cries, and he was forming the theory 
that the State as such ought to become a veritable 
Moses to the enslaved and poverty-stricken operatives 
of the Midlands. 

He recognised in Feargus O'Connor an evangelist of 
Reform, and had young Booth come in personal con- 
tact with the zealots of the Chartist movement, it is 
more than likely that the history of this period would 
have contained a stirring chapter upon the exploits of 
William Booth as a political agitator. 

But it was too late. Methodism had captured him. 
His conversion had confused his reasoning faculties. 
There is no bigot like the dogmatic theologian. William 
Booth could not see, and does not see now, that the 
spirit of progress can permeate the smoke-room of a 
workman's club and even the caucus of a political 
party. He had imbibed strong individualistic beliefs, 
such as " the soul was the citadel of moral strength." 
To capture that, to have it commanded by the Captain 
of Salvation, was infinitely more important than votes, 
or parliaments, or comfortable dwellings, or reasonable 
wages. The local Gamaliels of Methodism had inocu- 
lated these maxims into the very fibre of his being, and 
the idealism of the Rev. James Caughey an American 



CONVERSION TO METHODISM 9 

evangelist who made a great stir in Methodist circles 
at this period swayed Booth's imagination, and it 
came to pass that he emerged from the political sensa- 
tions of his times and the influence of Anglicanism in 
which he was reared, a fervent, narrow, madly enthu- 
siastic Methodist. He was a Methodist first and last. 
To him, Methodism was God's chosen instrument for the 
salvation of the masses. He afterwards declared : 

" I worshipped everything that bore the name of 
Methodism. To me there was one God, and John 
Wesley was His prophet. The story of his life was my 
chief romance. No human compositions were com- 
parable to his writings. The hymns of his brother 
Charles formed part of my soul's daily menu. All 
that was needed in my judgment for the general better- 
ment of the world was the faithful carrying into 
practice of the letter and spirit of Wesley's doctrines. 
Change a man and he will soon change his circum- 
stances. Reform must be preceded by regeneration. I 
cared little then for forms and ceremonies. What I 
wanted to see above everything else in the world was 
an organisation with the salvation of souls as its 
supreme and all-consuming ambition, worked upon 
the simple, earnest principles that I had embraced, 
and which, to some extent, I had seen successfully 
applied. When I am dead, and posterity passes its 
verdict upon William Booth, I hope that I shall be 
remembered as a soul- winner." 

v. That is the ruling passion of the creator of the 
Salvation Army, to satisfy which he has organised a 
huge engine of ecclesiastical power. Paradoxical as 



10 GENERAL BOOTH 

it may sound, the Salvation Army is governed by more 
creeds, orders, forms, ceremonies, and regulations 
than any other religious system on the face of 
the earth. Yet the passion of its founder for the 
salvation of men remains unabated. 

Here is an illustration of the failure of organi- 
sation per se, on the one hand, and on the other hand 
the grandeur of his passion for souls in its dogmatic 
assertiveness. A day's service had been organised at 
Fakenham, in Norfolk. A big marquee had been 
secured with the object of attracting the motley visi- 
tors to that town on the market-day. A large staff of 
experienced officers had been drafted from London 
and Norwich to aid the General in making the experi- 
ment a success. The district was billed and circularised. 
Everyone was confident of a great success. In antici- 
pation of a large ingathering of penitents, a Registra- 
tion Room was attached to the rear of the tent. 
Altogether fifty officers were appointed to the respec- 
tive duties of orderlies, " fishers," and registration 
sergeants. 

The first of the day's services began at eleven. 
Everything was in order. The doorkeepers were at 
their posts. The aisles were laid with matting to 
silence any noise that might be caused by the passage 
of the visitors to the tent. Staff officers, field officers, 
and local officers were everywhere. In a word, the 
organisation was perfect. Only one factor was needed 
to complete the success of the enterprise people, and 
they were conspicuous by their absence ! The total 
attendance did not exceed a hundred all told ! The 



HIS HATRED OF FAILURE 11 

service did not draw. The Norfolk farmers remained 
in the market to dispose of their produce and stock. 

The consequence was a death-like silence in and 
around the marquee when the worthy General drove 
up in a carriage and pair to the side entrance. An old 
Salvation campaigner, he took in the situation at a 
glance. " Well, Lawley, what have we got here ? " 
he asked his stage-manager. 

" Not much, General," meekly replied that bur- 
den bearer. 

The General frowned. (He accepts failures with 
bad grace.) 

The meeting proved an utter fiasco. The General 
spoke in jagged sentences, snappishly complained about 
a draught on the platform, ordered a woman to stop 
fanning, an officer to assist a mother with her boy, and 
spoke to Colonel Lawley in a gruff and snarly manner 
about his soloing. No one at the close of the gathering 
came to the penitent form, and the meeting ended 
without ceremony or feeling. 

So far, then, all this organisation only served to 
magnify the cruelty of the failure. The General was 
wroth. His face was like a clouded sky, and thunder 
and lightning were in his eyes. Poor Staff Officers ! 
They were as dumb machines in the presence of the 
General when called into a small tent at the rear of the 
marquee. 

; ' What have I made this Salvation Army for ? " 
he cried, looking sternly at the provincial officer, the 
man officially responsible for the disaster. " Have I 
raised you men to positions of influence in the world, 



12 GENERAL BOOTH 

and covered your epaulettes with stars, to curse the 
thing that God has permitted me to give form to ? 
Am I dependent upon you ? God can do without the 
Salvation Army, and I am not beholden to it. I can 
wipe it off the slate to-morrrow, and I would do so 
without a pang of regret if I thought that it would 
become a glorified corpse. You Staff Officers feel no 
responsibility. There is not one man among you who 
will come forward now and say, * General, I am the 
man that has let you down.' If you thought you had 
a hand in it, you would at once begin to excuse your- 
selves." 

We stood as if in a judgment hall listening to our 
doom, for the General exercises a curious terror over his 
officers at times. The old man seized his hat and 
walked briskly to his carriage. 

" Shall I come up for you for the next meeting ? " 
asked the docile Lawley. 

" No," cried the General. And he went away from 
that failure wrathful and sorrowful, and dictated a 
letter to his Chief of the Staff, in which the following 
notable comment was made upon the morning ser- 
vice : 

" We are developing the Field Organisation over- 
much. The divided responsibility of the Provincial 
Officer and the Divisional Officer is depriving the 
concern of sense of direct responsibility. I can find 
no one here who will accept responsibility for the 
failure. Will you ? We must go into this thoroughly 
when we meet." 



THE PENITENTS BENCH 13 

Poor old man ! To do him justice, his keenest dis- 
appointment was in seeing no one at the penitent form. 
For the apple of his eye is the penitent form. It is the 
barometer of the movement and the instrument by 
which the General weighs the value of his own efforts. 

General Booth's Sundays are high days and holidays. 
He preaches in the morning from such texts as " All 
things are possible to him that belie veth," and at 
night from " Be sure your sins will find you out." 
After an address that usually lasts from forty to sixty 
minutes, Colonel Lawley steps to his side and in a 
pleading, silvery tone of voice asks for 

" volunteers. Who will be the first man or woman to 
leave his or her seat and walk up here and kneel down 
at this chair and ask God to blot out the past ? We 
are waiting for the first the first to surrender. Now 
is the time ! Come ! God is here. The Spirit has been 
striving. You are found out. Your sins are making 
hell in your lives. Come to my Lord, and He will turn 
the hell into a heaven. Come, come ! " 

Someone comes. He is led by a sergeant along the 
aisle to a row of seats on the stage arranged for the 
penitents. Shouts of " Hallelujah " rend the theatre 
where the General's Sunday meetings are usually held. 
The drummer will probably whack his high-sounding 
instrument, and the General will rise to his feet, leap 
to the rail, and cry, " I see another, Colonel, and 
another ! Blessed be the Lord ! The angels must be 
rejoicing ! " 

Then, while the stream of voluntary seekers for 



14 GENERAL BOOTH 

salvation descend from the galleries or walk from the 
pit few come from the boxes and dress-circle the 
audience, assisted by a lusty brass band, will sing with 
boyish gusto : 

<{ Oh the prodigal's coming home, coming home, 

No more to roam : 

He is weary, wandering far away from God, 
He is seeking his Father's face, 
And longing for His grace, 
Oh, the prodigal's coming home, coming home." 

Varied by loud praying, piano-like soloing, rapturous 
singing, volleys of "Amens" and "Hallelujahs," the 
number of penitents is duly counted and announced 
from the stage to the audience, and the veteran leader 
seems lost in the revelry of the scene. It is one of the 
most extraordinary sights in the religious life of the 
country, and the General thinks that it is here where 
one should try to learn what the Salvation Army is. 

His penetrating eyes now dim with age com- 
prehend the entire situation. No evangelist ever lived 
who could tune his harp to the moods and emotions of 
an audience as does the General. He holds in check any 
tendency of a meeting to become uproarious, and 
quickens its enthusiasm when it flags, passes kindly 
encouragements or reproofs to the musicians and 
staff officers, interrupts his Colonel, interjects a word 
of appeal now and again to the undecided, paces to 
and fro the stage, smiles, waves his arms, claps his 
hands, and when the number of penitents reaches the 
hundred, he ties a neckerchief round his throat, 
turns a suggestive look to his valet, and steals re- 



THE LAST WORD 15 

luctantly away from the scene of salvation and is lost 
behind the wings of the stage ! He plunges his arms 
into a big fur-lined coat, and sinks into a chair, quite 
delighted. 

" Ah ! this has been a good day," he will say. 
" One hundred and ten is it now ? Good ! Is the cab 
ready ? Thanks ! Now for bread and milk. Good 
night ! Tell Lawley to believe for another century." 

When the last " Amen " is shouted, and the last 
refrain is sung, the Colonel perspiring and voiceless 
pronounces the benediction. But he has still a sacred 
duty to perform. The Prime Minister of His Majesty's 
Government is supposed to summarise the debates 
in Parliament each day for the personal benefit of the 
King ; and in Queen Victoria's reign this custom was 
scrupulously observed. In General Booth's Government 
his personal Adjutant would be metaphorically shot 
if he failed to acquaint his Chief at the end of such a 
meeting as I have described with the grand total of 
penitents no matter how late the service or how far 
the tired Colonel will have to travel to his master's 
billet. 

It was at Liverpool that I once volunteered to fulfil 
this function for my colleague. It was very late when 
I arrived at Sefton Park, but the maid had received 
instructions that when an officer called he was to be 
shown at once to the General's room. I accordingly 
stepped gently inside. 

" I have brought the number of penitents, General," 
I said. 

The old General was snugly tucked between the 



16 GENERAL BOOTH 

bedclothes, and his valet was fast asleep in the next 
room. 

" Well, what does the paper say ? " (The number 
was marked on the margin of a page torn from a hymn- 
book.) 

I read it as Colonel Lawley had written it. 

" 185 Hallelujah ! Johnnie Lawley ! " 

" Beautiful ! " ejaculated the General. " But we 
ought to have had the second century, Nicol. We 
ought. Did that backslider get through ? Did he ? 
That was a good case. And what about the man 
separated from his wife ? Was there a reconciliation ? 
You don't say so ! Reconciled at the mercy seat and 
embraced each other in the Registration Room ! 
Glory ! That will make a good story for The War 
Cry ! No, write the whole story out for me. It 

will do for me to tell Lord A when I see him on 

Tuesday. I'll sleep well to-night. God is good ! I 
hope you are writing something hot for The War 
Cry. 185 185 Jesus Jesus ! " 

And before I had closed the door and wished him 
" Good night " the great evangelist was asleep. 

I was once unintentionally guilty of wounding the 
General in a tender spot and unexpectedly revealing 
the depth of this passion for a Salvation meeting. 

We were voyaging to Australia and called at 
Colombo. During the sixteen hours that our steamer 
lay at anchor in the harbour, the General, by arrange- 
ment, went ashore to conduct a small social meeting. 
The staff accompanying him Colonel Lawley, Briga- 
dier F. Cox, and myself were thankful to learn on 



A REBUKE 17 

landing that the Ceylon officer had not succeeded in 
securing a hall suitable for a Salvation meeting, and I 
quite frankly gave vent to my feelings by saying, 
" Thank God ! " I had my reason for doing so. 

Instantly the eyes of the General darted fiery anger 
upon me. As we ascended the gangway on our return 
to the ship, the General whispered to me, " Nicol, come 
down to my cabin in five minutes' time," 

When I entered, the General closed his cabin door 
and in a stern manner said, " You cut me to the 
heart this morning ! " 

I had forgotten my ejaculation, and stood amazed, 
and replied, " Then I am unconscious, General, of 
having done so." 

" You know that Salvation meetings are my meat 
and drink they are the wine of Paradise to my soul." 

I assented. 

" Yet you had the audacity to say * Thank God ! ' 
when you heard that mild-mannered Colonel ashore 
tell me that there was no Salvation meeting for me in 
Colombo. What did you mean ? Are you a back- 
slider ? " 

The cause of his resentment was thus made clear. I 
replied with some spirit : "I know what you mean, 
but I am unrepentant. For the last fourteen days 
you have scarcely been able to crawl out of your cabin, 
General, and a Salvation meeting in Colombo would 
have been madness in your state of health. It might 
have been attended with a collapse on your part ; 
and I have too healthy a horror of that possibility 
not to express my feelings as I did ashore. The 



18 GENERAL BOOTH 

Chief of your Staff is your son. He is my master, and 
if anything serious happened to you, General, I should 
be shot in Trafalgar Square ! " 

" What about that ? God would crown you with 
honour. Never raise a little finger against your 
General saving souls. Leave that business to the 
devil." 

Here, then, you have the real General Booth, the 
man whose passion for saving men from the Hell 
that he believes in, and the Hell that men make for 
themselves, brooks no obstacle or interference. All 
the same, I was very glad that there was no such 
meeting ! 

The General loves to talk and sing of salvation when 
alone. I have often known him to absorb a whole hour 
of his time singing and reciting, in company with his 
personal staff, old Methodist and Banter hymns 
that were in vogue fifty years ago. He would enrich 
the singing by associating some hymn with an incident 
in his career, or the conversion of some noted " char- 
acter," He is a charming conversationalist. 

At the end of the recreation, he would lean back 
in his chair, and, closing his eyes, speak reverently to 
God. Here is one of the prayers that he thus breathed 
on the way out to Australia : 

" Give us souls, Lord, We live only for that. What 
is the good of sermons and chapels and meetings, and 
marchings and voyages, if we do not win men to 
Thyself ? Lord, we are dissatisfied at the rate at 
which we are progressing. There must be a more 
excellent way for reaching the hearts of the people. 



THE GENERAL AND MISS TENNANT 19 

Give us another view of Calvary ! It is full of mystery 
to us. To be loved by God, to be counted worthy of 
living with God at last. Oh, my Lord, how can we 
praise Thee ! Bless the Army ! Save it from minding 
high things. Keep us humble. Save the poor, and 
bless the people on board this ship ! " 

The General is the same everywhere. If he is 
travelling in the train he is sure to concern himself, 
provided there is half a chance of doing so with 
propriety, with the spiritual welfare of his fellow- 
passengers. 

On his way to the West of England, the wife of the 
present Prime Minister, then Miss Margot Tennant, 
the idol of an admiring society, occupied a place in the 
same compartment. The General caught sight of the 
book in which she seemed absorbed, and in an artful 
and tactful manner opened a conversation with the 
stranger. Both were at once favourably impressed 
with each other, and with that charm with which the 
distinguished lady can enter upon the discussion of 
almost any subject, the leader of the Army felt that he 
was in the presence of a woman of no ordinary intellect. 
In a few minutes they were exchanging views upon 
the value of the Christian religion to the heathen, the 
supernatural in Christianity, the stability of the 
Salvation Army, its failure in some villages with which 
she was familiar, and the efficacy of prayer. I took 
notes of part of the conversation, and think the 
following transcript is in the main correct : 

Miss Tennant : " Do you not encourage the sin of 
presumption in permitting your soldiers to testify and 



20 GENERAL BOOTH 

pray no doubt sincerely extemporaneously ? Why 
do you not teach them a collection of prayers ? " 

The General : " We should first have to teach them 
to read, and in the progress I am afraid they would 
lose their zeal. [Miss Tennant smiled.] The fire would 
die out. What is prayer ? The cry of the child for its 
mammy is a form of prayer. The sigh of a broken 
heart is prayer. The quick, repenting confession of a 
soul convicted of sin, if only expressed in ' My God ! ' 
is an effectual prayer. The prayer of a ritual is only 
helpful to the soul in harmony with it, or whose ex- 
perience it interprets to the heart for the time being." 
t Miss Tennant : " How can the spiritual life of a soul 
grow unless thoughts are expressed to the soul, as in 
the Book of Common Prayer ? I may be wrong, 
General, but one of the reasons for the lapse of so 
many that begin the Christian life well and then 
fall away, as in the case of the converts of the Army 
in the village to which I refer, is because real religion 
does not sink very deeply into their nature." 

The General : " Remember the pit from which they 
have been dug, their homes and surroundings. Let 
me tell you of the home life of one of the noblest 
soldiers that I know about in this Salvation Army." 
And the General proceeded to describe the conversion 
of a man whose wife was in and out of prison, and yet 
who treated her as if she was a saint. " And he cannot 
read or write, or count figures except by the help of his 
ten fingers. As to lapses, the Churches go up and down ; 
even in politics we hear of ' backslidings,' ' slumps,' 
and ' landslides.' ' 

At which Miss Tennant merrily interposed: " Oh, quite 
so, General Booth, and these all add zest to the politics 
of the hour ; but do tell me what is the secret of the re- 
markable unity which one sees everywhere in the Army." 



THE GENERAL AND MISS TENNANT 21 

The General was fascinated with the originality of 
his questioner, and plunged into the story of his own 
experience until it was time for Miss Tennant to change 
at Swindon Junction. In a moment the General was 
on his knees, remarking as he knelt down in the com- 
partment, "My secretary here will assist you with 
your baggage. There is time for a little prayer." 

Earnestly the evangelical General besought the 
Lord to enrich the lady's soul with a plenitude of 
grace and a lifelong choice of Christ and His Cross. 

Miss Tennant was not at all displeased at the 
novelty of her experience, and when I handed her rug 
as she entered the compartment of another train, she 
exclaimed, " What a charming old man is your 
General ! " 

On returning to the General, I found him scribbling 
away for dear life a letter for Miss Tennant, intended 
to answer with more deliberation than he could bestow 
at the time some of the questions raised in the train. 

" I wish she could see Emma " (his daughter), he 
said. " A woman of the type we have met is destined 
to fill a leading place in society. If she could but see 
what a career of usefulness she might have in the 
Army, we might get her to abandon society and join us 
in lifting the world to God." 

But it was too late. Shortly afterwards the news- 
papers announced that she was engaged to Mr. Herbert 
Henry Asquith ! 

This aggressive character of General Booth is occa- 
sionally imperious; Charles Haddon Spurgeon would 
have called it rudeness, and Mr, Dwight L. Moody 



22 GENERAL BOOTH 

would have described it as " applying the Gospel with 
the help of the hammer." He prays with all his hosts, 
and if in the press of business the sacred benediction 
is left to the last moment, he will turn the vestibule or 
hall of the house into a sanctuary for prayer. 

He does not forget the maids or the servants. In 
Cape Town the black servants were regularly kept away 
from a family altar of devout Christians with whom the 
General stayed, on the ground that they might be 
tempted to steal while they knelt at their devotions ! 

" Bring them in," said the General. "My secretary 
will do the watching while I do the praying." 

While waiting to be received by one of the Governors 
of Australia, he asked the aide-de-camp about his soul. 

" Are you saved ? " he asked. Fortunately the 
young ^Englishman replied in the affirmative, but 
whether diplomatically or sincerely I cannot say. 

At the close of a long interview with New York press- 
men, the General asked if he might pray with them ; 
and a wag at once replied : 

" Sure, General, if you think it will do any good." 
And the boys assented to the request and the senti- 
ment of their colleague. 

" Oh, Lord," prayed the General, " bless these boys 
here. They have been useful to Thy servant. Save 
some of them. Thou knowest we are in need of some 
smart, consecrated, up-to-date men with pens dipped 
in the love of God. Perhaps there is one here. Bless 
the editors of the papers that they represent. May 
they be fair and daring directors of the right. Save them 
and help us to live for the good of others." 



AMONG NEW YORK JOURNALISTS 23 

The wag responded with a hearty " Amen ! " and 
sidled up to the General with this observation : "I 

belong to the staff of the , and I think my editor 

will be sure to seek your acquaintance." 

" Why ? " asked the General. 

" Because he told us yesterday that the editors of 
New York were past praying for." 

" Ah ! " replied the General. " That is a sure sign 
of grace. Tell him that on Sunday night I am having 
a meeting for the biggest sinners in New York." The 
editor was present ! , 

But what is the outcome of it all ? As I have 
remarked elsewhere, if the Salvation Army is not re- 
ligious, it is nothing. It is worse than nothing. It is 
the most colossal hypocrisy that the world has 
known. 

Well, something has indeed come out of -it all. 
Something that the world scarcely realises. Much 
good and some evil have emanated from it. The 
passion of the General for the salvation of men has 
been expressed in the Salvation Army. That is the 
answer, the supreme answer, to the question. But 
what is the Salvation Army ? The stock reply to that 
interrogation is that "it is an organisation formed 
and controlled after the fashion of an army to press 
upon the world the salvation of God and to promote 
the holiness and happiness of men." But that answer 
is not enough. 

We read of the General moving about the country 
in a motor-car, preaching at wayside places, being 
received by Town Councils, calling upon Cabinet 



24 GENERAL BOOTH 

Ministers, taking luncheon with Royalty, flying off 
to the ends of the earth on some campaign, repeat- 
ing stale anecdotes and making the usual promise 
of a new enterprise for dealing with paupers or 
prisoners. 

But that is not the Salvation Army. In all that we 
have simply the propagandist at work, spreading the 
knowledge of its history and the part that he has 
played in making it. 

Then we see it represented at street corners by an 
old " blood and fire " flag, a big drum, a shrieking testi- 
mony by a converted boozer or kitchen-maid, and the 
inevitable collecting-box. But the impression that one 
may gather as to the character and ramifications of the 
movement from that small brigade would be unfair. 

We read a good deal about it from time to time in the 
newspapers. As a rule these reports are parochial and 
snippety. The real Salvation Army has scarcely been 
discovered by any of its investigators, while its leaders 
have been too preoccupied seeking funds to meet their 
current necessities, and so self-centred in their faith as 
religionists, that they have not had the time to sit 
down and ask themselves the question, " What are we 
doing not what are we making ? What thoughts are 
we instilling into the minds of the people who accept 
our leadership, as the Jews of old accepted Moses and 
David and Solomon ? Our agencies and activities 
multiply j^ear by year, butjvyhat manner of men are 
we presenting to the Commonwealth, and what will be 
1 the moral and political power that we shall exercise in 
/ course of time ? " 



SOME ACTIVITIES 



25 



As to the magnitude of the organisation, the follow- 
ing remarkable list of separate and distinct depart- 
ments will come to some readers in the nature of a 
revelation, to others as a shock : 

CORPS OR EVANGELISTIC AGENCIES. 



Drunkards' Brigades. 

Visitation Leagues. 

Young People's Leagues. 

Anti-Smoking League. 

Women's Leagues. 

Ambulance Brigades. 

Good Samaritan Leagues. 

Literature Heralds. 

Musicians. 

Singing Brigades. 

Home Leagues. 

Property Associations. 

Investment Boards. 

Reliance Bank, Ltd. 

Assurance Society. 

Wholesale and Retail Tea 
Dealers. 

Instrument Makers. 

Bicycle Agents and Re- 
pairers. 

Printing and Lithography. 

Periodical and Book Pub- 
lishers. 

News Agents. 

Shipping Agents. 

Booking Offices. 

Emigration Associations 
(International). 



Medical Corps. 

Police Court Missions. 

Convict Missions. 

Bands of Love. 

Sunday-schools. 

Corps Cadets. 

Training Colleges. 

Staff College. 

Physical Drill Classes. 

Bible Leagues. 

Factories of many kinds 

Wood-chopping shops. 

Old Clothes shops. 

Paper-sorting Mills and 
Paper Exporters. 

Shelters. 

Poor Men's Metropoles. 

Embankment and Winter 
Relief. 

Farthing Breakfast 
Funds. 

Free Breakfast Depart- 
ment. 

Consolation and Counsel 
Counsellors. 

Lifeboat Brigade. 

Emigration Welcome 
Homes. 



26 



GENERAL BOOTH 



Loan Agency. 

Anti-Suicide Bureaux. 

Hand-loom Manufacturers. 

Boot and Shoe Makers. 

Grocers. 

Intelligence or Detective 
Agency. 

Distress Relieving Depart- 
ment. 

Lost Relatives Department. 

Sick and Wounded Depart- 
ment. 

Homes of Rest. 

Tourists Agency. 

Prison Gate Brigades. 

Parole Officers. 

Sisters of Mercy. 

Receiving and Rescue 
Homes. 

Maternity Homes. 

Hospitals. 

Orphanages. 

Boys' and Girls' Reforma- 
tories. 

Land and Industrial 
Colonies. 

Brick Works. 

Poultry and Piggery De- 
partments. 

Market Gardening. 

House Proprietors and 
Agents. 

Small Holdings Association. 



Missions to the Heathen. 

Missions to Lepers. 

Missions to Thieves. 

Medical Missions (For- 
eign). 

Finance Brigade. 

Grace before Meat Box 
Department. 

Candidates' Department. 

Spiritual Specials. 

Travelling Commis- 
sioners. 

Kindergarten Leagues. 

Slum Creche. 

Education Department. 

Accountants' Depart- 
ment. 

Examination Depart- 
ment. 

Travelling Inspectors. 

Travelling Bands. 

Red Hot Crusaders. 

Buttonhole Sergeants. 

Bakeries. 

Dressmakers. 

Tailors, Carpenters, 
Joiners, French 
Polishers, etc. 

Contractors. 

Drapery Stores. 

Pedlars. 

Commission Agents. 

Etc. etc. etc. 



NOW AND THEN 27 

The following is the disposition of Forces at the close 
of 1910 :- 

Staff and Field Officers . . . 16,000 
Officers engaged in social work . 1,800 
Local or Unpaid Officers, including 
bandsmen, treasurers, secre- 
taries, and various orders of ser- 
geants 58,000 

Corps and Outposts . . . 7,500 

Social Agencies .... 1,900 

Magazines and Periodicals . . 60 

All the outcome of a mind possessed and obsessed by 
one idea ! All within forty-five years, for it was not 
till 1865 that the General looked upon the moral and 
social wilderness of East London and came to that 
momentous resolution to solve the problems that then 
presented themselves to him as his life's work. 

Empty churches and crowded gin-palaces met him 
everywhere he went. Imprisoned in bastilles of 
squalor and vice were thousands and tens of thousands 
of men, women, and children, for whom religion had 
no attraction whatever, and among whom morality was 
next to impossible. That was the vision that he be- 
held. That was the state of affairs that held him bound 
to the slums and the hovels of the vicious. He re- 
solved, as the world knows, to labour there till he dis- 
covered a way by which he could at least arrest their 
attention to the Gospel he took to them. 

One summer evening, in the year 1865, he felt the 
burden of the task before him. It was night when he 
finally decided to bide no longer for what he had been 



28 GENERAL BOOTH 

accustomed to define as a " call." He rushed home 
and told his wife : 

" Darling, I have found my destiny ! " 

That faithful partner listened to his description of 
the vision, and " together," he says the act has often 
been told " we humbled ourselves before God, and 
dedicated our lives to the task that it seemed we had 
been praying for for twenty-five years. Her heart came 
over to my heart. We resolved that this poor, sub- 
merged, giddy, careless people should henceforth be- 
come our people and our God their God as far as we 
could induce them to accept Him, and for this end we 
would face poverty, persecution, or whatever Provi- 
dence might permit in our consecration to what we 
believed to be the way God had mapped out for us." 

Remarkable man ! Noble woman ! 

In that hour was the Salvation Army born. 

Next day the Rev. William Booth ceased to be a 
Methodist and travelling evangelist. He walked down 
to Mile End Waste, and selecting a convenient spot 
outside "The Blind Beggar Tavern" a tablet now 
denotes the place he cried with a loud voice to the 
passers-by, " There is a heaven in East London for 
everyone who will stop and think and look to Christ 
as a personal Saviour ! " 

The people paid little heed to the tall, dark stranger. 
His was the voice of one crying in the wilderness. But 
William Booth's will was made of invincible metal. 
" I will make you listen to me," he said to himself after 
his first defeat. And he did. 

He " ploughed the sands " of East London for more 



GENERAL BOOTH'S RULING PASSION 29 

than ten years, and then he saw the light which led 
him, step by step, up the ladder of fame, till he became 
the friend of princes and statesmen, without losing 
his head, or dissolving the vow that he made by the side 
of his partner, to live for the moral and spiritual emanci- 
pation of the people, especially the worst. General 
Booth's ruling passion is a love of men. 

He thus aims at the improvement in the temporal 
affairs of man through and by means of a spiritual 
state in which the will of God is supreme. The soul 
is the man, the body but a machine, the value and 
end of which are in proportion as it is regulated by a 
spiritual mainspring. 



CHAPTER II 
A MODERN CATHERINE OF SIENA 

Points in common with Saint Catherine Mrs. Booth's first Sermon 
A stormy Recitation Excommunicated from Methodism- 
Mrs. Booth's Love Match A classic Love Letter Her Views 
on Sex Her Government of Home Martyrdom The Loss to 
the Army A Husband's Tribute 

WILLIAM BOOTH, with all his passion for souls, could not 
have reached the point at which he conceived the idea 
of making an Army but for his partner in life 
Catherine Mumford, destined to be the Mother of the 
Salvation Army who showed as a girl the possession 
of a sympathetic nature and an innovating will. 

One day, while walking along the main thoroughfare 
of Ashbourne, her birthplace, she was attracted by a 
rush of people toward an ordinary " drunk " case : 
a policeman was dragging a man in a state of intoxica- 
tion to the police station, A cynical look marked the 
gaze of the onlookers. Boys and even girls were 
giggling at the sight ; but Catherine Mumford's frame 
shook with pity. She had not long joined a Junior 
Temperance Society, one of whose rules was that 
members should never pass jokes at the doings of the 
drunkard, but rather do all they could to induce the 
victim to sign the pledge. 

She was thus confronted with an opportunity of 

30 



A MODERN CATHERINE OF SIENA 31 

fulfilling the spirit of her pledge, and, quick as light- 
ning, she ran to the side of the man and persisted in 
being permitted to accompany him all the way to the 
police station ! Perhaps he had a little girl at home 
who would do the same, had she been present. Perhaps, 
if she only walked with him, the Spirit of the Lord 
would answer her prayer that the man would repent 
and seek the grace of God to change his heart. Perhaps 
grown-up people would think of doing more than they 
did for the salvation of the drunkard. 

These were the thoughts that passed through her 
mind as, with hoop and stick in hand, young Katie 
Mumford walked to the police station, and whispered 
into the ears of the stranger a word of pity and hope. 
In that impulse of compassion we see the first awaken- 
ing of a humanitarianism that was to arrest the thought 
and concern of the Christian world to the needs of the 
modern slaves of alcohol. In the years that followed 
Catherine Mumford stood by the side of hundreds of 
inebriates and guided them into havens of hope. 

In some respects she accomplished in the nineteenth 
century what Catherine of Siena did in Europe in the 
fourteenth, and for the peace and prosperity of her 
Church. 

The two Catherines had much in common. Both 
were born of devout parents and in provincial towns 
of their particular fatherlands. Both were endowed 
with distinct natural powers of persuasion, tact, and 
literary and oratorical ability. They had the same 
gaiety of spirits, were passionate lovers of birds and 
animals and flowers. Both were gifted withlrare 



32 GENERAL BOOTH 

insight into human character and the predilection 
of the statesman ; and both succeeded in changing, 
to some extent, the religious trend of their times. 

Catherine of Siena persuaded the Bishop of her 
diocese to permit her to wear the habit of the Order of 
St. Dominic when presented to the^Court of Gregory VI 
at Avignon, at Genoa, and on her memorable visits to 
Rome. She stood before the Princes of the Church 
and reasoned with the Pope upon the sins of the 
Fathers and the need of simplicity and faith in God. 

Catherine Booth raised the respect for the blue serge 
dress and the coal-scuttle-shaped bonnet of the 
women members of the Salvation Army. By the logic 
of her addresses throughout England, her attacks 
upon the Laodiceanism of the Church, she, like 
Catherine of Italy, aroused a storm of religious passion, 
but, like her also, she overcame the prejudices and 
bigotry of her times, and brought from that gracious 
lady Queen Victoria an acknowledgment o i the 
good that the Army was doing and a prayer for its 
success. 

She did not live to see her son, Mr. Bramwell Booth, 
numbered among the guests at the Coronation Service 
of King Edward, in his uniform as the Chief of the 
Staff of the Salvation Army. She was deprived of the 
honour of accompanying her husband to Buckingham 
Palace, where the General unfolded to King Edward 
and Queen Alexandra the story of how he and his wife 
submitted themselves to what they believed to be the 
call of Heaven to abandon their Church, and take to 
the poorest and the vilest of society the Gospel of the 



A MODERN CATHERINE OF SIENA 33 

Son of Man. Unlike the saint of Siena, Mrs. Booth 
did not stand before the crowned heads of Europe, 
but she paved the way for the uniform of the " Blood 
and Fire " to be accepted and respected at these 
Courts. 

Both had the gift of fiery and indignant speech. 
" They will not listen to me," said Catherine of Siena 
on one occasion, " but they shall listen to God." 
And she lived to see the mistresses of vile men ac- 
knowledge that she spoke with the unction of the Holy 
Spirit. " Her speech was like an impetuous torrent," 
and the same may be accurately applied to the Mother 
of the Salvation Army. 

Mrs. Booth was a fighter. She compelled attack 
and was merciless in defence. When her husband 
was asked by the Conference of the Methodist New 
Connexion if he would comply with the vote of the 
Conference, which required that he return to ministerial 
work and give up his evangelistic practices, for which he 
was clearly best adapted, his wife, who had been an 
attentive listener to the debate, cried, " Never ! " 
and at the close of the sitting husband and wife left the 
Church of their hearts, not knowing where they should 
go or who would lend them a helping hand to carry out 
the conviction that they were destined to do some- 
thing drastic for the uplifting of their fellow-men. 

St. Catherine of Siena was persecuted and her life 
was threatened. I am not sure whether Mrs. Booth 
was privileged to encounter the ruffian thirsting for 
her blood, but I do know that she faced the tumult and 
ferocity of mobs again and again because of her 



34 GENERAL BOOTH 

denunciations of brewers and publicans, whom she 
compared to pirates and Iscariots ! She was no 
better received in reality by the Established Church 
of her times. She exposed what she called the 
hollowness of their pretensions as shepherds of the 
flock and railed at and denounced the worldliness of the 
Church. Bazaars and sales of work were abominations 
in her eyes. Sporting parsons, debating preachers, 
and lackadaisical guides of the souls of men stirred 
within her a fountain of fury, which led her to use 
language that would not be tolerated in the Army 
to-day, for no organisation is more addicted to some of 
these evils if evils they be than is the Army itself. 
Mrs. Booth was, like the other Catherine, a searching, 
careful, eloquent, and yet exasperating speaker. 
She had the analytical quality of Mrs. Annie Besant 
and the womanly grace of the late Frances Willard, of 
America. She studiously prepared all her addresses, 
and drew enormous audiences from all classes of 
society. Some of her triumphs as an orator were 
remarkable. I knew of one man who came to hear her 
speak with the object of delivering an attack upon the 
doctrines of the Army in the public press next day. 
At the close of her oration he apologised to the lady and 
handed her a cheque for 1000 ! She silenced more 
enemies of the Army in one day than her husband 
and his forces did in twelve months. 

And yet, like St. Catherine of Siena, her first attempts 
at public work were marked by the most nervous and 
hesitating experiences. The story of her first effort 
to speak in a public gathering is told by herself. It 



MRS. BOOTH'S INSPIRATION 35 

occurred at the close of one of her husband's Sunday - 
evening meetings in the Bethesda Chapel, Gateshead, 
in the year 1860. 

" I was, as usual, in the minister's pew, with my 
eldest boy, then four years old. I felt much depressed 
in mind, and was not expecting anything in particular, 
but as the testimonies proceeded I felt the Holy Spirit 
come upon me. That experience cannot be described. 
I felt it to the extremity of my hands and feet. It 
seemed as if a Voice said to me, ' Now if you were to 
go and testify, you know I would bless it to my own 
soul as well as to the people.' I gasped again, and 
said in my heart, ' Yes, Lord, I believe Thou wouldst, 
but I cannot do it.' I had forgotten my vow. It did 
not occur to me at all. 

" A moment afterwards there flashed across my 
mind the memory of the bedroom visitation, when I 
had promised the Lord that I would obey Him at all 
costs. Ah ! then the Voice seemed to ask me if this 
was consistent with that promise. I almost jumped 
up and said, c No, Lord, it is the old thing over again. 
But I cannot do it.' I felt as though I would sooner 
die than speak. And then the Devil said, ' Besides, 
you are not prepared. You will look like a fool and 
have nothing to say.' He made a mistake. He over- 
reached himself for once. It was this word that settled 
it. ' Ah,' I said, ' this is just the point. I have never 
yet been willing to be made a fool of for Christ. Now I 
will be one.' 

" Without stopping another moment I rose up from 
my seat and walked down the aisle. My dear husband 
was just going to conclude. He thought something 
had happened to me, and so did the people. We had 
been there two years, and they knew my timid, 



36 GENERAL BOOTH 

bashful nature. He stepped down and asked me, 
' What is the matter, my dear ? ' I replied, ' I want 
to say a word.' He was so taken by surprise that he 
could only say, ' My dear wife wishes to speak,' and 
sat down. For years he had been trying to persuade 
me to do it. Only that very week he had wanted 
me to go and address a little cottage meeting of some 
twenty working people, but I had refused. 

" I stood God only knows how and if any mortal 
did hang upon the arms of Omnipotence, I did. I felt 
as if I were clinging to some human arm, but it was a 
Divine one which held me up. I just stood and told the 
people how it came about. I confessed, as I think 
everybody should who has been in the wrong and has 
misrepresented the religion of Jesus Christ. I said, ' I 
dare say many of you have been looking upon me as a 
very devoted woman, and one who has been living 
faithfully to God. But I have come to realise that I 
have been disobeying Him, and thus have brought 
darkness and leanness into my soul. I have promised 
the Lord to do so no longer, and have come to tell 
you that henceforth I will be obedient to the Holy 
Vision.' " 

What a striking likeness between the two Catherines 
is here presented! Both heard Voices, both saw 
Visions. One was called to be a healer of bodies and 
souls in the dark ages of Christianity and to take to 
the highest spiritual Courts of Europe stirring messages 
of peace and unity. The other was called from the 
pew of a Methodist church to become the harbinger 
of a great crusade in the nineteenth century, one that 
was to loosen the tongues of ten thousand women, to 
proclaim a gospel of emancipation for their sex, 



MRS. BOOTH AS A GIRL 37 

and to be, as her religious compatriots have claimed 
for her, the Mother of many nations ! 

The memory of this woman is held in loving com- 
memoration by Salvationists throughout the world. 
And well it may be. The bare record of her work 
reads like a volume from the lives of the world's 
greatest reformers. 

She was born at Ashbourne, in Derbyshire, on the 
17th of January, 1829. Her parents were Methodists. 
Educated at home, she formed opinions adverse to 
boarding-schools, and on many subjects adopted a 
narrow and bigoted view. Her mother had strong 
Puritanic ideas, and implanted in her daughter an 
unnatural horror of making statements that were not 
literally and strictly correct. Before she was twelve 
years of age she had read the Bible through from 
cover to cover no less than twelve times ! Her father 
being a strong Radical, and her sympathies running 
in the direction of a somewhat bigoted interpretation 
of political liberty, she was opposed to the Catholic 
Emancipation Bill. As a work of literature she 
admired the Pilgrim's Progress, but resented the 
strain of Calvinism that runs through that work. She 
was passionately fond of reading historical books, and 
there was not a standard work on Methodism that she 
had not thoroughly mastered before she was eighteen 
years of age. She was converted at the age of sixteen, 
and it is from this epoch that she becomes interesting. 

After her conversion she became an enthusiastic 
Methodist, lover of the Class Meeting and the Bible 
Class. 



38 GENERAL BOOTH 

There were two great foes, in her judgment, to the 
welfare of mankind that had to be dethroned if the 
world was to make any real progress, and much of her 
diary is taken up with references to them. One was 
Calvinism and the other the conservatism of Wesleyan 
Methodism. Election and predestination were synony- 
mous with rank spiritual degeneracy. Wherever she 
went she felt a Divine call to denounce these heresies. 

The other obstacle to the happiness of mankind 
was the inquisitorial attitude of the Methodist Con- 
ference to the Reform agitators, that culminated in 
one of the biggest secessions that have characterised the 
evolution of Methodism. She was on the side of the 
Reformers, though not so much on political grounds as 
spiritual. She considered that if the laity were given 
a keener interest in the affairs of the Church, and 
Methodism were purged of some of the drags on progress, 
Methodism would shake England. She espoused the 
cause with zeal, for which she had to suffer the penalty 
of not receiving a renewal of what Methodists call the 
" Quarterly Ticket " ; in other words, she was excom- 
municated. 

In a few sentences of a letter to her mother we can 
understand the vigour with which she played her part 
as an agitator : 

" I am indignant at the Conference for their base 
treatment of Mr. Burnett. But I quite expected it 
when he gave a conscientious affidavit in Mr. Hardy's 
case. Well, it will all come down on their own pates. 
The Lord will reward them according to their doings, if 
they only persevere a little longer. Reform is certain." 



HER DESIRE FOR REFORM 39 

Alas for her hopes. The Reform movement 
ended in controversy, and when Catherine Mumford, 
now settled with her parents in London, saw the 
sequel to the agitation in a state of antagonism to 
the original denominational mother, she was bitterly 
disappointed. 

" I had hoped," she wrote, " that we were on the 
eve of a spiritual revival. Instead of that everything 
was conducted very much in the ordinary style, and 
I soon became heartily sick of the spirit of debate and 
controversy which prevailed to such a degree as to 
cripple the life and power of the concern." 

In the meantime an event was to happen which was 
to change not only the whole current of her life, but to 
answer her highest aspirations after a revival of 
spiritual life. Catherine Mumford was to meet William 
Booth, who, espousing the cause of Reform on the 
same ground, was now in London, and though en- 
gaged hi business, spent his leisure in promoting the 
cause of Methodism in and around the metropolis as 
a local preacher. He hoped that some day he might 
be able to enter the ministry. But a heresy-hunting 
minister discovered in young Booth the elements of 
a very disturbing factor, at least so he unjustly thought 
for Booth was only eager for the spiritual regenera- 
tion of Methodism and he too was expelled from Wes- 
ley an Methodism, an act of bigotry that, as Mrs. Booth 
would say in her homely way, " would come down on 
their own pates." 

This stroke of adversity was attended, however, 
with far-reaching results. A Mr. Rabbitts invited 



40 GENERAL BOOTH 

William Booth to take over the direction of a Reform 
Chapel, and introduced him to Catherine Mumford. 

An amusing conversation between Rabbitts and 
Booth on the salary question arose. Asked as to how 
much he could live upon, Booth replied, detailing his 
domestic and other requirements, " I can live on 
12s. 6d. per week," for which sum he was willing to 
relinquish business and become the mission-pastor of 
this new Reformed-Methodist Church. 

Mr. Rabbitts admired his spirit, and dazzled his 
friend by guaranteeing for twelve months the sum of 
1 per week. Mr. Rabbitts was then a prosperous mer- 
chant, but he never made a happier investment than 
when he engaged the future General of the Salvation 
Army at that sum, for the principal sequel to the trans- 
action led to the meeting of this Nottingham Methodist 
and Kate Mumford, of Ashbourne, she being a member 
of the Church to which Mr. Booth in this bargain- 
making manner was called. 

Miss Mumford " took " to the " new man." She 
was impressed more with the man than the matter of 
his discourse, for he seemed to be swallowed up with 
the old-time zeal of Methodism rather than with the 
college type of preacher ; and after hearing him for 
the first time, she remarked to her mother that " if all 
the Methodist preachers were like young Mr. Booth 
there would have been no Reform movement." 

Well, in the course of time these kindred spirits met 
one evening at the house of Mr. Rabbitts, with a com- 
pany of other Reformers, the object of the host being 
to promote social intercourse among those who were 



A KEEN SUPPORTER OF TEMPERANCE 41 

having an uphill battle with old friends who had now 
become religious opponents. 

At this meeting Mr. Booth was asked to render a 
favourite temperance recitation entitled " The Grog- 
seller's Dream." Delivered with the sincerity of 
deep conviction, and with a dramatic gesture that 
seemed to transform the dream into a realism of the 
actual and debasing effects of drunkenness, the com- 
pany did not, strange to say, express any manifesta- 
tion of favour with it. The General has said that there 
was an embarrassing pause when he sat down. 

The meaning of this was afterwards disclosed when 
a member of the gathering asserted that the moral of 
the recitation was overdrawn, an opinion that found 
an echo in other members of the company. Mr. 
Rabbitts himself was not a teetotaller. An unrehearsed 
debate on the pros and cons of drink followed. All the 
stereotyped arguments in favour of the traffic were 
expounded by upholders of moderation and the con- 
venience of liquor for revenue purposes. Miss Mum- 
ford, who possessed rare debating power, joined the 
discussion, and after asking a few inconvenient ques- 
tions of the supporters of alcohol, she replied first to 
one argument and then another. One was that the 
Bible upheld the use of drink. " And where do you 
find it ? " she asked. " Two kinds of drink are re- 
ferred to in the Scripture, one intoxicating and the 
other unfermented." " You say that you cannot 
make people sober by Act of Parliament. How do 
you know ? Are you sure ? It has been tried and 
proved a success in some countries, and since the 



42 GENERAL BOOTH 

sale of drink has been banished from villages with 
which I am familiar, drunkenness and crime have de- 
creased. And as for the revenue what would become 
of a man if he were to suck his own blood and eat his 
own flesh ? How can a kingdom flourish that lives 
upon the destruction of its subjects, and that draws 
its revenues from their very graves ? Christians use 
alcohol ? Do they ? Well, the more the pity, for 
it would be almost as easy to get up a revival in hell 
itself as in a Church whose members support the 
traffic, and some at least of whom may well be sup- 
posed to be slaves of it also." 

No wine was drunk at the supper which followed. 
But an impression was made among the company that 
if the declaimer against drink and the ardent defender 
of individual and national temperance should ever be 
drawn into a closer union than that of Church fellow- 
ship, the world would have to reckon with an English 
Gough and a voice that would make the traffickers in 
drink tremble. 

It was their first meeting. It may not be strictly 
correct to say that Cupid's dart found a happy asylum 
in the bosom of the fair Catherine Mumford ; but the 
affinity of their predilections on this subject remained 
throughout their lives, and together they eventually 
founded an Order of Purity, the Salvation Army a 
leading plank in whose platform is that its members 
are all pledged total abstainers. 

Within a few months of that casual meeting the 
young minister became engaged to Catherine Mumford. 
Their personal attachment to each other, the delibera- 



HER ENGAGEMENT TO MR. BOOTH 43 

tion with which they considered the possibilities of their 
union, the spirit in which they dedicated their lives to 
each other, and contemplated a partnership in the light 
of their obligation to God and the salvation of souls, 
form together one of the most sublime classics that 
ever were written in the book of history under the much- 
abused chapter of LOVE. 

It was on the 15th of May, 1852, that the two met 
to finally settle or dissolve the proposal that, poor 
though Mr. Booth was, and uncertain his path as a 
minister of the Gospel, they should unite in heart and 
soul for time and eternity. They brought their reason 
to bear upon their circumstances, and after kneeling 
together in prayer, committing their lives to the special 
leading of the Divine Spirit, they parted not only be- 
trothed, but, as will be seen in the letter which Catherine 
Mumford wrote to her lover a few days after, pledged 
to make their union, whenever God should put His 
seal upon it, the ladder up which they should climb to 
higher experiences of the Spirit of Christ and service 
in His cause. 

" MY DEAREST WILLIAM, 

" The evening is beautifully serene and tran- 
quil, according sweetly with the feelings of my soul. 
The whirlwind is past, and the succeeding calmness is 
proportionate to its calmness. Your letter, your visit, 
have hushed its last murmurs and stilled every vibra- 
tion of my throbbing heart-strings. All is well. I feel it 
is right, and I praise God for the satisfying conviction. 

" Most gladly does my soul respond to your invita- 
tion to give myself afresh to Him, and to strive to link 



44 GENERAL BOOTH 

myself closer to you by rising more into the likeness of 
my Lord. The nearer our assimilation to Jesus, the 
more perfect and heavenly our union. Our hearts are 
now indeed one, so one that division would be more 
bitter than death. But I am satisfied that our union 
may become, if not more complete, more Divine, and 
consequently capable of yielding a larger amount of 
pure unmingled bliss. 

" The thought of walking through life perfectly 
united, together enjoying its sunshine and battling 
with its storms, by softest sympathy sharing every 
smile and every tear, is to me exquisite happiness ; the 
highest earthly bliss I desire. And who can estimate 
the glory to God and the benefit to man accruing from 
a life spent in such harmonious effort to do His will ? 
Such unions, alas ! are so rare that we seldom see an 
exemplification of the Divine idea of marriage. 

" If indeed we are the disciples of Christ, ' in the 
world we shall have tribulation,' but in Him and in 
each other we may have peace. If God chastises us 
by affliction in either mind, body, or circumstances, 
it will only be a mark of our discipleship ; and if borne 
equally by us both, the blow will not only be softened, 
but sanctified, and we shall be entitled to rejoice that we 
are permitted to drain the bitter cup together. Satisfied 
that in our souls there flows a deep under-current of 
pure affection, we will seek grace to bear it with the 
bubbles which may rise on the surface, or wisdom so 
to burst them to increase the depth, and accelerate the 
onward flow of the pure stream of love, till it reaches 
the river which proceeds out of the throne of God and 
the Lamb, and mingles in glorious harmony with the 
love of heaven. 

" The more you lead me up to Christ in all things 
the more highly shall I esteem you ; and if it be 



A HAPPY MARRIED LIFE 45 

possible to love you more than I now do, the more shall 
I love you. You are always present in my thoughts. 
" Believe me, dear William, as ever, 

" Your own loving 

" KATE." 

From that hour, right on through years of vicissi- 
tudes, trial, contumely, and holy warfare, these two 
hearts remained steadfast to the double pledge and 
consecration of that summer evening. Mr. Booth 
passed from London to Spalding, in Lincolnshire, where 
he was worshipped for the devotion of his labours and 
his success as a Methodist minister. He had thoughts 
of entering the Congregational Ministry and began to 
prepare for college ; but on being presented with a book 
of theology which he was informed he would have to 
master and accept as the standard of teaching upon the 
thorny topic of election, he in a fury of indignation 
threw it from one side of the room to the other, and 
vowed that he would sooner starve than be guilty of 
proclaiming the doctrine. 

In all these uncertainties he was supported by the 
counsel of his friend, and at this stage of their friendship 
one can perceive again the resemblance of the ancient 
and modern Catherines to each other. Catherine of 
Siena was essentially a peacemaker and a counsellor, 
and when peace failed she could wage war. Mrs. Booth 
was the same. But for the circumspection with which 
she studied the subjects that underlay the dedication 
of her companion to the service of the Church, he would 
often have acted impetuously. Then, her intellectual- 
ism, even at this critical period in her career, was 



46 GENERAL BOOTH 

marked by originality with respect to matters that 
were then far from being so popular as they are to-day. 
We have already seen her courage upon the question 
of temperance. She was equally pronounced on the 
dignity of women and the equality of the sexes, and if 
she were alive to-day she would be one of the foremost 
defenders of the political emancipation of her sex. 
Her views are worth quoting : 

" That woman is, in consequence of her inadequate 
education, generally inferior to man intellectually 
I admit. But that she is naturally so I see no cause to 
believe. Never yet has woman been placed on an 
intellectual footing with man. All man-made religions 
neglect or debase woman, but the religion of Christ 
recognises her individuality and raises her to the 
dignity of an independent moral agent. ... I love my 
sex. I have no sympathy with those who would alter 
woman's domestic and social position from what is 
laid down in the Scriptures. But on the subject of 
the equality of nature I believe my convictions are 
true." 

Her sarcasm for the attitude of the Press toward 
woman was biting. " I despise," she said, " the 
attitude of the English press toward woman. Let a 
man make a decent speech on any subject, and he is 
lauded to the skies. Whereas, however magnificent 
a speech a woman may make, all she gets is ' Mrs. 
So-and-so delivered an earnest address.' ' 

Catherine Booth lived to write her signature to the 
first commission that a woman received as a Salvation 
Army leader, and to have these views embodied in an 




Copyright, Bolak. 

A FARTHING BREAKFAST AT A SLUM POST. 



MR. BOOTH IN THE EAST END 47 

organisation that literally gave expression to them by 
appointing women to the charge of territories where, 
in the judgment of the General, they showed the 
qualifications for leadership. For example, Miss Booth 
is now in command of the work of the Army in America. 
Women are at the head of many secular as well as 
spiritual departments, and hundreds and thousands 
are in charge of Corps, where they command men and 
order them to do just as they think fit in the interest 
of the Army. And judged by that standard for which 
the Army has a fanatical devotion, numbers, they are 
as a whole a greater success than are the men. 

We need not follow in detail, however, the sequel 
to the union of this singularly religious couple of 
Methodists. It is the common heritage of the Church 
of Christ. Their dissatisfaction with the circuit life of 
their Methodist Church led Mr. Booth to be appointed 
as a Connexional evangelist. The disturbing effect of 
that position gave offence to many ministers and pro- 
duced a party feeling on the question of the employ- 
ment of evangelists within the Church. This culmi- 
nated in the decision of the Conference to replace Mr. 
Booth in circuit work, and, as we have already stated, 
led to the final separation of Mr. and Mrs. Booth from 
Methodism. They wandered about the country as 
evangelists, proving their fitness for the office in the 
usual way. In the year 1865 they came to London. 
Mr. Booth started an East London Revival Mission. 
Out of this grew the Christian Mission, and after ten or 
twelve years' experimenting after the line to adopt 
that should attract the non church and chapel going 



48 GENERAL BOOTH 

classes to religious services, the Salvation Army was 
created. 

The part that Mrs. Booth played in this evolution 
was only equal to that of her husband. I have no 
doubt that but for her he never would have succeeded 
as a Methodist minister. But for her he certainly 
would not have gone to Spalding. But for her he 
would again and again have compromised on matters 
of principle or what seemed to her matters of principle. 
In a word, but for Mrs. Booth, there would have been 
no General Booth and no Salvation Army. He was the 
prophet, and she the philosopher of his life. He 
loved the field, she the conference room and the 
platform. He caught the attention of Bill Sikes, 
Mrs. Booth won the confidence of the thoughtful 
and the aggressive spirits of her times. His style of 
preaching was gladiatorial, hers argumentative. The 
General was made to lead men, Mrs. Booth to persuade. 
Both were needed to bring into being this remarkable 
organisation. No innovation was ever made in its 
methods or measures until Mrs. Booth was consulted. 

She was largely responsible for the abolition of the 
Sacraments in the Army. Her voice was raised in 
favour of giving up the christening of children. She 
invented the " hallelujah bonnet." She formulated 
the first code of rules for the training of cadets. She 
it was who conceived the idea of a world-wide move- 
ment and gave tone and rule to the literature of the 
Army. Had she had her way entirely, however, 
there is no doubt that she would have disapproved of 
much that is now being carried on in the name of the 



AN EXCELLENT WIFE AND MOTHER 49 

organisation. But she was wife as well as partner in 
the great business to which they had consecrated their 
lives. When she differed, as she often did, from the 
views and proposals of her husband, she the moment 
a decision was arrived at loyally supported him, 
and woe be to the officer who afterwards discussed 
instead of carried out his decision ! 

She shouldered the responsibilities of her large family 
with courage and independence, She supervised their 
education with an almost painful and Puritanic rigour. 
She kept them from contact with worldly Christians 
and insisted that their dress should in all things reflect 
the principles of the parents. She was a severe 
disciplinarian and a stout opponent of the religious 
system of education. Under her inspiration, and 
largely at her dictation, the General wrote a voluminous 
book on the training of children, one of the most 
unpractical things that he ever put his hands to. The 
pen that wrote it was William Booth's, but the hand 
that guided the pen was that of his good wife, But, 
if extreme in tone and out of harmony with the 
average circumstances of the people to whom it was 
addressed, the principles have to some extent been 
acted upon, though on matters of dress, furniture, 
books, companionships, entertainments, the Army 
itself has fallen away from the standard set forth in 
the book. Mrs. Booth never adequately realised the 
great gulf that exists between a home like her own 
and that of the average London householder, and there- 
fore she missed the chance of giving a proper lead to 
the teaching of the Army upon the duties of parents. 



50 GENERAL BOOTH 

Mrs. Booth finished her career in the spirit of a 
martyr. Just as the movement was entering upon 
the stage at which it was recognised with toleration 
and favour, and just as it was about to face the 
problems that arose out of its own success, Mrs. Booth 
was pronounced to be the victim of that scourge 
which still defies the skill of men. She was stricken 
with cancer. 

The feeling when that announcement became the 
common property of the Army was something similar 
to what a nation experiences when the news of some 
great catastrophe follows a succession of victories. 
I was at the Headquarters when the Chief of the Staff 
took a few of the leaders aside and communicated the 
sad news. There have been some dark days there. 
That was a dark day when the same officer handed to 
his Commissioners the cable that told of the sudden 
death in a railway accident of his beloved sister, Mrs. 
Booth-Tucker. She was the beau-ideal of her father's 
heart, the joy of her friends, and the hope of the Army 
for many things. She was cut down in an instant, 
but at a time when the movement could more easily 
spare her than when Mrs. Booth was called to enter the 
fiery furnace of affliction. 

The General never needed the wisdom of her counsel 
more than at the time she was passing through the 
valley. He was athirst for more power for the Army. 
There were evidences that the spiritual side of its 
operations was on the wane. Reaction was setting in. 
The boom of the Army's novelty was dying down, and 
with it came up some serious problems. The world 



DIFFICULTIES 51 

was moving, too, in the direction of a more humane 
treatment of the poor. The spirit of self-government 
was reflected in the creation of the County Council. 
The questions of temperance, the housing of the 
people, the necessity of more open spaces, and the 
technical education of the artisan class were forcing 
themselves to the front. The evils, which up to then 
were largely discussed as being essentially moral, were 
being viewed, and rightly viewed, as economic in 
their cause, and therefore to political economy and 
Parliament men began to look for redress. 

The Church was helpless. It had proved its unfitness 
to handle what is now called the social question, and 
there were officers in the Salvation Army, as well as 
supporters, who predicted the failure of the Salvation 
Army unless it adapted itself to the ethical movement, 
signs of which were multiplying almost daily. Among 
these officers was Mr. Frank Smith, of the L.C.C., 
then a popular Commissioner of the Army. He 
knocked at the gate of the Army and pleaded for a 
larger Gospel, and begged the General to go deeper 
down with his Army of Salvation to the help of the 
struggling poor and the starving and homeless. 

At this moment Mrs. Booth was wounded, mortally 
wounded, on the battlefield. The blow was staggering, 
and some feared that the General would sink under it. 
But here again Mrs. Booth became his philosopher 
and friend. She gauged the situation with statesman- 
like grasp. She resolved that she would adhere to her 
place as long as it was possible to do so. Her resolve 
put nerve into her heart-stricken husband and drew 



52 GENERAL BOOTH 

from the Army expressions of renewed devotion. The 
cloud had its silver lining, for, as the General has often 
remarked since, " the sufferings of which I was a daily 
witness of my dear one gave me somehow a tender 
solicitude for those that were confined within the 
region of what I call ' Darkest England.' ' The great 
Social Scheme was conceived, planned, and launched 
in the sanctuary of suffering at Clacton-on-Sea, where 
Mrs. Booth died on the 4th October, 1890. 

Mrs. Booth in her death, as in her life, was heroic. 
She bore pain with the resignation of Christian forti- 
tude. Not once did she complain of the mystery 
of the dispensation. She thought of the war to the 
last, and her last message to the Army is treasured 
as its chief heritage. Her funeral and the Memorial 
Service at the Olympia attracted 100,000 people. 
The Press were unanimous in proclaiming the justice 
of the appellation that she was " the Mother of the 
Salvation Army." 

Mrs. Bramwell Booth had not then earned for herself 
the reputation that she now is entitled to. Mrs. Booth- 
Tucker had kept herself largely free from the higher 
councils. The Chief of the Staff was absorbed in the 
administrative avalanche of work that was thrown 
on his shoulders by the Social Scheme. The Army 
drifted, and while shelters were being opened, centres 
being equipped, and the Farm Colony at Hadleigh was 
being got ready for the reception of the submerged, 
the spiritual interest of the Corps received a blow from 
which it has not yet recovered, and probably never will. 

The Foreign Service demands made a great drain 



HER DEATH 53 

upon the leaders of the Army in Great Britain. The 
result was that nearly all the big Corps in England 
suffered at the hands of poor leadership. It was 
comparatively easy for the Army to start a Corps. 
For a season it lived upon the reputation of the 
successes that were secured by breaking fresh ground. 
Old ground was neglected. The consolidation of new 
Corps was only partially attended to, and, as I have 
said, the Social Scheme, while it raised the prestige 
of the movement, and incidentally silenced the 
cynical critics and vulgar opponents of the Army, 
was responsible for untold mischief in the Corps. 
Everything was sacrificed, and at the very worst 
hour, for the success of the scheme, and the General 
aggravated the situation by undertaking long trips 
abroad and confining the principal part of his addresses 
to expositions of the social work. 

It was at such a moment as this in the fortunes of 
the Army that Mrs. Booth would have been invaluable. 
She had the insight of a seer to signs of declension. 
She could detect, with the scent of a bloodhound, the 
track of the disturber, and great therefore was the loss 
to the Army by her death. To this day those who 
were familiar with her influence over the General, 
and who knew the skill she could display in devising 
ways and means for counteracting the evil effects 
of even a good policy, applied with too much haste 
and inexperience, mourned over the desolation that 
followed everywhere. 

In all the cities where the Army was doing excellent 
work along its spiritual lines places like Bristol, 



54 GENERAL BOOTH 

Manchester, Leeds, Sheffield, Hull, Newcastle, and 
Bradford the decline was manifest, and I am afraid 
that in these centres of population, if a census of 
attendance were taken of the Army gatherings, the 
revelation of its thinness would startle even the 
members of the Army itself. 

Mr. Bramwell Booth has been doing his utmost to 
regain the position and to make up for the numerical 
set-back by an improvement in the quality of the 
average soldier and officer, but he is practically single- 
handed. So that once more I return to the lamentable 
and irretrievable loss that was sustained when, in 
Abney Park Cemetery, the mortal remains of the 
Army Mother were laid to rest. The tribute that the 
General gave his beloved partner on that occasion 
was a worthy monument to the memory of this 
modern Catherine of Siena. 

As to the influence Mrs. Booth exercised upon the re- 
ligious world, it is somewhat difficult to estimate. The 
denominational leaders of English Churches are not 
very liberal in their distribution of praise or acknow- 
ledgment of work done outside their own border. 
So far as I have been able to read the effect of the life 
of Mrs. Booth upon the thought of her generation, 
there can be no question but that it was deep and far- 
reaching. She was the first of great women preachers. 
She placed woman on an equality with man in the 
service of the organisation which with her husband she 
created, and she lent her influence to much legislation 
that had for its object the lessening of public houses 
and the abolition of the Contagious Diseases Act. 



HER INFLUENCE ON THE CAUSE 55 

On the movement of the Army it was incalculable 
and will live as long as the Army itself exists. Her 
greatest power was in the example she set before her 
people. It is impossible to fix upon one particular 
scheme of great proportion that may be directly 
ascribed to her genius and to her alone. The hier- 
archical character of the Army prevents that being 
done. The discovery of one becomes the property of all. 
The achievement of a Commissioner Booth-Tucker and 
the suggestion of an obscure officer are alike merged 
in the general result to the Army as such. That may 
be for good or evil. In any case, Mrs. General Booth 
was a great Englishwoman who raised herself and her 
husband from obscurity to one of the most extra- 
ordinary platforms that have been erected for the 
diffusion of religion after the standard of the Salvation 
Army, and she adorned her profession with a life that 
was one beautiful and lifelong comment upon what 
she preached. 

No greater tribute could be given this modern 
Catherine of Siena than what fell from the lips of her 
husband at her graveside : 

" If you had had a counsellor, who in hours con- 
tinually occurring of perplexity and amazement, had 
ever advised you, and seldom advised wrong ; whose ad- 
vice you had followed and seldom had reason to regret 
it ; and the counsellor, while you are in the same intri- 
cate mazes of your existence, had passed away, you 
would miss that counsellor. 

" If you had had a friend who understood your very 
nature, the rise and fall of your feelings, the bent of 



56 GENERAL BOOTH 

your thoughts, and the purpose of your existence ; a 
friend whose communion had ever been pleasant the 
most pleasant of all other friends to whom you had 
ever turned with satisfaction, and your friend had 
been taken away, you would feel some sorrow at the 
loss. 

" If you had had a mother for your children, who 
had cradled and nursed and trained them for the ser- 
vice of the living God, in which you most delighted 
a mother indeed, who had never ceased to bear their 
sorrows on her heart, and had been ever willing to 
pour forth that heart's blood in order to nourish 
them, and that darling mother had been taken from 
your side, you would feel it a sorrow. 

" If you had had a wife, a sweet love of a wife, who 
for forty years had never given you real cause for 
grief : a wife who had stood side by side with you in 
the battle's front, who had been a comrade to you, 
ever willing to interpose herself between you and the 
enemy, and ever the strongest when the battle was 
fiercest, and your beloved one had fallen before your 
eyes, I am sure there would be some excuse for your 
sorrow. 

" Well, my comrades, you can roll all these qualities 
into one personality, and what would be lost in each 
I have lost all in one ! There has been taken away from 
me the delight of my eyes, the inspiration of my soul, 
and we are about to lay all that remains of her in the 
grave. I have been looking right at the bottom of it 
here, and calculating how soon they may bring and 
lay me alongside of her, and my cry to God has been 
that every remaining hour of my life may make me 
readier to come and join her in death, to go and 
embrace her in the Eternal City." 



CHAPTER III 
THE MAKING OF A GENERAL 

A Midsummer Night's Dream Banging Theology against the Wall 
A Vision of East London" Can you say the Lord's Prayer 
in Latin?" The Converted Milkman The Burkers The 
Volunteer Movement makes the Salvation Army The Outcome 
of a Revised Sentence 

WE have seen, in perspective, the two personalities 
who had much to do in reality had all to do in 
creating and forming the Salvation Army. The one 
possessed the essential prophetic fire, the other the 
philosophic mind ; the General had a Napoleonic 
vision of conquest, his wife a keener and more accurate 
sense of the fitness of measures to the object of their con- 
secration. But for the correcting, deliberative nature 
of Mrs. Booth, the General might have adopted a 
Philistine policy for his organisation ; and but for the 
masterful hand of the General, the Army might and 
probably would have developed into a big and useful 
mission, but only a mission, which, however, Mrs. Booth 
might have favoured. 

When on that memorable midsummer night they 
resolved to turn the East End of London into the base 
of an experiment to compel the people to listen to their 
message, they really set out to make an Army. The 
idea had not taken shape in their calculations, but the 

57 



58 GENERAL BOOTH 

intention was there at least to form some organisation, 
of which they should have sole control. They were 
wearied with the circumlocution of committees, con- 
ferences, congresses, and big central headquarters. 
They would, if successful, be their own parliament, 
executive, and directorate all in one. They would 
train their children to follow in their footsteps. It 
therefore followed that when the necessity of securing 
the services of a helper for the Mission arose, the 
General undertook the responsibility of paying his 
salary. The contract placed the Rev. William Booth 
in the relation of a master to the evangelist. When a 
second and third and thirtieth and thousandth helper 
was required, the same principle was maintained, and 
if he should live to see the millionth officer com- 
missioned, that officer will stand in relation to him 
as a paid official. This form of proprietorship is far 
from dead in the General's mind. 

It will therefore be necessary to trace the progress 
of William Booth with a little more detail, if we are 
to find the historical as well as the personal equation of 
the movement, for the generalship of the General of 
the Salvation Army was manufactured in the Sand- 
hurst of his clerical and evangelistic life. 

He inherited, I admit, part of his acquisitive, com- 
manding spirit. The parents of General Booth be- 
longed to the middle-class society of the town of 
Nottingham. His father was a house-builder who 
succeeded in making a small fortune, and then in losing 
it. He over-speculated in house property ; and when 
a fall in values occurred, owing to a sudden reverse in 



THE MAKING OF A GENERAL 59 

trade, Mr. Booth found himself unable to meet his 
creditors. But he was a strong man. 

The influence of that misfortune saddened the 
family, and young William in particular. After his 
conversion, William considered that his parents, es- 
pecially his father, made the adversity an excuse for 
neglecting the claims of their souls, though at best 
the Booths were nominal Church people. General 
Booth did not derive his spiritual inspirations from 
his father. The resolute determination of the mother, 
however, to make the best of the father's misfortune 
left an indelible impression upon the son. He ad- 
mired his mother and believed in her native wisdom 
and shrewdness. 

In after years he spoke of the formative effect of his 
home life upon his character in these words : 

" I learned the habit from my mother never to state 
a fact unless I was sure that it was so. I maintain that 
it is not enough that someone says so-and-so, and 
another believes it, for you to pass it on as gospel. Do 
you know that it is so ? When an officer comes to 
me with a statement which he offers me as correct, I 
invariably ask him if he knows that it is reliable. Can 
he tell from his own knowledge or investigation that it 
is correct ? There are three classes of people in the 
world the ' hope-so's,' the ' think-so's/ and the 
' KNOW-SO'S.' I like the latter. My mother was a 
thorough woman, and the attribute that I most admire 
in men is thoroughness. 

" I learned to practise this virtue through the 
example of my mother. My wife possessed the same 
characteristic. When engaged in trying to solve the 



60 GENERAL BOOTH 

problem of some soul in distress, she would give to that 
task her very best. If she were sewing a button on my 
vest, she acted on the same principle. My mother was 
thorough '; my wife was thorough ; and I hope that I 
have some of the same precious metal in me. If I am 
not satisfied with an address that I have drafted, I will 
revise it again and again, and not put it aside until it 
has been rewritten or corrected ten, fifteen, or twenty 
times. I like to do my work well, whether it is placing 
a stamp on an envelope or saving a soul. Thorough 
work will last till the Judgment Day and after." 

William Booth's conversion was another formative 
factor in moulding the character of the future leader 
of the Salvation Army. We have already indicated 
the influence of that experience in his private life. 
The effect of it upon his career was equally revolu- 
tionary. It stirred within him a passion to become a 
preacher. A band of young enthusiasts met occa- 
sionally in a small room of the Methodist Chapel in 
Nottingham for private meditation and counsel, and 
it was at these unauthorised gatherings that the rebel 
in William Booth was first awakened. His incursions 
upon the Meadow Flats gave no offence to the pillars 
of the Church till young Booth and his gang brought 
" the fruit of their labours " to the church doors on 
Sunday nights. 

Instead of welcoming Booth, and harnessing him to 
work with responsibility that might have tended to 
cool the ardour of his spirits, the local leaders of 
Methodism objected to ill-clad, dirty, and debased 
" stockingers " entering the circuit chapel and filling 



YOUNG BOOTH AT NOTTINGHAM 61 

up the pews usually set apart for the elect of the fold ! 
" It was so horrid, impudent, and dangerous. Suppose 
all were to follow this young man's example, they 
would drive respectable people away from the house 
of God ! " These and other arguments resolved the 
functionaries of the chapel to decide that when 
Booth and his singing, processioning tatterdemalions 
came up from the Flats on a Sunday night, to admit 
them only by the back door that led up to the top cor- 
ner in the gallery. They were religious Machiavellians. 
The resolution, when given effect to, made a martyr 
of the embryo evangelist. The majority sided with the 
decision of the leaders, but the minority, the truest 
successors of John Wesley, the outdoor evangelist, 
thought the young man had the spirit of the Gospel. 
Booth's boys, it is true, were noisy and violent in their 
language and unwise in their diplomacy, and they 
consequently somewhat spoiled a reputation that 
otherwise would have triumphed over the little eccle- 
siasticism. Still, the fact that the fathers of his 
adopted Church did not see the needs of the poor 
people as he did made a painful impression on young 
Booth. He wept, prayed, and gnashed his teeth. 
Commenting on the incident, he stated : 

" In making my choice, with my companions in this 
guerilla warfare, I see now that I then apprehended, 
almost without knowing it, that the Church of my ideal 
must be aggressive. I had little sympathy with the 
go-to-meeting, easy-going class of Methodist, and the 
action of the leaders in sending me round by the 
back door of the chapel planted in me the seed of 



62 GENERAL BOOTH 

rebellion against the complacent and stereotyped form 
of things from which it is now too late to deliver me." 



But did Methodism make a mistake in sending the 
lad round by the back door ? It will, I think, be con- 
ceded that the decision of the local leaders constituted 
one of those tactical blunders that eventually work 
for the good of that other or greater Church whose 
borders are not delimited by Church polity or doctrine. 
It was a mistake that made William Booth a more 
intense friend of the social black sheep of his native 
town and developed in him that egotism which in 
time was to make a mark upon the religious life of 
England. 

At twenty William Booth came to London and 
worked as a clerk to a respectable pawnbroker in 
Clapham, and here the rebel was ripened in him. The 
nature of his occupation brought him in close touch 
with the people. He saw into the tragic side of life 
and the many honest and legitimate diplomacies 
that are resorted to by the poor in their fight with 
poverty. He was an observer of other tragedies not so 
commendable, and in his secret moments he made vows 
to God that if ever he were free to mould public thought 
he would do something to expose the " nefarious doings 
of the privileged classes of society " and invent some 
plan for helping the distressed, He had to wait 
nearly forty years, however, before he realised that 
ambition, though the few years he spent behind the 
counter of a pawnbroker's shop were not wasted. The 
shop formed one of the colleges at which he graduated 



SOME EARLY EXPERIENCES 63 

for that ministry that depends less on learning than 
compassion for its success. 

In this position he was tortured with his conscience 
as to Sunday labour. He would not submit to it. 
And so he and his master quarrelled, and eventually 
he left his employment. That was a dark day in his 
life. On the day that he parted with his bread and 
butter for conscience' sake he had not the slightest 
idea as to where he would obtain work or be greeted 
with a word of sympathy. Meditating upon his 
prospects, he was walking along Clapham Common 
one evening, with only a sixpence in his possession 
literally the last he had when he met a poor con- 
sumptive woman carrying a big burden. He stopped 
and spoke to her, and learned that she had to support 
a large family by charing, and with Tolstoian reckless- 
ness he handed her his only sixpence and gave her his 
blessing, bade her submit to her circumstances in 
the faith that God would not forsake her even when 
her feet entered the long valley of death. Instead of 
daunting the young Nottingham Methodist, these 
adverse currents in his life only served to make him 
long to come to nearer grips with the lot of the un- 
fortunate, 

Then the Methodist controversies of the hour helped 
to develop the spirit of protest within him. The 
rancour of Methodism during the Reform agitation 
had, as we have already observed, disappointed him. 
He was intolerant of controversy. He is to this day. 
This partly explains why he has abstained from 
discussing such subjects as the limitation of the drink 



64 GENERAL BOOTH 

traffic. He has his own views on that question, which 
are opportunist rather than reformatory. 

In this he differs from his late wife. She was for no 
compromise. With her, drink was of the Devil, and 
every public house a manufactory of sedition, murder, 
rapine, and every other form of evil. She would, she 
once declared, hoist a black flag on the chimney of 
every brewery and drinking-saloon in the land, as a sign 
of the death-distilling poison from the sale of which 
their proprietors gathered their ill-gotten gains. Not 
so William Booth, the practical man of affairs. You 
cannot make water run uphill or a nation sober by 
Act of Parliament. 

This is by the way, however, and only to point out 
that in the making of the first General of the Salvation 
Army, who must be more or less a model for all others 
who shall come after him, his arbitrary characteristics 
were strengthened by his social environment. 

His self-assertiveness was dramatically displayed 
in his first attempt to study systematic theology, 
In 1854 he was urged to stop evangelising for a time, 
and qualify in the ordinary way for the ministry by 
submitting to a well -mapped -out course of study. 
He reluctantly consented ; he had lost all faith in the 
colleges of the Connexion as a training-ground for a 
zealous ministry. His future wife was of the opinion 
that eventually the gain of a carefully digested study of 
theology, philosophy, and Church history would be 
advantageous to Mr. Booth, and that decided him. 
But he stumbled at the first attempt to master the 
Greek verb not that the actual learning presented any 



THE VALUE OF GREEK AND LATIN 65 

serious obstacle to him but he failed to appreciate 
the relation of Greek to the salvation of the people. " I 
did not see it then, and I do not see it now," he will tell 
you, as a man who speaks with some authority. 
" What advantage has Greek been to me in my efforts 
to solve the problem of arresting the attention of the 
masses to the Gospel ? " 

To sharpen his point, he tells this story : 

" An old member of the Christian Mission was given 
to express her feelings rather frequently and loudly 
in the meetings. One day she was more boisterous 
than usual. At the end of the service a rich, pompous, 
and college-educated man approached her, and in a 
disdainful and patronising air observed, ' Your 
interruptions disturb me. I am studying the work and 
I need quiet. Are you familiar with the Scriptures ? ' 
The happy soul made no answer. 

" The learned man went on : ' Can you, for example, 
read the Lord's Prayer in Latin, which we must do in 
order to see the beauty of its petitions ? ' 

"The good woman gave him his answer: 'No, sir, 
but I can say, " Thank God, I am saved ! " in 
English ! ' " 

The General has no superstitious veneration for 
education unless it is conducive to utilitarian ends. 
The Free Libraries, for instance, are in his opinion far 
from being a gain to society. 

He relates this story of a Swedish professor who was 
present at a meeting of the Army, in Upsala I think. 
It would appear that he remained to the " after " 
meeting that is, the latter part of a Salvation service, 



66 GENERAL BOOTH 

in which personal efforts are made to induce the 
unregenerate portion of the people to decide for Christ, 
and kneel at a penitent bench in front of the stage 
and there pray for the forgiveness of sin. Throughout 
the meeting sergeants or " fishers for souls," as they are 
described, speak to one here and another there, just 
as they are led to do so by the signs of concern on the 
faces of the people, from which they conclude that 
they are anxious to be saved. 

On this occasion a woman " fisher " thought she 
saw signs of spiritual unrest printed on the face of an 
elderly gentleman, and she approached him with the 
usual interrogation : 

" Are you saved, sir ? " 

The old man's face underwent an immediate change 
of expression and colour. 

" How dare you ? Do you know to whom you are 
speaking ? Do you know who I am ? " 

The Salvation lass did not. 

" I am," he continued, placing strong emphasis 
upon each word, " the professor of therapeutics at the 
University ! " 

The girl for a moment looked astonished and then 
pitiful. 

" Oh, sir," she pleaded, " the dear Lord can save the 
chief of sinners ! " 

General Booth is no fetish-worshipper of the great 
civilising fulcrum of the age. Nevertheless, in that 
ordinance of self-denial, the study of theology, he 
might have conquered his prejudices but for the book 
which his professor ordered him to thoroughly master. 



HAS NO USE FOR THEOLOGY 67 

To his amazement William Booth discovered that 
it was one sustained argument in favour of Calvinism, 
and he turned from it at once as if it had been deadly 
poison. He lifted the treacherous thing, and with 
Lutheran-like rage threw it against the wall, solilo- 
quising, " I would sooner starve than preach such God- 
dishonouring theories as that so many people were 
predestined from all eternity to be saved and damned." 
And in this way ended the first and only effort on his 
part to study theology as laid down by the Church. 

Shortly after he settled down to the work of the 
ministry of the Methodist New Connexion, when he 
had not the opportunity he would describe it as a 
temptation to study theology, though, by the way, 
the training of officers for the Salvation Army is 
attended with, among other things, the study of a 
most exhaustive curriculum, including an examination 
upon theology as he, General Booth, has outlined it 
for the candidates for officership in his Army. 

In another sense, there was no " settling down " to 
the regular work of a Methodist minister. Mr. Booth, 
as such, was as unconventional as he was as an evan- 
gelist. An old member of one of his Churches at 
Gateshead thus described William Booth as a 
minister : 

" He was very popular, and he filled the chapel, 
though he was always in trouble of some kind. He 
did not get on with his office-bearers until he mastered 
them or got rid of them then things went forward all 
right. 

" Everyone loved Mrs. Booth, she was so sweet and 



68 GENERAL BOOTH 

beautiful, and we liked Mr. Booth, though some did not 
see eye to eye with him on many points. He was more 
fitted to fill a church than to feed it. He drew crowds 
by the style of his preaching. He used to do what we 
call in the North ' rant a deal.' I have seen him on a 
Sunday night draw a picture of a soul going down to 
the burning pit. His mannerisms in the pulpit were 
such that he could almost make you see what he was 
describing. Once I heard him preach on a shipwreck, 
suggested, I think, by the foundering of a vessel just 
outside the bar at South Shields. The chapel was 
packed in every part, and Mr. Booth was unusually in 
earnest. He pictured the ship being thought out, 
planned, built, equipped, and sent to sea. Then he 
stopped and made a comparison between the ship and 
a man's life. There was a defect in Mr. Booth's 
imaginary vessel, as there is in human nature. The 
vessel was caught in a storm, and owing to this defect, 
was driven among the breakers and crushed among the 
rocks. As Booth imagined the wreck, with the waves 
dashing over her, the crew clinging to the rigging and 
crying for help, people were moved. 

" Some sighed, some wept, some cried, e Oh, God ! ' 
" Then the lifeboat appeared on the situation. There 
were cheers as first one and then another of the 
mariners were rescued ; William Booth almost jumped 
out of his pulpit, he waved his handkerchief and 
shouted, ' The Lifeboat is Christ. He is in this chapel 
to-night to save you, you, you ! You are among the 
breakers of sin. See, another wave is coming ! Afflic- 
tion is coming, loss is coming, death is coming. How 
will you do then ? ' 

" And he leant over the side of the pulpit and pictured 
once again the crew being saved, and asked how many 
that night would jump into his spiritual lifeboat. The 



A REBEL 6$ 

perspiration rolled down his face, and as he descended 
from the pulpit and gave out a hymn very few people 
rushed to the doors. The fear of God and death and 
disaster was put into their souls, and many came to 
the communion-rail to be prayed with. Mr. Booth 
was a man on fire for the salvation of souls, and 
if he could not win them one way he would try 
another." 

^ Another and even more dramatic evidence of the 
rebel in the General was forthcoming when he and Mrs. 
Booth refused, or rather defied, the vote of the Con- 
ference that required their return to circuit work, after 
having had a run of success as a Connexional evan- 
gelist. We have already commented upon that, in the 
making of our modern Catherine of Siena. So far 
as the circumstances influenced the General, they 
brought him a step nearer to the assumption of the 
role of a militant evangelist. He felt, with the breath 
of liberty which he drew when he parted from the 
Conference, that in future he would be responsible alone 

^ to his God and to his conscience. He could go where 
" he chose and do whatever was right in his own eyes. 
It is true that he knew not what turn to take, and he 
had no real friend who would encourage him to pursue 
his evangelistic crusade ; but he was free ! free of the 
domination of an ecclesiasticism that throttled in- 
dividual liberty and was blind to the working of the 
apostolic spirit in one of its most devoted servants. 
..It was not the freedom of democracy that thrilled his 
soul. It was not that he was converted to the principle 
of self-government. No ; that ideal was smashed when 



70 GENERAL BOOTH 

Mrs. Booth shouted from the gallery of the Conference 
Chapel in Leeds, "Never ! " All their Reform notions 
were then finally and for ever exploded. All their 
reading of Wesleyan rule and Church polity proved of 
no avail to them in that hour. They determined to be 
their own masters, and, as I have hinted, the incident 
brought Mr. Booth considerably nearer to the uniform 
of the Commander-in-Chief of the organisation that 
was destined to shake the world by reason of its 
, sensationalism in method, leadership, and aim. The 
General was forming rapidly under the black-coated 
garb of a Methodist parson. 

We need not follow Evangelist Booth to Cornwall, 
or to the north and south of England, visiting chapels 
in the capacity of a Moody or Richard Weaver. Suffice 
it that wherever he went three features distinguished 
his campaigns : 

1. The ministers were as a rule unfavourably dis- 
posed to his propaganda. They considered that the 
interference with the routine of circuit work caused by 
his missions, associated as they were with late and ex- 
citing meetings, was detrimental to the permanence of 
Church life. 

2. Great crowds were attracted to his preaching 
and the ministry of Mrs. Booth, whose lips were now 
touched with the torch of a burning eloquence. 

3. The number of converts was exceptionally large. 
Other evangelists preached with more grace, erudition, 
and circumspection ; other evangelists caused less 
friction; other evangelists were broader and more 
sociable; but as a friend of the Salvation Army 



BOOTH'S CONVERTS 71 

once observed at Cardiff, " Booth got the converts. 
He filled the church and gorged the communion-rail 
and vestry with enquirers." 

4. The mission was usually followed up by " damp- 
ing " efforts. At Brighouse the minister, as soon as 
Booth closed a successful meeting there, announced 
that he would preach a series of addresses to the young 
converts, and he chose for his text, "Let him that 
thinketh he standeth take heed lest he fall ! " The 
sequel was a stampede of Booth's converts. 

The man who was eventually to regard evangelistic 
effort on business lines was not likely to lose sight of 
the moral of all this, and at the end of eight years of 
evangelising Methodist Churches, Booth was just as 
much out of joint with his own evangelistic work as he 
had formerly been with circuit work. The rebel was 
well developed in him when he landed for the third time 
in the course of his career in London. He was then clear 
about three things : 

" I was satisfied that the methods of the average 
Methodist Church were out of date. They had ceased to 
attract the people to the chapel, at any rate in the city. 
A tract and a sombre-looking handbill were not calcu- 
lated to either cause the enemy to swear or pray. Then 
I was not satisfied with the chapel itself, with its dull 
grey walls, detached life, class pews, and high-toned 
preaching far beyond the thoughts of the people. I 
was dissatisfied with my own work. I saw grow under 
my ministry, warm, loving, soul-seeking Christians, and 
then I saw them chilled, neglected, and killed. I 
rebelled against the repetition of this work, and when 
I saw East London in the year 1864-5, I formed a 



72 GENERAL BOOTH 

resolution to try something on the line of a perpetual 
revival, and so started the East London Revival 
Mission." 

At last the Rev. William Booth was in command of 
his own, or within grasp of that despotic power which 
he always describes as benevolent in intention, practice, 
and aim. The East London Revival Mission was not, 
however, a great success except for its educational 
benefit. It showed him that the methods he adopted, 
say, in a district like Hanley would not do among the 
slummers and costers and dock-workers of the East 
End. He realised that he would have to get further 
away than ever from the appearance of the black cloth, 
but how to do it he failed then to see. All the time 
he was watching the effects of his preaching, Mrs. 
Booth's meetings, and the results of the labour of men 
and women whom he employed to assist him. Among 
these were Baptists, Methodists, Presbyterians, and 
even Plymouth Brethren altogether a heterogeneous 
collection of evangelistic failures. Booth chafed at the 
results, and he was more than once tempted, not to 
abandon preaching and evangelising in East London, 
but to despair of ever finding a way into the hearts 
of the people. He could not get their attention. 

The East End then was socially dead ; the only 
evidences of life that it afforded and then a life that, 
to him, was worse than death were Whitechapel Road 
or Ratcliff Highway on a Saturday night, and Petti- 
coat Lane on a Sunday morning. The civic conscience 
was poisoned by vestryism and corruption. The 
police were only concerned about the detection of 



HIS LABOUR IN THE EAST END 73 

crime the new policeman with his tender respect 
for "His Majesty the Baby" had not arrived. The 
publicans and bookies were the twin governors of 
East London, and the ground landlord and the brewery 
kings, the monarchs who fattened on the poverty, vices, 
and fears of the people. It was the happy hunting- 
ground for the novelist and journalist. A royal 
princess or a duke's daughter would occasionally 
patronise it with a flying visit, and eloquent sermons 
would escape the lips of bishops and mission preachers 
as to the gross moral and social darkness of East 
London ; but they had not the courage to admit 
what he mourned over like a dying prophet, that 
all, alas ! failed to make the people think for them- 
selves. 

What could what could he do ? He changed the 
name of the Mission to the Christian Mission. He 
engaged people as evangelists of his own make, and 
they were more successful. He next tried preaching in 
theatres, warehouses, under railway arches, and, more 
frequently, at street corners, in alleys and lodging- 
houses, and still success tarried. Financial matters 
tried him. The claims of his family were increasing, 
and his own health at times awakened anxiety in 
Mrs. Booth. His committee, or conference, bored him. 
Like Mark Twain, he was longing for a committee of 
one, and he, the boss of the show, to be that one. 
Even many of his converts disappointed him. 

When they found that the Christian Mission required 
assistance, and that they were expected to give, and 
not to receive, the typical East End convert of those 



74 GENERAL BOOTH 

days called it mean and Booth anything but a gentle- 
man. The Churches bestowed a kindly interest in the 
experiment he was making, but it was more negative 
than practical. A few friends, such as Mr. George Scott 
Morgan, of The Christian, the late Mr. T. A. Denny, and 
the great Earl of Shaftesbury, patronised Mr. Booth's 
efforts, and to some extent their encouragement 
cheered Mr. and Mrs. Booth in their apparently fruitless 
quest for the philosopher's stone. 

At the end of ten years the Mission had opened 
some twelve halls and was employing twenty evan- 
gelists women as well as men and there were a few 
hundred members, mostly of the chapel-going and 
mission-hall order. Still, his personality had made a 
mark upon them, and his dictatorial training of lay 
workers had evolved a new order of missionary in 
East London. The members obeyed him. If he 
asked them to follow him to a street corner and give 
their testimony, they would as soon have thought of 
refusing him as if the Angel Gabriel had issued the 
request. 

Then, again, Booth's meetings were magnetic. By 
this time he had thrown overboard a good deal of his 
Methodistic cargo. His ship was lighter, and he was 
sailing light, under a fair breeze. His meetings were 
free, easy, testifying. There were no dull moments 
in them, and no long sermons, except when he or 
Mrs. Booth preached to a set congregation, and then 
they took their time in fact, preached longer than 
they were accustomed to do when acting as evangelists 
under Church rule. 



HIS RECRUITING-GROUND 75 

- But what added special novelty to his mission 
was the type of convert whom he succeeded in enlisting 
under the banner of the Mission, and it was while in 
this pioneer stage of his work as the founder of the 
Salvation Army that he learned the value of a sensa- 
tional announcement. A " converted pigeon-flier " 
would always arrest the motley gatherings in Brick 
Lane. A " converted burglar " would draw anywhere, 
especially in Donkey's Row. A " converted, clean 
sweep " attracted the humble cottagers on both sides 
of Mile End. 

And here I may be pardoned if I pause to intro- 
duce a couple of sketches of these "attractions." 
Afterwards, when the Salvation Army was spreading 
like a prairie fire throughout the land, Mr. Booth was 
asked by some wiseacre, " Where will you get your 
preachers from ? " 

The General replied, "From the ale-taps and drinking- 
saloons and skittle-alleys." It was a bold reply. But 
it was a reply for which he could point to his compara- 
tive success. 

A milkman, for instance, made a sensation. He was 
announced to speak at a meeting as " the milkman 
who had not watered his milk since he joined the Mis- 
sion ! " The milkmen in the district were attracted 
to that meeting, and it may be accepted that if Pro- 
fessor Longhead had been announced to discourse 
upon the ethics of Christianity, his appeal to that 
fraternity would have fallen flat. 

Among the milkmen present at the meeting was 
one who did adulterate his milk, and spent the greater 



76 GENERAL BOOTH 

part of his eamings in drink. He took a seat at the 
back of the hall, and as he studied the character of 
the actors, as he called the converts on the platform, 
he concluded, what more sober-minded people have 
done, that the whole thing was a money-making game, 
and he settled down good-humouredly, half drunk 
as he was, to see how the game worked. 

When the time came for testimonies, up jumped the 
milkman, greeted with applause, " Hallelujahs," and 
voices, " How much the part, guv'nor ? " and " Has 
the milk got converted, Bill ? " 

The leader was unperturbed, and the milkman, 
closing his eyes, seemed to be engaged in prayer : an 
act which the milkman at the rear of the hall thought 
hypocritical. 

Then the following speech was made : 

" Friends, you all know me. You know what a 
miserable wreck I was six months ago. Look at me 
to-night. (Hear, hear!) And what's done it ? Salva- 
tion. (Hallelujah!) I take my wage home to the missis 
now. I don't get up in the morning now with a head 
as heavy as a ton of coals. (Laughter and ' Praise the 
Lord ! ') I gets up with a merry heart, and sometimes 

' "'I will tell you what induced me 

For the Better Land to start, 
'Twas the Saviour's loving kindness, 
Overcame, and won my heart/" 

And the motley audience started singing this old 
Ranter song. The leader paced along the platform, 
shouting, "God can make honest milkmen of you if 
you will let Him." 



A CONVERTED MILKMAN 77 

Then the milkman resumed : 

" Look here, friends, I've made no mistake. This 
is a genuine piece of work. The Lord did it, and I know 
it, for I was there when it was done. (Laughter and 
4 Hallelujahs. ') Salvation takes the love of the booze out 
of you. Since I knelt down at that 'ere plank in front 
of the hall, I have not tasted a drop of four ale. (Sensa- 
tion.) You look a bit sceptical, mates. But here is my 
old girl on the platform, and I'll ask her if she ever 
caught a whiff of booze in my breath since I gave my 
heart to the Lord." The wife jumped to her feet and 
said, " I give you my affidavy that my old man is all 
right." And there were volleys of " Amens " and 
" Hallelujahs." 

When the interrupters had spent their expressions of 
pleasure, the milkman at the rear was convinced 
that the performance was very well done, and as soon as 
a comparative calm had set in, he too jumped up and 
asked the speaker, " What do you get for the job, 
mister ? " 

The elder confederate in the trade at once shouted 
back, at the top of his voice, " Peace of conscience, 
mate, and you can have the same at the same price." 

" Peace of conscience." Ah ! that was just what he 
hadn't got. That night the drunken milkman knelt 
at the mercy seat and went home resolved to have this 
peace. And what became of him ? In a word, he 
became the pioneer of the best work that the Salvation 
Army has outside Great Britain. The milkman 
prospered, emigrated to Adelaide, and on finding that 
there was no Christian Mission, or rather Salvation 



78 GENERAL BOOTH 

Army, there, he turned his colonial shanty into a 
Salvation Hall on Sundays, and by inviting his neigh- 
bours and passers-by to hear what the Lord had done 
for him, he gathered a few like-minded spirits around 
him, and these formed themselves into a Hallelujah 
Band. He then wrote the General, begging him to send 
out officers to take hold of the work. The old East 
London milkman could start the work, but he had 
not the ability to keep it going. 

Now, some people have the notion that in the 
extension of the Salvation Army, General Booth has 
from time to time, according to the supply of funds, 
ordered one here and another there, to open fire upon 
this place and the next place, and thus moved the 
Army round the world. That view of the exercise 
of the General's military authority is superficial. 

General Booth in his aggressive work has only 
gone as far as others have suggested to him was safe. 
Others have made opportunities, and he has simply 
seen them and made the most of them. It was so 
with Australia. He grasped the significance of the 
milkman's work at the first opportunity, and never 
was General Booth's judgment shown to better ad- 
vantage than when he selected ( ' Brother and Sister 
Barker " afterwards Colonel and Mrs. James Barker 
as the first officers in command of Australia. They 
were of the people, and East London Christian Mission 
converts. They had the spirit of testimony rather than 
of preaching, were in intense sympathy with the 
moral, social, and spiritual needs of the people, and 
were profoundly sincere. 



JAMES BARKER 79 

An ordinary Headquarters would have chosen 
educated and experienced officers. But General Booth 
knew his Australia, and that the Army could not 
compete with the intellectualism that he then per- 
ceived was gaining ground in the churches of the 
Colonies. 

James Barker caught on. The places of shame in 
Melbourne and Sydney were startled by the coming 
of the Salvation Army, and within twelve months of the 
landing of these strange English officers, the Colonies 
received them with open arms and hailed them as 
saviours of the worst. James Barker became a friend 
of all classes ; his word on matters connected with 
convicts, reformatories, and social questions generally 
was for years law. And all this and more was 
the outcome of the testimony of the saved, sober, and 
honest milkman. 

Who will deny that General Booth was warranted 
then, with these and other remarkable evidences of 
reformed lives, to persevere as he had gone on ? He 
was attaining what the Red Indian calls the "scent." 
The Christian Mission was doing more for him than it 
was doing for the world, and the old Methodist evan- 
gelist grew in self-assertiveness. 

In these days he proclaimed his right to govern. 
His addresses, or such parts of them as found their way 
into the Christian Mission Magazine, showed very 
clearly that the Rev. William Booth as superintendent 
was the life and essence of the organisation. He made 
rules as to attendances, the conduct of class meetings, 
the responsibilities of exhorters, the visitations of 



80 GENERAL BOOTH 

men and women workers, finance, taking halls, holding 
sacraments, and the other ordinances common to 
Methodist bodies. The language of the Mission was 
militant and defiant. Here is a sample : 

" We are at war. The Devil knows it. The publicans 
know it. They are crying out against us. We are at war 
against sin. It is the scourge of hell, the curse of 
earth, and is sending millions to hell every year. 
We are at war for God. Go forward. Lift up your 
banners. Show on whose side you are." 

So much had the influence of the Mission, by the 
time it had reached its tenth birthday, exercised upon 
the members, that they dropped the appellation 
" Super " when referring, in a familiar manner, to the 
head. They preferred the term " General." 

There were other formative influences. The current 
events outside the Mission " in the world," as 
Christians say were circulating a military atmo- 
sphere. The Rifle Volunteer movement was very much 
in evidence, as the Territorial has been in recent years. 
Political and patriotic addresses inflamed the public 
mind as to the necessity of the movement in case of 
the country being embroiled in a foreign war. " Are 
you a volunteer ? " was a question on many lips. It 
was immortalised in music-hall songs and formed the 
text of many sermons, The Christian Mission, in its 
printed references to its own work at this time, showed 
that it was influenced in its nomenclature by what 
was going on outside its borders. Evangelists would 
often use the query, in appealing for decisions at a 
meeting, " Come forward now ! One volunteer is 



THE BIRTH OF THE SALVATION ARMY 81 

worth ten pressed men. Be a volunteer for God and 
Salvation." 

One day General Booth resolved to review the opera- 
tions of the Christian Mission, and issue an appeal to 
the public for funds to extend the beneficent character 
of the work to other towns. A young man, called Mr. 
George Scott Railton, the son of a Wesleyan minister, 
an able writer and an enthusiast for a militant policy 
at all times, was General Booth's secretary, and the 
two started to collaborate the review. As they 
proceeded, the resemblance of the Christian Mission 
to the Volunteer movement for the defence of the 
country impressed itself very forcibly upon the 
Superintendent of the Mission. He drafted out the 
comparisons. Both were originated from a conviction 
of duty, the strength of both was made up of ordinary 
people, both were officered by civilians, both believed 
in authority and obedience, and both were voluntary. 
Neither officers nor men were paid for their services, 
and both were successful movements. 

Summing up these characteristics, the General, 
with the aid of his secretary, revised the article. 
One phrase ran, " It will thus be seen that the 
Christian Mission is a Volunteer Army an Army of 
Salvation." 

" I think we can improve upon that sentence, 
Railton," remarked Mr. Booth to his secretary. 

The General read the sentence again, and striking 
his pen through it, he amended it as follows : 

" The Christian Mission is a Salvation Army." 

And at that moment the Rev, William Booth may 



82 GENERAL BOOTH 

figuratively be declared to have first seen the light 
as the General of the Salvation Army. The General 
of the Salvation Army was at length, after a long, 
wearying process of vicissitude, bitter disappointment, 
rebellion, failure, and success, in command of a people 
that he had made out of the fag-ends of chapelism, the 
cast-offs of missions, converts from drunkenness and 
gambling all more or less ready to obey him on any 
matter under high heaven. 

What would he do with the increased power ? 
How would he mould the opportunity in the interests 
of the cause that had eaten so deeply into his heart ? 
The General was made ; what sort of Army would the 
General make ? We shall see. 



CHAPTER IV 
THE MAKING OF AN ARMY 

A World-wide Ideal The raison d'etre of the Deed Poll Doctrines 
settled for ever A Sect of Sects Powers of the General 
Expansion by Growth, not Dictation How Germany was In- 
vadedThe latest Deed and the thin end of the Democratic 
Wedge If a General become Bankrupt, what then ? Applying 
the Powers under the Trust Deed to the making of an Army 
The Havoc of a New Despotism 

" WITH such a name as the Salvation Army to conjure 
with, and with such consecrated men and women as had 
gathered around me, it would have been comparatively 
easy for me to have kicked up a fine ' hullabaloo ' in 
the country, when I entered upon the business of 
making the Salvation Army. And I have no doubt 
that I could have attained a certain kind of reputation. 
But my object was not to make a sensation : it was to 
make an organisation." GENERAL BOOTH. 

Whatever opinions may be held as to the wisdom of 
many of the methods he employed in doing so, General 
Booth has been as good as his word. His Army is a 
real army. There is no make-believe about it. It is 
to be seen in places scattered over one half of the 
civilised world and in heathen lands. 

One will meet it wherever one travels. Since I have 
entered another fold, I have found its representatives 

83 



84 GENERAL BOOTH 

waiting on my doorstep in a far-away mining town in 
the wilds of Tasmania ; I have had my footsteps 
dogged for a subscription to its funds in the depth of 
an Australian bush ; I have been confronted with its 
heralds of salvation in cafes in Berlin and Brussels ; 
and when I have tried to escape its attentions on a 
holiday, the lass with the tambourine and the collecting- 
box has turned her irresistible eyes upon me for an 
offering to the cause ! 

Go down to the slums of Lambeth to-night, and you 
will find a sister of tender years, versed in the science 
of hygiene and filled with the electrifying magnetism 
of love, tending the sick and imparting comfort to some 
lost sheep, as he lies in racking pain and with the death- 
haze in his eyes. 

I have watched an Italian navvy in the top flat of a 
New York tenement look wistfully into the face of his 
little wife and only child, after he has been told the 
fatal word that death would soon put an end to his 
struggles with consumption. I have seen the Salvation 
lass take the place of the absent priest, and remove the 
crucifix from the wall and hold it to the lips of the 
dying member of another fold. 

I have stood outside an American saloon and taken 
part in an appeal to the " toughs " that were upholding 
a shattered and battered wall in more senses than one. 
I have felt the piercing Alaskan wind go through me 
as I have studied the situation and heard an officer in 
her " hallelujah " uniform plead with tears in her eyes 
for the reform of her beer-sodden congregation, and 
then I have seen first one and then another quit the old 



THE MAKING OF AN ARMY 85 

trysting-spot and kneel in the snow and ask the Salva- 
tion girl to pray for them. Yes, it is an army, and no 
mistake. Walk into the Headquarters in Queen 
Victoria Street, and put the most obvious question to 
the man on the door, and you will feel that he is under 
the magic spell of the master mind on a higher floor. 
Ascend a little higher and ask the man with the 
Colonel's crest on his collar a few questions bearing on 
finance, and you will discover how very much a man 
under orders he is. It is an army in more than in name, 
and General Booth has made it. 

How did he do it ? After what model ? And will 
it last ? 

General Booth tells us : 

" It was not my intention to create another sect. 
I sometimes think that, if Providence had not placed 
this work in my hands, I possess some of the gifts that 
would have qualified me to promote the union of 
Christendom. Nothing was further from my inten- 
tions than to do anything that would multiply the 
differences between professing Christians. For that 
reason we have abandoned the administration of the 
Sacraments and all ritual that is supposed to contain 
some intrinsic or mystic virtue. We are not a Church. 
We are an Army an army of salvation." 

In these words General Booth has explained his re- 
lationship to the Churches, and it will be observed that 
he does not deny the necessity of a Church, or that there 
must be some authority which creates and controls a 
Church. 



S6 GENERAL BOOTH 

General Booth, it must be remembered, had to do 
something to give a legal foundation to his organisa- 
tion. He was acquiring property for a specific and 
public purpose. That property had to be protected 
from any diversion to other and un worthier objects, 
and for the promotion of that object for all time. He 
was compelled to take action from the hour when he 
saw that the movement was likely to be one that in- 
volved the collection and expenditure of voluntary 
contributions of the general public, and it cannot be 
too well known that the General treated the matter 
with the importance that it demanded, took into his 
counsel expert legal advice, and settled the provisions 
of a Constitution by means of a Trust Deed registered 
in Chancery. 

But before considering the Army's Constitution upon 
its merits, it is desirable that the position in which 
the General found himself should be clearly stated. 
Whatever action was taken had to be expeditious, for 
if it only met the exigencies of the moment and pro- 
vided for the sole trusteeship of the property and the 
control of the Christian Mission being vested in the 
head for the time being, the Deed could be added to 
and enlarged later on if circumstances arose that ren- 
dered such a proceeding advisable. So that a Founda- 
tion Deed and a Religious Trust Deed were registered 
on the 27th August, 1878, or only a little more than 
a year after the Salvation Army received its christen- 
ing, such as I have described. 

General Booth did not let the grass grow under his 
feet before he secured himself and his enterprise against 



ITS CONSTITUTION 87 

schism, or the attack of parties who might for various 
reasons have sought to undermine the work that 
started under popular auspices. It was quick work, 
too quick perhaps. 

Generally speaking, the legal instrument of the 
Army partakes in its character of the circumstances 
under which it was drafted, without showing any 
serious corresponding consideration of probable diffi- 
culties. 

What were these circumstances ? First, the servile 
N and ignorant class of officers by whom the General was 
supported. Excellent evangelists, no doubt, but with- 
out any experience of law or business : content if they 
had bread and butter and a chance to preach and pray 
for the salvation of sinners. Apart from his eldest son, 
Mr. Bramwell Booth, and Mr. Railton, and Mrs. Booth, 
of course, the General had no one in sympathy with his 
object capable of giving an independent and thought- 
ful criticism upon the principles that he wished to em- 
N body in his first Deed Poll. He saw, or thought he saw, 
that it would be in the best interests of the Mission for 
the present and the future that a people, moulded in 
this groove, should have a Constitution that gave the 
General for the time being unlimited powers, and 
that settled, once for all, the doctrines that should be 
taught and the objects that should be furthered by the 
Army. Such a Constitution, he believed, would avoid 
the questions on which other denominations had 
split. 

In the face of his own refusal to obey the dictates 
of his Church, here was a man in the nineteenth cen- 



88 GENERAL BOOTH 

tury making an organisation that vested in one man 
authority to do with flesh and blood practically what 
he liked, send them where he thought best, dismiss them 
when he chose, and not even promise to give them any 
remuneration, and a host of other drastic things ! The 
General was truly made after a fashion that the Caesars 
might have coveted in their time. 

Then the General had to guard against mission and 
Church friends, whose advice was always reactionary. 
They hovered about his meetings, talking the rankest 
anti-Salvation Army doctrines to his converts, tortur- 
ing their poor and ignorant minds about Baptism, the 
Second Coming, the Sacraments, and Holiness by 
Faith, and so forth, while all the time the new General 
was struggling to inculcate the theory that none of 
these things was worth the weight of a row of pins, 
when contrasted with the opportunity that had arisen 
for saving souls and setting them on fire with a passion 
for the salvation of the souls of others. 

What more natural, then, than that the General 
should think of tying up his organisation for all time 
with the doctrines that, in his opinion, were essential 
to salvation ? He would save his successors from the 
agony that he was experiencing, and we have that 
attitude amply illustrated in the strange instrument 
that sets forth, in legal language, the objects of a work 
that was to develop into a kingdom, and which the 
General has hopes will swell into the dimensions of an 
empire. 

General Booth submitted his imperial ideas to 
several of his friends ; but with the exception of 



LEGALLY CONSTITUTED 89 

Mr. J. E. Billups, of Cardiff, one of the signatories to the 
Deed, they all with one voice pronounced the scheme 
dangerous and ambitious. They pointed out that if 
he legislated for the future on the assumption that the 
Generals that would follow him would be as reliable as 
himself, he would be going straight against the teaching 
of all human experience from the jealous hour between 
Moses and Aaron to the " fall-out " between Paul and 
Barnabas ; but the General was obsessed with the 
Army idea. He had already found Biblical references 
in support of its foundation principles, and he was 
tasting the first-fruits of that power for which he had 
longed ever since he was driven from the front entrance 
of the Methodist Chapel in Nottingham. 

The opinions of some experts in Trust law were 
discarded ; the advice of his brothers in the cause was 
ruled out of court. Was he not making a new organisa- 
tion ? and was not the material from which he was 
making the organisation the most ignorant that any 
man ever had to handle ? and so he acted upon the 
theories that were propounded by Mr. Railton and 
half-heartedly supported by his wife at private con- 
ferences in their home at Gore Road. 

The first Deed Poll, or rather the religious Deed Poll, 
is not a long or difficult article of ecclesiastical furni- 
ture to understand. It consists of about thirty clauses 
only. The object of the Christian Mission is de- 
fined as : 

" to bring under the Gospel those who were not in 
the habit of attending any place of worship by preach- 
ing in the open, in tents, theatres, music halls, etc., 



90 GENERAL BOOTH 

and whereas divers Halls or Meeting houses, School 
rooms, Vestries, lands, buildings, and appurts situate 
lying and being in various parts of Her Majesty's 
Dominions and elsewhere have been or are intended to 
be and hereafter may be given and conveyed to certain 
persons in such Gifts and Conveyances named and to 
be named upon trusts for the purposes therein and 
herein mentioned or any of them and generally for 
promoting the objects of the said Christian Mission 
under the direction of the General Superintendent. 
And whereas in order to render valid and effectual such 
trusts to remove doubts and prevent Litigation in the 
interpretation thereof or as to the terms used therein to 
ascertain what is the name or title and what are and 
shall be for ever the doctrines of the said Christian 
Mission and also in order to preserve the system of the 
said Christian Mission generally by means of a General 
Superintendent it has been deemed expedient to make 
and execute these presents." 

There are three momentous declarations in this Deed 
Poll. The first I have indicated. The doctrines are 
declared, and to be " FOB EVER " those preached by 
the Christian Mission, and are substantially the same 
as those embodied in the Articles of War. 

The second endorses the despotism of the General of 
the Salvation Army for the time being, and gives him 
power to select and appoint a successor. 

" Thirdly that the said Christian Mission is and 
shall be always hereafter under the oversight direction 
and control of some one person who shall be the 
General Superintendent thereof whose duty it shall be 
to determine and enforce the discipline and laws and 



THE PROVISIONS OF THE CONSTITUTION 91 

superintend the operations of the said Christian Mission 
and to conserve the same to and for the objects and 
purposes for which it was first originated. 

" The General Superintendent shall have power to 
expend on behalf of the Christian Mission all moneys 
contributed for the general purposes of the said 
Christian Mission or for any of the special objects or 
operations thereof but he shall annually publish a 
Balance Sheet (duly Audited) of all such receipts and 
expenditure. 

"The General Superintendent shall have power to 
acquire by Gift Purchase or otherwise any Hall or 
Meeting house School room Vestry Land building and 
appurts and any seats fittings furniture or other 
Property whatsoever which may in his judgment be 
required for the purposes of the said Christian Mission 
and to build upon such land or alter or pull down any 
such buildings and to hire on lease or otherwise any 
land or buildings and to lend give away let sell or 
otherwise dispose of any such property land or buildings 
as he may deem necessary in the interests of the said 
Christian Mission wherein all trustees shall render 
him every assistance and he may in all such cases as he 
shall deem it expedient so to do nominate and appoint 
trustees or a trustee of any part or parts respectively 
of such property and direct the Conveyance or Transfer 
thereof to such trustees or trustee with power for the 
General Superintendent to declare the trusts thereof 
and from time to time if it shall seem expedient to him 
so to do to revoke any such trusts or the appointment 
of such Trustees or Trustee and upon such revocation 
the same Property shall be conveyed or transferred to 
such persons or person and upon such trusts as he may 
direct but only for the benefit of the said Christian 
Mission. 



92 GENERAL BOOTH 

" Fourthly that the said William Booth shall 
continue to be for the term of his natural life the 
General Superintendent of the Christian Mission unless 
he shall resign such Office. 

"Fifthly that the said William Booth and every 
General Superintendent who shall succeed him shall 
have the power to appoint his successor to the Office of 
General Superintendent and all the rights powers and 
authorities of the Office shall vest in the person so 
appointed upon the decease of the said William Booth 
or other General Superintendent appointing him or at 
such other period as rna.y be named in the Document 
appointing him. 

" Sixthly that it shall be the duty of every General 
Superintendent to make in writing as soon as con- 
veniently may be after his appointment a Statement 
as to his successor or as to the means which are to be 
taken for the appointment of a Successor at the decease 
of the General Superintendent or upon his ceasing to 
perform the duties of the Office such Statement to be 
signed by the General Superintendent and delivered 
in a Sealed envelope to the Solicitor for the time being 
of the Christian Mission but such Statement may be 
altered at will by the General Superintendent at any 
time during his continuance in Office upon a new 
Statement being signed by him and delivered as before 
mentioned to such Solicitor as aforesaid." 

General Booth, in the name of consistency, never 
perpetrated a more inconsistent act than when he 
gave his signature to this piece of paper. Just think 
of it ! He was anxious to avoid the creation of a 
Church, the basis of whose Constitution is doctrinal 
and ecclesiastical. He was a declared opponent of 



A CAST-IRON CONSTITUTION 93 

sects and sectarianism, and yet he puts his name to a 
document that is nothing if not ecclesiastical and 
doctrinally controversial. He built his claim to be 
declared the first Superintendent of the Christian 
Mission, and then General of the Salvation Army, 
on the assumption, among other things, that what had 
^ been accomplished by the aforesaid Mission entitled 
him to become a religious Pharaoh. He may be right, 
but it has not yet been proved in a court of law that his 
pretensions can be supported by the law except in so 
far as the Deed Poll identifies him as the General of the 
Salvation Army for the time being in his capacity of 
the sole trustee. The Salvation Army is not an 
incorporated Society, and until someone arises and 
contends that a General has diverted funds from the 
object for which the Society was instituted, or until a 
number of officers demand an amendment of the 
doctrines or appeal to Parliament to have them 
amended, we shall not know the value of the Founda- 
tion Deed of the Salvation Army. For my present 
purpose the point is immaterial. The great question 
is that the General of the Salvation Army bound the 
organisation before it was many months old to preach 
and declare for ever such doctrines as the following 
is an example of : 

" We believe that our first parents were created in 
a state of innocence, but by their disobedience they 
lost their purity and happiness and that in consequence 
of their fall all men have become sinners totally 
depraved and as such are justly exposed to the wrath 
of God." 



94 GENERAL BOOTH 

T The General threw away the book that Dr. Cook, the 
professor, put into his hands as a student for the 
ministry. Young Booth tossed it against the wall of his 
lodgings in disgust. He said he would sooner starve 
than preach the doctrine of election. He was a rebel 
in those days. Now that he becomes the High Priest 
of a new Order he falls into the trap that has destroyed 
so many noble-hearted leaders of emancipatory move- 
ments. Had he paused to consider what the effect 
of that one clause would have on the future, he would 
have repeated the act of his indiscreet days. But, alas ! 
no. The old Methodist was not dead in him, and just 
when he had reached a Pisgah from which he might 
have seen how to deliver his coming Army from the 
Dissenting doctrine of his times, he puts his name to a 
set of doctrines that neither the second nor third nor 
any other General of the Salvation Army can qualify, 
amend, or end. The Army is committed for all time 
to this doctrine and many others equally contentious, 
and some of which Staff officers no more believe in 
than they do that Bacon wrote Shakespeare. 

A knowledge of Greek may not be necessary to make 
a successful preacher, but does General Booth contend 
that the enforcement of the doctrine is likely to help 
him or does help him when he speaks to the convicts 
in Dartmoor Prison or to the hill tribes of India ? 
Is the formal acceptance of the doctrine necessary to 
salvation ? If not, on what ground did the General 
bind his successors and the hundreds of thousands of 
soldiers that follow his Flag to these declarations, 
all of which have to be signed by them before they 



GENERAL TO ELECT SUCCESSOR 95 

can be escorted into the inner councils of the 
Army ? 

It is difficult for the leaders of the Salvation Army 
to answer these questions, all the more as they know 
that in countries like America and Australia, if they 
were to enforce them, they would rend these con- 
tingents in twain and scatter the soldiers like a pack 
of straying sheep. It is on this rock I fear a day 
will arrive when the Salvation ship will strike. But 
as it is past amendment it is more charitable to 
hope that the day will be long in coming, and that 
by that time the Salvation Army Staff will be in a 
position to ask Parliament to establish a precedent 
and banish all such tests from a movement that 
shines best when trying to imitate Christ. Why, if 
General Booth had preached, while in Japan, such 
doctrines as the one quoted, he would have been hissed 
off some of his most interesting platforms. While the 
Constitution is based on this foundation it is useless 
trying to keep up the pretence that the Salvation Army 
is not a sect : it is the most exclusive and pronounced 
sect among all sects. 

But this is not all. In the Deed Poll the same 
principle is applied to the General's privileges and 
powers. He is not elected to that office he is selected 
by his predecessor. He is not subject to any rule or 
regulation except the conditions imposed on him by 
the Deed Poll. He is General for the term of his 
natural life, and he holds the right the sole right, 
the arbitrary right, the most arbitrary right of 
selecting his own successor without the advice, 



96 GENERAL BOOTH 

counsel, or other direction of any council of the 
movement. 

As one would expect, the development of the Army, 
with the acquisition of the Congress Hall, Clapton, 
leasing of large theatres such as the Grecian in City 
Road, London, and equally capacious and heavily 
rented properties in the provinces, indicated that 
something more than a Deed empowering the General 
to purchase, hire, sell, and generally control and dispose 
of property would be necessary. When the Army ex- 
tended its field of activities to the United States, 
France, South Africa, and other countries, it was felt 
that the Deed generally would have to bear a much 
larger significance to the office of the General and 
provide for certain contingencies. Hence a third 
Deed was registered in Chancery on the 4th October, 
1906, confirming the powers vested in the General 
and extending the powers specified in previous Deeds, 
the object being to " minimise the possibility of doubt, 
dispute, or litigation" arising out of the incomplete 
character of the original Trust settlement. This 
formed the third alteration of the Trust within twenty- 
five years, all at the suggestion and by the authority 
of one man. Except for the fact that the work was 
experimental, and there were no signs at the time that 
the second Deed was drawn up (by which the Christian 
Mission was merged in the Salvation Army) of the 
potentiality of a great world- wide organisation, this 
tinkering might have occasioned Mr. Booth and his 
friends some anxiety, and the public interested in the 
welfare of the new movement serious misgiving. The 



THE 1906 TRUST DEED 97 

circumstances were altogether without precedent. Even 
the General himself admits that he had no idea that the 
venture would take such ramifications and evolve such 
possibilities as it did. As he has frequently remarked : 

" The Salvation Army was not made to a plan. It 
was a growth, not a dream for a well-thought-out 
scheme. The life within it is largely responsible for its 
advance. I did not say 'Now is the time to go to 
Germany,' and then appoint men and women to seize 
a cafe and start preaching salvation in Stuttgart, 
The principle of what led us to begin operations in 
Germany has prompted many other developments in 
the Salvation Army. A German strolled into a 
Salvation Army Hall in the Bowery of New York 
and gave his heart to God. He imbibed the spirit of 
the Army from the officer who dealt with him about 
his spiritual condition, and shortly afterwards he 
wrote to me that he felt that he ought to devote his 
life to the salvation of his Fatherland. I took that 
letter to indicate the line of Providence with respect 
to Germany, and ordered the German and his wife to 
Zurich and there learn more about the Army. He 
came, and in the course of time was commissioned to 
open Stuttgart and then Berlin. In that incident you 
have an illustration of the growth of the Salvation 
Army, It was not made to the plan of the General 
according to the whim of an ambitious fancy." 

Under the latest Trust Deed (1906) provision is 
made for the appointment of a General in the event 
of a General for the time being becoming incapacitated 
for that office by reason of lunacy, bankruptcy, or 
unfitness. The introduction of that provision marked 



98 GENERAL BOOTH 

a great stride in the direction of a modification of the 
system under which General Booth hoped to per- 
petuate, establish, and extend the work when he 
changed the name of the Christian Mission to that 
of the Salvation Army. It was tantamount to an 
admission that he had already failed as an autocrat, 
and that events had taken the government to some 
extent out of his hands, It was an admission that 
certain eventualities might occur which would place 
the property of the movement in danger, in fact, 
that is virtually declared in the opening words of the 
latest Deed an interesting corollary to the fact 
(almost ludicrous if it were not so serious) that a 
movement that is divinely conceived and that, accord- 
ing to its leaders, is founded on " the principles of 
everlasting truth and righteousness," has to be pro- 
tected from possible disintegration by the uncertain 
arm of the law. 

Then there was still another confession of weakness 
in the Trust revision. By it the thin end of the wedge 
of the democratic principle was driven into the very 
foundation of the organisation. 

How could a General be declared a bankrupt or an 
imbecile without some intervention on the part of an 
officer or a number of officers ? And how could a 
successor to a deposed General be appointed without 
the exercise of an authority that was not, till this 
Deed was made, strictly founded on the military 
principle ? 

Here was a problem that brought the General and 
his advisers up against a radical departure from the 



ALL POWER VESTED IN THE GENERAL 99 

principle of the first Trust Deed. That Deed placed 
all power in the hands of the General. It gave the 
General for the time being power to appoint his 
successor without reference to anyone or to any 
council. He could name him from motives of caprice, 
or jealousy, or personal ambition. This Deed, on the 
other hand, recognised the fallibility of even a General 
of the Salvation Army. If a son could desert the 
colours, if a Commissioner could commit some offence 
by which he forfeited his place in the war, or if a 
Colonel could lose his reason, then a General of the 
Salvation Army might fall a victim to like circum- 
stances. With that reasoning so obvious that it is 
remarkable that at the start of the Christian Mission 
no provision is made for it when the first Deed was 
registered the General was advised before the 
assembly of the Great Council of the Army in London 
in 1906 to register a Deed correcting and including 
these and other omissions. And it was all done 
privately, quietly, and legally. 

Now under this larger legal instrument a High 
Council is provided for, composed of all the Com- 
missioners on the active list, for dealing with the 
circumstances that would follow in the event of a 
General becoming unfit for his office. What will 
happen then is this : A declaration to the effect that 
the General has been declared unfit will be sent 
by the Chief of the Staff to all the Commissioners. 
Then the High Council, in harmony with rules for its 
constitution, assembly, procedure, decisions, and 
dissolution which are elaborated in the Deed, will be 



100 GENERAL BOOTH 

called together in London or some convenient place, 
and the removal of the General and the appointment 
of another General in his place voted for according 
to a nine- tenths majority. Here one will naturally 
ask, If the High Council is, in the opinion of the framer 
of this Deed, capable of removing a General and 
appointing a successor under such trying circum- 
stances, how comes it that the General, when he was 
preparing it, did not include the lesser and easier duty, 
namely, place the power in the High Council (to which 
it is, I believe, bound in time to revert) of always 
appointing the General, instead of relying upon the 
dangerous expedient of a General naming his suc- 
cessor and lodging that name in the pigeon-hole of 
a solicitor's office ? 

The question is not a personal one. The omission of 
such a provision is suggestive of the elemental character 
of the General, and of that aversion to democratic 
ideas that lies behind all that the General has devised 
for the Army in matters of government. The Army 
is not based on a trust of the people. It is established 
on the theory that the members cannot manage their 
own affairs. They must be controlled. " One man is 
born to lead and nineteen to follow." So declares this 
oracle of a benevolent autocracy, though it has not 
occurred to the General, who is but a man after all, 
that it removes from his successors the temptation to 
do wrong by placing the selection of a leader in the 
hands of the twenty. Are they not likely to be actuated 
in their collective capacity with less bias and with 
more accuracy of judgment than one man, who must 



NO ELASTICITY 101 

be to a large extent the creature of the circumstances 
of his position ? 

However, there it is. The selection of the second 
General will not, according to present appearances, 
be attended with any complication. I point out in 
another chapter that there is only one man in the 
organisation qualified to fill the office, provided his 
health does not fall to pieces under the strain of the 
responsibility and the events that are sure to arise 
during the first years of his generalship. I refer to 
Mr. Bramwell Booth. 

But it is not the first successor to the General 
that is under consideration, nor the third, nor the 
fourth. It is the principle. Those who have watched 
the Army for the last twenty years fighting against 
the spirit of democracy of the age, and reluctantly 
conceding to Corps and only to Corps small powers 
of self-management from time to time, cannot but 
regret that the leaders of the Army have not made it 
their business to ally themselves more with the affairs 
of the nation and the civic life of the community, for 
they are too astute in their instincts, to say the least, 
not to discover that the organisation of the future 
that is to lift the people religiously and socially is that 
which springs from and is controlled by the people. 

There are two elements of serious danger in the 
Trust Deed of the Salvation Army. It is absolutely 
without any elasticity for meeting the possibility, 
or probability, of the great rising democracies such as 
Germany, Canada, and Australia asking for and 
demanding self-government. 



102 GENERAL BOOTH 

What would happen to-morrow if, for example, Miss 
Evangeline Booth and her Staff despatched a deputa- 
tion to London to point out to the General that the 
time had arrived when, in the interests of the Army 
in the United States, they should have transferred 
to them, as a right, the full and unfettered liberty to 
manage and control their own affairs ? Such an act 
could not, by any process of reasoning, be described 
as a sin against the moral law or the higher law of 
spiritual development. But under Salvation Army 
law it would be anathematised. The General would 
at once denounce the deputation as rebels. America, 
as under the Trust Deed of the Army, possesses no 
right, and can never be granted the right, to govern 
themselves, except in the measure given to them, in 
common with what is given to other countries, by 
rule and regulation, and these rules and regulations 
are in entire harmony with the absolutism of the office 
of the General and a form of infallibility which is 
described in the next chapter. 

The question very properly arises, Will the next 
generation of Salvationists at the Antipodes ? will 
the devotees of political liberty in the United States ? 
will the champions of the People's Rights that are 
springing up all over Germany ? permit such a 
system of religious government to last for ever ? 
Here lies serious danger Number One. 

The second feature of the Trust Deed which 
must inspire apprehension has its foundation in the 
doctrines that must, according to this Deed, be upheld 
for all time, and propagated and enforced. Not a 



DANGERS IN THE CONSTITUTION 103 

comma in their make-up may be altered at any time, 
not even by the General himself. These doctrines are 
as the laws of the Medes and the Persians. 

This Deed makes it binding on the General and all 
his successors and all the followers of his successors 
to proclaim and maintain the doctrine, for example, 
of everlasting punishment for all who are exposed 
to the wrath of God, and according to this Deed and 
to the creed which the first General has laid down for 
all time in the Deed, everyone who is not " born again " 
is exposed to everlasting punishment. 

It is open for any member or members of the Army 
to raise an action at law for the maintenance of this 
doctrine, if sufficient evidence proves that the doctrine 
is not being taught in the colleges of the Salvation 
Army. What would happen if the contrary came to be 
preached, Heaven only knows. 

The " Wee Frees " stabbed the Free Church of Scot- 
land to the heart by their action, and the day may not 
be so far off when Salvationists of the old school may 
make it rather awkward for the Salvation Army by 
demanding the enforcement of this and other doctrines 
of the Army in more than one disturbing way. It may 
have been legally necessary to include these doctrines 
in the Deed in order to show cause why General Booth 
should assume complete control of the Christian 
Mission, but all the same, here lies danger Number 
Two. 

Other dangers lurk in the Constitution of the Salva- 
tion Army which time alone will discover. For in- 
stance, the power to mortgage, sell, and acquire 



104 GENERAL BOOTH 

property for and in behalf of the Salvation Army by 
the General for the time being. 

In no other religious or philanthropic organisation 
is one man vested with such a power. We have to go 
to semi-civilised States to find a parallel for such an 
autocracy, and it is very questionable whether the 
position is modified in any way by the assertion of what 
is at present a fact : that the General cannot sign a 
mortgage or buy an inch of ground without conforming 
to a system of check which the General has embodied 
in the rules and regulations for the management of 
Headquarters. But then the General who made these 
rules can unmake them, and make others to fit in with 
purposes that, while ostensibly sound, may conduce 
to the attainment of sheer personal and illegal acquisi- 
tions. 

But whatever fears the Constitution of the Army 
may inspire among its friends, it has been framed, 
signed, and sealed after mature deliberation and con- 
sultation with some of the most eminent counsel, in- 
cluding Mr. H. H. Asquith and Mr. Haldane. Like all 
other legal instruments, it will have to be tried by the 
inexorable law of time, and must be left to look after 
itself when the day of battle is proclaimed against 
it or against some of its strange, out-of-date con- 
ditions. 

The Deed is only one, though an important one, 
of the many methods that the General has employed 
in the making of his Army. Without such an instru- 
ment he could not have acted as he has done, or in- 
stituted the system of government that is at once the 



A DICTATOR 105 

v/ 

surprise, envy, and criticism of the world. The Deed 
in itself does not make an army. It is what General 
Booth does with it that makes an army. 

One of its immediate effects was the recognition of 
the General as the dictator of the movement. He 
commissioned men in his name to do certain acts that 
made him at once master and monarch of a kingdom. 
He carried out the Deed as it affected the collection 
and expenditure of moneys, the purchase of property, 
^and the creation of agencies for promoting the object 
of the Deed. And, most important of all, he framed 
rules and regulations that virtually determined the 
conscience, conduct, and destiny of men. Has General 
Booth been a wise and just steward ? How has he 
used that power ? Has its application to the affairs of 
the Army been attended with gain to its members and 
the community in general ? 

The answer to these questions, of course, is the Salva- 
tion Army itself. On the whole, I think he has exer- 
cised his power, if one is to accept his right and privi- 
lege to assume the power, with remarkable fairness. 
But it would be useless to deny, on the other hand, that 
in the exercise of his power he is religiously responsible 
for bringing about a great deal of social and moral 
distress throughout the world. Mrs. Booth had a 
favourite saying, " You cannot improve the future 
without disturbing the present," an obvious com- 
mentary that is only applicable to measures that are 
truly beneficent in aim and character. 

I will content myself by giving two illustrations of 
what I mean. In making his Army, General Booth 



106 GENERAL BOOTH 

thought it wise to accept men and women to act as 
officers without sufficient training, and to bind them 
to leave the ranks quietly without calling upon him 
to make good any financial claim whatever, in the 
event of these officers being declared, by him or his 
accredited agents, to be " failures." Here are sample 
clauses in an agreement which they sign : 

" Do you perfectly understand that no SALARY or 
allowance is guaranteed to you, and that you will have 
no claim against The Salvation Army, or against any 
one connected therewith, on account of salary or 
allowances not received by you ? 

" Do you engage not to publish any books, songs, 
or music except for the benefit of The Salvation Army, 
and then only with the consent of Headquarters ? 

" Do you promise not to engage in any trade, pro- 
fession, or other money-making occupation, except for 
the benefit of The Salvation Army, and then only with 
the consent of Headquarters ? 

" Are you aware that Field Officers are responsible 
for their own doctors' bills unless they arrange other- 
wise with their D.O. ? 

" Do you engage to carry out the following Regula- 
tion as to PRESENTS and TESTIMONIALS ? 

" Officers are expected to refuse utterly, and to pre- 
vent, if possible, even the proposal of any present or 
testimonial to them." 

But what do would-be officers care for a clause of 
this character ? They are called by God, or think they 
are ! They cannot fail the thought is God-dishonour- 
ing. And so, in their zeal, they apply for the work, 
and in their zeal and eagerness for officers to meet 



NO SMOKING ALLOWED 107 

the needs of Corps, the leaders accept them, only to 
discover in time that very many are unfitted for the 
work. 

The result of this method of treating men and women 
may do very well in building a dam, but not in the 
business of saving souls. What followed, then, to 
pronounced failures ? Hundreds of them have found 
themselves without money, friends, or prospects ; many 
with their health shattered, and some with families de- 
pendent upon them. We all know the General knows 
of not one here and there, but of a vast army of men 
and women who have suffered in consequence of this 
one-sided agreement, which was no doubt drawn up 
and applied with the best intention in the world. 

Then take the making of rules for the guidance and 
conduct of the soldiers and local officers. Some of the 
provisions of these rules have turned men and women 
who were rescued by the Army from lives of de- 
bauchery into veritable blasphemers, their after-state 
being very much worse than their first. 

A rule exists that no local officer be he bandsman 
or doorkeeper shall use tobacco. He must be a non- 
smoker. Before he can be entrusted with a commis- 
sion, he must forswear smoking in all its forms, the 
mild cigarette as well as the bulky meerschaum. 

Now when that law was first promulgated the Army 
had hundreds of local officers who were in the habit of 
indulging in a whiff of the enticing nicotine good 
fellows, who worked hard for the Army, and were 
looked upon in their towns as trophies of grace 
shining lights in the cause of God. Some were con- 



108 GENERAL BOOTH 

verts of years' standing, and had spoken before the 
General and received his blessing. 

Then a day came when they were told that they 
must step out of the band, lay down the trombone that 
they loved to see-saw through the streets, unless pre- 
pared to sign a blue paper in which they pledged to 
abstain from smoking ! 

The object was no doubt good. It was devised to 
raise the tone and character of the bandsmen, and it 
has, I suppose, done so, although, in correcting one 
habit of self-indulgence, I am not sure that the Army 
is not responsible for creating two other evils. Has 
any man General Booth or the Pope of Rome 
the right to socially penalise other men because they 
are guilty, if guilty they be, of this indulgence ? At 
any rate, the rule acted like the sword of a despot. I 
knew a Corps at Spennymoor, in the North of England, 
where a band had in it some splendid men who used 
tobacco. They were miners, and thought nothing 
about it. It was not associated in their minds with 
any vice. When the Divisional Officer visited that 
Corps with the object of putting the rule into force, 
the men rose in rebellion. 

One man tore off his red guernsey and became 
vehement with passion. " Call that religion ? Where 
in the Bible does it say ' Thou shalt not smoke ' ? Who 
gave the General power to punish men who do not 
see eye to eye with him with regard to smoking ? This 
is worse than priestcraft ! " His mates applauded 
him, and fifteen men that day left the Salvation Army, 
some to return to the devil, some to wreak their ven- 



THE MAKING OF AN ARMY 109 

geance upon innocent wives and little children, and the 
whole of them to be branded by the Divisional despot 
as backsliders, and to be told that if they ever returned 
to the Army it must be via the penitent form ! 

On the other hand, the Salvation Army is made, 
and in commercial parlance, is " a going concern." It 
is led by a real General who, as the next chapter will 
reveal, believes and teaches that he is a real Pope to his 
people. 



CHAPTER V 
IS GENERAL BOOTH INFALLIBLE? 

General Booth's Spiritual claims Headquarters always true and 
right " Fundamental Rules" Why are one class of Officers 
paid and another unpaid ? Strange Alliance of Secular and 
Spiritual Arms General Booth's Universal Kingdom The Army 
Padlocked Children taught Heresy 

THE General of the Salvation Army is, in his own sin- 
cere belief, as divinely appointed to the control of the 
movement that he has created as His Holiness the 
Pope is to the care of the children of the Roman 
Catholic Church. And as by the Constitution of the 
Salvation Army its first General claims that the same 
seal of Divine approval will be stamped upon all 
future leaders of the organisation, it is essential to 
examine with care the character and comprehensive- 
ness of this spiritual claim. 

The Salvation Army will have to be tested by a 
new process. The ability of its commanders, and even 
the benevolence of its motives and the philanthropy 
of its operations, have already been well tried, and 
the gain to the Army itself has compensated it for 
any temporary check that it has sustained in conse- 
quence of these trials. The day must come when its 
ethical and ecclesiastical position will also be sifted 

110 



IS GENERAL BOOTH INFALLIBLE ? Ill 

like wheat. Escape from such a crucible is as unlikely 
as it is undesirable. The history of all organised en- 
deavours to make a new religious force shows that 
sooner or later such an ordeal is inevitable. Up to 
the present, however, no sign of dissension on the 
subject of the Army's claim to spiritual power on 
the earth has arisen. 

Perhaps the time has scarcely elapsed for the 
vulnerable side of its Constitution to be attacked or 
tried. The Army is in some respects still in the stage 
of propaganda. It has all the advantages and dis- 
advantages of youth. It is being led by a Napoleon. 
Its people have not yet begun to think independently, 
or with one eye upon to-day and the other upon to- 
morrow, except as to finance. Its buildings, with 
their trust settlements, are raised to last as long as 
the world. The training of officers is being gradually 
remodelled, so as to meet not the needs of the world, 
but the internal exigencies of the movement. Why, 
then, should the Salvation Army concern itself about 
the trial of its Constitution and such dry subjects as 
the ground of its religious pretensions ? The officers 
point to the statistics. The soldiers have their meet- 
ings and entertainments and musical days and nights. 
The sun shines on these halcyon days. Why bother ? 
Why anticipate the storms that may arise over any 
discussion in the future as to the Army's theology or 
the divinity of the General's commission to rule men 
as a Pope ? The General, when he is not serious, is 
always humorous, and his followers prefer to banish 
the disagreeable and applaud the old man when he 



112 GENERAL BOOTH 

delivers himself of this stock platform reference to 
the subject : 

"They say that the Salvation Army is a despotism 
and a religious hierarchy, and that I am a despot, who 
dwells in a lordly mansion, eating his food out of golden 
vessels and riding about in an expensive motor-car. 
(Laughter and applause.) And they call me a Pope. 
(Laughter.) And so I am ! The word Pope means 
papa (laughter) and I am your Papa ! " (Cheers.) 

But seriously what does that imply ? 

In the year 1905 the Army held the biggest Inter- 
national Congress in its history in London. In a 
temporary mammoth wooden structure erected in the 
Strand, it conducted meetings attended by delegates 
from every country where the Army is at work. The 
Press of the Empire chronicled the proceedings, and 
for three weeks the streets of London were enlivened 
by the presence of dusky sons and daughters of the 
Near and Far East, dressed in the dazzling attire of 
national and primitive fashions. The Army was then 
at the zenith of its popularity ; and from the King 
on the throne to the street shoeblack, the panorama 
of this Congress formed a popular attraction. 

The real business of the Congress, however, was 
transacted behind the scenes. Private councils were 
held at which only officers were present, and without 
previous conference with subordinate leaders or im- 
partial enquiry, or in fact any serious discussion, the 
General covered with the glory of the triumph of the 
assembly, and fresh from his audience with King 
Edward delivered a series of momentous addresses. 



ITS CLAIMS 113 

They have since been revised and passed as the Nicene 
Creed of the Salvation Army. They bear the im- 
primatur of the General in Council, and leave no 
manner of doubt as to the sacerdotal claim of the 
General and the Army to be considered and accepted 
as viceregents of the Most High God. I question if 
any such deliverance was ever uttered, except by men 
of the type of John Alexander Dowie, the originator 
of the Zion movement, with its Mecca at Chicago. 
But General Booth is no impostor, and his followers, 
though largely blind worshippers of their Moses, are 
disposed to accept his word as the Word of God Him- 
self. The document is accordingly of the first im- 
portance. The majority even of his staff officers are 
far too busy to ponder over the significance of the 
printed declarations, to which they subscribed a special 
assent at the Congress of 1906. For example, if one 
were to urge, as an objection to alliance with the Army, 
that the General claims for himself and his Inter- 
national Headquarters the principle of infallibility, he 
would be reminded that the General has declared again 
and again that he is not infallible. In theory and 
practice, however, the Army maintains that claim. 

Dealing with the " Necessity for Government," the 
leader of the Salvation Army made this deliberate and 
astounding statement at the Congress named : 

" So far as my knowledge extends, there is no funda- 
mental rule in force amongst us which, measured by 
the everlasting principles of truth and righteousness, 
can be truthfully described as unjust, or as anything 
approaching it." 



114 GENERAL BOOTH 

Did ever man claim for a creation of his own such 
a reputation ? The affirmation on the very face of it 
presupposes the operation in the mind of the leader of 
the principle of verbal inspiration. Of course, there 
is a vagueness about the term " fundamental rule," 
and without a specific illustration of what the General 
means by that phrase, I may be guilty of passing an 
unfair comment upon the character that he ascribes 

^ to the myriad rules that he has framed for the guidance 
of his soldiers and officers. But, a priori, the vital 
principle of his right to reduce to rule and regulation 
the laws of truth and righteousness, and to enforce these 

1 rules as if they were part and parcel of the " ever- 
lasting principles of truth and righteousness," was not 

discussed by the General at the Congress. He claims, 
by Divine right, to be General of the Salvation Army ; 
but does this claim carry with it the obligation to make 
laws for men, and to impose penalties if these same 
man-made rules are adjudged to have been broken ? 
That is an important issue that was conveniently ig- 
nored. The General compares his organisation to an 
army, and he gives it the title of an army. He borrows 
illustrations from the organisation essential to the 
construction of a railway, the navigation of a ship, 
and the prosecution of a huge business, so as to en- 
force the wisdom and Tightness of making laws for 
deciding the conduct and character of men and women 
engaged in his service for God and man ! 

He enters the realm of conscience with the " Thou 
shalt " and " Thou shalt not " of his generalship. His 
code of rules forms a Working Bible to the Army, and 



STERN RULES 115 

the will of subordinate leaders constitutes a veto 
upon the moral standing of the officers in directing 
Corps. 

To violate a rule whether administrative or funda- 

- mental is to disobey the Army, and to disobey the 
Army is to disobey God. 

In language as clear as dare be put into cold type, 
this claim, as I shall show presently, is enjoined 
and applied every day of the week ; and yet we are 
asked to believe that the fundamental rules of the 
Army are in harmony, one and all, with the " ever- 
lasting principles of truth and righteousness." Let 
us see if this can really be upheld. 

It is " a fundamental rule," for example, that no 
officer in the Salvation Army shall have a guaranteed 
salary. How is that rule carried out ? It is no ex- 
aggeration to say that it is more honoured in the 
breach than otherwise. Staff officers are guaranteed 
their salaries. No officer at International Headquarters 

- ever went without his salary, and all the salaries are 
fixed according to rank and position, with an auto- 
matic system for increasing the scale according to the 
report of their departmental officers and the officers' 
length of service. 

On the other hand, it will come in the nature of 
painful surprise to those who do not know that no 
such guarantee and sliding scale have even been dreamt 
of for another class of officers the field officers. In 
the field, where the real work of the Army is carried on, 
hundreds of officers work without any salary at all ! 
They do not know at the end of the week whether they 



116 GENERAL BOOTH 

will have five shillings or twenty shillings to draw, and 
these officers are the elite of the movement. 

If an officer is appointed to a Corps that happens 
to be in debt because it is unable to meet the rent 
(largely determined by the amount of the mortgage 
resting upon the hall), it is "a fundamental rule " 
that, if he cannot raise the rent, he must suffer by 
sacrificing part of his salary ! If he is a married man, 
and has a family to clothe and maintain, no difference 
and no allowance is made. An Ensign at the Inter- 
national Headquarters may be drawing two pounds 
per week, but an Adjutant on the field who has done 
twice the length of service, and is undergoing hard- 
ships that the Headquarters Ensign little dreams of, 
may face a trying week-end with only fifteen shillings. 
This anomaly can on no principle of fair play not 
to mention the everlasting principles of truth and 
righteousness be sustained for a moment, and yet 
it has been in force for over thirty years ! 

International Headquarters, to my personal know- 
ledge, has lost some of its best officers by persisting 
in retaining this disparity. How can the General 
claim then " that there is no ' fundamental rule ' in 
force amongst us which, measured by the everlasting 
principles of truth and righteousness, can be truth- 
fully described as unjust or as anything approaching 
it ? " I have no hesitation in declaring that this 
" fundamental rule " is more than unjust : it is 
tyrannical. 

Let us take the General's comparison of the railway. 
The staff, we will suppose, are all employed in a central 



A QUESTION OF SALARIES 117 

establishment in Queen Victoria Street. Their salaries 
are regularly paid. But what would happen, as the 
returns came in week by week tabulating the number 
of passengers carried by the system and the tonnage 
of the freight if the directors settled that the guards, 
porters, ticket - clerks, ticket - collectors, inspectors, 
stokers, and engine-drivers should only be paid full 
salary if the receipts warranted it ? What would be 
the sequel to such a decision, if the company deter- 
mined not only to pay their staff according to scale 
(independently of whether the receipts were up or 
down), but to actually raise their salaries from time 
to time ? We can imagine that something more 
serious than a strike would be resorted to, to bring 
the tyranny of the directors to a final and ignomini- 
ous end. 

This comparison is not one whit overdrawn. The 
railway company is the Salvation Army ; the direc- 
tors are composed of the Executive Staff of Head- 
quarters ; their subordinate staff are their assistants ; 
the guards, collectors, etc., are the field officers, the men 
and women who literally supply the hard cash by 
which Headquarters pays the salaries of the Com- 
missioners and their staff, and who are, in point of 
ability and devotion to the highest interests of the 
Army, incomparably superior to the staff. And yet this 
rule, this " fundamental rule," is in harmony with 
" the principles of everlasting truth and righteous- 
ness " ! 

I could cite a score of other illustrations of 
glaring inequalities on questions of principle. The 



118 GENERAL BOOTH 

fact is, General Booth committed the mistake at the 
beginning of the Christian Mission of making this 
principle a condition of evangelistic service, and 
seeing certain financial advantages in it, he has clung 
tenaciously to it. But perhaps the worst feature in 
connection with its application is the arguments that 
are used to buttress up the custom. The following is 
the defence of an Assistant Field Secretary : 

" The non-guarantee of salary acts as a sifter. We 
find out by it whether men are in the Salvation Army 
for a living or for love of souls. It supplies a spur to 
field officers, many of whom had no idea of responsi- 
bility or the management of business when they 
entered the Salvation Army. It is necessary if the 
Army is to pay its way. It is true that it works hardly 
upon married officers with families, but they have the 
luxury of sacrificing something for the good of the 



cause." 



This defence of one of the grossest tyrannies glori- 
fied in the name of sacrifice will be clear to anyone who 
thinks twice of the Army as an autocratic democracy, 
and I only dwell upon the illustration in order to ex- 
pose the illogical assumption of the General's infalli- 
bility, and the injustice and unrighteousness of the 
system which has been created and established by 
him and labelled as essentially Divine. 

But the claim of infallibility is extended to the 
righteousness of the very administration of the Army. 

The General goes on : 

" And as with our rules and regulations, so it has 
been with our administration of them. / know of no 



CLAIM TO MORAL INFALLIBILITY 119 

official action during the whole of the Army's existence, 
that has had the countenance of International Head- 
quarters, which has been contrary to the principles of 
strict truth and justice." 

No wrong has been done at the International Head- 
quarters, so far as the decision of its Executive is con- 
cerned, during the last forty years ! Forty years of 
moral infallibility ! Truth, and strict truth, has 
marked all its declarations in the official organs of the 
Army ! No official sanction has ever been given to an 
unjust financial arrangement ! Justice has been 
meted out without partiality or respect of man or 
station ! In that shrine of lofty disdain for the rights 
i of the individual when they collide with the interest of 
the organisation, scores of officers have expressed their 
condemnation of executive rule and left its precincts 
rather than submit to the same. Courts-martial and 
courts of enquiry have been held into the conduct 
and service of officers. But all through, and withoukan 
exception, no countenance has ever been given to anj^- 
thing contrary to the principles of truth and justice ! 

The only answer to such an unprecedented declara- 
tion is, that it is not true, and that no one except 
those whose eyes are blinded by the heresy that the 
^ Army can do no wrong will accept it in any other 
light than that this claim reveals the operation of a 
delusion that began to assert itself from the day that 
, it dawned upon the General that the Army would 
become a huge success. 

Success has been deified and idolised and canonised. 
Consequently we have such Papal-like statements as 



120 GENERAL BOOTH 

the following, delivered to his staff in that memor- 
able year : 

" The Staff Officer is the responsible governor under 
the Salvation Army system. It is to me, your General, 
as we have seen, and as you all knew before my men- 
tioning it again, that God has delegated, by His grace, 
and in the order of His providence, certain responsi- 
bilities, authorities, and powers" 

But this is not all. The General bases the doctrine 
of a despotic hierarchy upon a mixture of rank ma- 
terialism and spirituality. He pools the gains of the 
one and the other and calls them all Divine, and then 
demands, on the strength of the position thus secured, 
that the staff officer shall proceed to govern the con- 
sciences of those who subscribe to the Army's tenets. 
The contention is so emphatically elaborated that 
I quote fully from the General again : 

" Where are we to-day in this matter ? Three or 
four things stand out boldly as we look round. 

" 1. We have seen that the Army is a great fact. 

" 2. The Army has attained a position of prominence 
in the world, and exercises a great influence over what 
is good in it, and an influence nearly as great over what 
is bad. 

"3. The Army has come into possession of certain 
wealth money, property, estates, businesses and has 
at command various other sources of power. 

" 4. A very large number of persons have united 
themselves under the Flag, and have more or less in- 
telligently undertaken to contend for its principles, to 
advance its interests, and proclaim its truths. And 
we stand related to these persons as trustees for the 



A HIGH STANDARD OF OBEDIENCE 121 

preservation of the principles to which they have given 
themselves. 

" 5. A smaller, and yet comparatively speaking a 
very large number of persons have given their whole 
lives to the Army. They have no object to serve on 
earth but the advancement of the great work they 
believe God had entrusted to the Army. They wait 
upon us for direction. They are willing to order their 
lives according to our judgment. Their whole future 
is placed under our control. The highest ambition 
entertained by many of them respecting their children 
is that, under our guidance, they may live and suffer 
and die to carry out our plans." 

Such a combination of the spiritual and secular arm 
of authority, created by the genius of man, and held 
to be a nation, so to speak, in the comity of God's 
empires, is, to say the least, the most remarkable as- 
sumption put forth by any man who discards the law 
of Apostolic Succession. 

And to this theory of Divine sanction and appoint- 
ment General Booth enjoins a high standard of obedi- 
ence. He states : 

" The Staff Officer who realises my ideal will faith- 
fully and persistently insist upon the observance of our 
laws. To this end he will seek to understand those 
laws himself. We have already explained the meaning 
of law. Laws are rules, made and issued by authority, 
for the guidance of conduct, and have behind them 
the sanction and support of penalty, and the power to 
execute it. He should know the principal laws of the 
Army, and especially those relating to his own depart- 
ment and its work." 



122 GENERAL BOOTH 

But why all this elaboration of circumstances, which 
General Booth interprets as forming the foundation 
of an organisation in which he stands in the relation of 
a Pope to his people, and for whom is claimed the right 
to frame laws for the " guidance of the conduct " of 
so many thousands of the human race ? In defining 
the great object of it all General Booth is fortunately 
explicit. His object in amassing wealth, procuring 
estates, establishing trades and businesses and other 
sources of power, is thus set forth : 

" My object is to carry out the wish of Jesus Christ 
in the creation, organisation, and universal extension 
of a Kingdom." 

That there may be no mistake as to the secular 
character of this kingdom, we are informed that " the 
Kingdom " is not merely one for " starting a revival, 
and a great work that would last for a season, but the 
building up of a kingdom in which God shall reign as 
long as the world endures." 

Here, then, we learn that the destiny of the Army is 
intended to comprehend the rule of men according to 
the domination of a system which, for pretension and 
despotism, outrivals anything of which the world has 
had any experience in modern or ancient times. 

General Booth is engaged upon forming a kingdom 

of which he is king, and his successors will be kings 

appointed in an arbitrary manner : a kingdom without 

representative councils, parliament, or similar legisla- 

x tive institutions. The Constitution of the Army is so 

x dogmatic and binding for all time, that if at any period 



ROME AS HIS MODEL 123 

in its progress a number of its leaders were to petition 
for the right to elect the General by ballot, or to ap- 
point delegates to represent the various interests of 
the organisation, the General for the time being would 
have no power to grant such a petition. He must act 
within the terms of the Trust Deed, and that Deed 
requires the maintenance of the Constitution as it 
will be bequeathed to posterity by the first General. 
A padlock is placed upon the future of the Army. A 
thousand years hence, if the Army is then in existence, 
it will be the same, organically, as it is to-day. No 
provision is made for the alteration of its foundation 
in harmony with the discoveries of science or the ex- 
perience of its own leaders. It is a stereotyped and 
unalterable instrument ; for good or evil, there it 
stands. 

Does the Salvationist realise that it is this for which 
he is sacrificing his life ? Do the supporters of the 
movement take in the fact that the philanthropy of 
the Army is only a means to the attainment of this 
end ? General Booth is quite right when he contends 
that he is not creating a new sect or denomination. 
Nothing so narrow and parochial ever entered his mind. 
We must give him full credit for the colossal design, 
which for the first time is disclosed to the public in the 
above extracts, of forming a great rival to the Roman 
Catholic Church. He went to Rome for his ideal. He 
says, in effect : 

" I find that the strongest religious power on the face 
of the earth is centred in the See of Rome. I will 
mould this organisation on the same model, only adding 



124 GENERAL BOOTH 

to the legal and ecclesiastical and disciplinary power 
of the General as its Pope. The Pope of Rome claims 
the right to use the) temporal power as the viceregent 
of God, but he has lost that arm. The world has de- 
prived him of it. I will attain to it by using the very 
arm that has wrought such mischief to the Roman 
Church. I will frame a trust deed, have it enrolled 
in Chancery, and by the power that that deed vests in 
me and whomsoever I shall appoint to succeed me, I 
will amass wealth, buy estates, and acquire a Kingdom 
and a world-wide Empire." 

And General Booth is doing it. He is more than a 
Pope : he is an Emperor, and can say to his Com- 
missioners what no Czar or Kaiser dare. He can 
command them to go where he bids them, and frame 
laws for the guidance of their lives, right down 
to what they shall eat and drink and wear. The 
German Emperor pleaded with his staff in one of his 
addresses to abstain from the too-frequent use of 
alcohol. General Booth forbids the man that beats 
the big drum to touch the accursed thing. He is an 
autocrat of autocrats. 

General Booth is inciting the enthusiasm of the 
present generation of Army converts with the secular 
doctrines of his office and the material aims of the 
organisation. He has placed in the hands of his 
sergeants a Catechism or Directory for their guid- 
ance in instructing the children who attend the 
Sunday-schools of the Army. They are told how 
to pray morning and night. Here is the evening 
prayer : 



TESTS 125 

" Oh Lord, I thank Thee for Thy mercies to me this 
day, and for the good things Thou hast given me. 
Bless all the poor little children who have no home 
and no friends, and keep our Army, and help it to tell 
all the world of Thy love. Bless my dear father and 
mother, and brothers and sisters, and help us all to 
love and serve Thee. Keep me in the night, for Jesus 
Christ's sake. Amen." 

A beautiful child-prayer, marred by the omission 
of any recognition of other folds beside the one to 
which the child belongs. The omission is intentional. 
The aim of the Directory is to inculcate the Empire 
idea of the Army's religion. It is to train the young 
mind into the synonymous meaning of God and the 
Army. God is, as we have read, to reign in the King- 
dom which the Army is bringing together, though in 
reality it is the General for the time being. And this 
doctrine is carefully taught to boys and girls from five 
years up. Here are a few extracts from the Children's 
Directory : 

THE ARMY 

1. Does God wish you to go into the Army ? 

God wishes me to go to the Salvation Army 
Meetings as often as I can. 

2. Has God sent the Army to show you how to get 
saved and be good ? 

God has sent the Army to teach me how to be 
saved and to serve Him. 

3. Must I obey my sergeants in the Army ? 

I must obey my sergeants or teachers in the 
Army. 



126 GENERAL BOOTH 

4. Must I love or pray for them ? 

I must love and pray every day for my ser- 
geants or my teachers in the Army, and try to 
help other children to do the same. 

5. Will God be angry with me if I do not carry out 
what I am told to do for the Army ? 

Yes, God will be very angry, with me if I dis- 
obey my officers who seek my salvation. 

We have here the embodiment of the Army's 
doctrine of infallibility applied to the teachers of little 
children. The Army has been sent by God to show 
them how to get saved. There is no acknowledg- 
ment of other means, in this question at least, not 
even the Bible itself. Sergeants as a rule ignorant 
men and women, the majority belonging to the do- 
mestic-servant class are held up to the imagination 
of children of tender years as God's infallible priests, 
who have to be obeyed without qualification. God is 
represented as being angry if the mites do not do what 
they are told by the Army. The Army is thus raised 
to the platform of the Decalogue, and to disobey IT 
amounts, I repeat, for all practical purposes, to dis- 
obedience to the Almighty God. 

The same recognition of the Army's standing is 
more carefully and powerfully enforced in the " Articles 
of War," a document which I offer no apology for re- 
producing in extenso : 

THE SALVATION ARMY 

Articles of War. These articles must be signed by 
all recruits who wish to be enrolled as soldiers. 



THE ARTICLES OF WAR 127 

Having received with all my heart the Salvation 
offered to me by the tender mercy of Jehovah, I do here 
and now publicly acknowledge God to be my Father 
and King, Jesus Christ to be my Saviour, and the 
Holy Spirit to be my Guide, Comforter, and Strength ; 
and that I will, by His help, love, serve, worship, and 
obey this glorious God through time and through 
eternity. 

Believing solemnly that The Salvation Army has 
been raised up by God, and is sustained and directed 
by Him, I do here declare my full determination, by 
God's help, to be a true Soldier of The Army till I 
die. 

I am thoroughly convinced of the truth of The 
Army's teaching. 

I believe that repentance towards God, faith in 
our Lord Jesus Christ, and conversion by the Holy 
Spirit are necessary to Salvation, and that all men 
may be saved. 

I believe that we are saved by grace, through faith 
in our Lord Jesus Christ, and he that believeth hath 
the witness of it in himself. I have got it. Thank 
God! 

I believe that the Scriptures were given by in- 
spiration of God, and that they teach that not only 
does continuance in the favour of God depend upon 
continued faith in, and obedience to Christ, but that 
it is possible for those who have been truly converted 
to fall away and be eternally lost. 

I believe that it is the privilege of all God's people 
to be wholly sanctified, and that " their whole spirit 
and soul and body " may be " preserved blameless 
unto the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ." That 
is to say, I believe that after conversion there re- 
main in the heart of the believer inclinations to evil, 



128 GENERAL BOOTH 

or roots of bitterness, which, unless overpowered by 
Divine grace, produce actual sin ; but these evil 
tendencies can be entirely taken away by the Spirit 
of God, and the whole heart, thus cleansed 
from anything contrary to the will of God, or 
entirely sanctified, will then produce the fruit 
of the Spirit only. And I believe that persons 
thus entirely sanctified may, by the power of 
God, be kept unblamable and unreprovable before 
Him. 

I believe in the immortality of the soul ; in the 
resurrection of the body ; in the general judgment 
at the end of the world ; in the eternal happiness of 
the righteous and in the everlasting punishment of 
the wicked. 

Therefore, I do here and now, and for ever, re- 
nounce the world with all its sinful pleasures, com- 
panionships, treasures, and objects, and declare my 
full determination boldly to show myself a Soldier of 
Jesus Christ in all places and companies, no matter 
what I may have to suffer, do, or lose, by so 
doing. 

I do here and now declare that I will abstain from 
the use of all intoxicating liquors, and from the habitual 
use of opium, laudanum, morphia, and all other bane- 
ful drugs, except when in illness such drugs shall be 
ordered for me by a doctor. 

I do here and now declare that I will abstain from 
the use of all low or profane language ; from the taking 
of the name of God in vain ; and from all impurity, 
or from taking part in any unclean conversation, or 
the reading of any obscene book or paper at any time, 
in any company, or in any place. 

I do here declare that I will not allow myself in any 
falsehood, deceit, misrepresentation, or dishonesty ; 



THE ARTICLES OF WAR 129 

neither will I practise any fraudulent conduct in my 
business, my home, nor in any other relation in which 
I may stand to my fellow-men ; but that I will deal 
truthfully, fairly, honourably, and kindly with all 
those who may employ me, or whom I may myself 
employ. 

I do here declare that I will never treat any woman, 
child, or other person, whose life, comfort, or happi- 
ness may be placed within my power, in an oppressive, 
cruel, or cowardly manner, but that I will protect such 
from evil and danger so far as I can, and promote to 
the utmost of my ability their present welfare and 
eternal Salvation. 

I do here declare that I will spend all the time, 
strength, money, and influence I can in supporting and 
carrying on this War, and that I will endeavour to lead 
my family, friends, neighbours, and all others whom 
I can influence, to do the same, believing that the sure 
and only way to remedy all the evils in the world is 
by bringing men to submit themselves to the Govern- 
ment of the Lord Jesus Christ. 

/ do here declare that I will always obey the lawful 
orders of my Officers and that I will carry out to the ut- 
most of my power all the Orders and Regulations of The 
Army ; and further, that I will be an example of 
faithfulness to its principles, advance to the utmost 
of my ability its operations, and never allow, where I 
can prevent it, any injury to its interests, or hindrance 
to its success. 

And I do here and now call upon all present to 
witness that I enter into this undertaking, and sign 
these Articles of War of my own free will, feeling that 
the love of Christ, Who died to save me, requires from 
me this devotion of my life to His Service for the 
Salvation of the whole world, and therefore wish 



130 GENERAL BOOTH 

now to be enrolled as a Soldier of The Salvation 
Army. 

Signed. 

Address 

Corps 

Date 

All Converts have to subscribe to this profound and 
controversial document before they can be enrolled as 
soldiers of the Army. The parts I have placed in 
italics clearly lay down as the conditions of a good 
soldier in this Army the following : 

" That they must abandon their lives for ever to the 
Army. 

" That they must give all they have got to it. 

" That they will carry out its orders and regulations. 

" That they believe the Army to be directed by God, 
whether it takes to selling tea, or investing money in 
Japanese jour and a half, or in dragging the submerged 
out of the gutter" 

It must not be imagined, however, that side by side 
with this sacerdotal teaching as to the sacredness of 
the Army, the infallibility of its rules and regulations, 
and the divinity of the appointment of its leaders, 
there is no enforcement of virtue and good works. The 
Children's Directory is mainly occupied with the in- 
culcation of the blessings of truth, purity, and love. 
The " Articles of War " point the signatories to a 
high standard of conduct. The one contention is that 
the liberty in which these virtues can best shine has 
been divorced from their teaching and practice, and a 



AN IMITATION OF ROME 131 

system has been organised which is made synonymous 
with God Himself. Hence the Salvation Army is a 
poor and profane imitation of the faith and 
authority of the Church of Rome, with an avowed 
aim, of which the public is ignorant. 



CHAPTER VI 
A TRAVELLING POPE 

General Booth's Parish Before the Japanese Emperor in Salvation 
Uniform Kissing Jerusalem Lepers" Bread and Milk, please " 
Life on Board Ship" General" Moses "A Son of Humanity " 

ANTHONY TKOLLOPE describes Csesar as doing " all 
from policy," and there is a Caesar-like range of mind 
in the leadership of the Salvation Army. It is stamped 
upon the projects and imprinted on the nomenclature 
of the Salvation Army. The missionary magazine of 
the organisation is named "All the World." The twin- 
motto of every officer commissioned to evangelise 
mankind is " Go for souls, and go for the worst," and 
" The world for Christ." These express the spirit and 
spiritualised imperialism of the movement. It has 
a great policy of conquest. Some monarchs preach 
the Divine Right of Kings. General Booth preaches 
the Divine Majesty of the Salvation Army : 

" In the fitness of time came the Messiah and the 
Christian Dispensation, under which we live, and out 
of that there came forth you might say was born 
in Whitechapel, in the city of London, in the year of 
grace, a Saviour-child, which is known among men to- 
day as The Salvation Army. It has had a wonderful 
history, and in nothing has that history been more 
wonderful than in the marks it bears of Divine guar- 

132 



A TRAVELLING POPE 133 

dianship and blessing. ... I can discern in all its 
trials, in all its changes, in all its triumphs, the finger- 
marks of God." 



The leader of this body of admittedly ignorant and 
yet consecrated men and women asks the world to believe 
that the Army as such not merely its principles, but 
IT, is divinely led in all its changes. When one knows 
that a minute issued by Headquarters to-day may 
contradict one which has been in operation for months, 
and that some of the changes have been attended 
with a waste of money and others have caused dis- 
satisfaction among officers, the assumption requires, 
to say the least, a large draft of confidence from the 
ordinary reader of ecclesiastical history. 

Let me cite one "change." When the late Colonel 
Bremner was appointed to the direction of the Army's 
Trade Department he was encouraged by General 
Booth's special encomiums. This officer opened grocery 
stores, pork factories, medicine shops, and a host of 
other secular industries and places of business. For 
many months the official literature of the Salvation 
Army was saturated with flaming headlines, intended 
to justify this amalgamation of the agony of Calvary 
with the sensational advertisement about " Every 
penny profit helps to save the world." 

As a matter of fact, this Quixotic attempt to put in 
the foundation of a communistic interest based on 
monetary gains from secular callings ignominiously 
failed. But it must not be forgotten that General 
Booth not only authorised this development of Salva- 



134 GENERAL BOOTH 

tion Army trading, but gloried in it, and that he still 
runs a department for the wholesale and retail sale of 
Tea. In every issue of The War Cry the biggest line 
in the advertisement pages will be " Drink Triumph 
Tea." 

To some these facts will savour of blasphemy. But 
it is only fair to the General to state that, like Caesar, 
he has a world-wide policy for the Army, and that he 
holds that there is nothing secular in the Kingdom 
of God. Everything in that kingdom is sacred, and 
his motives determine the character of his acts. 

If a pork butcher happens to be a sidesman of the 
Church of England, no one will imply that he is any 
less religious when he is putting an end to the life of 
an animal to meet the taste of man, than when he is 
acting as a steward in the Lord's House by passing 
around the offertory boxes to the worshippers. (I am 
stating the General's theory.) Then General Booth 
aims at being independent of appeals to the world for 
funds to carry on his propaganda. He hopes that his 
successors will amass such property as will enable the 
organisation to employ its earnings so as to make it 
absolutely free from the thraldom of the collecting-box. 
His ideal is a self -created Endowment Fund. 

And when one remembers that this man, with his 
sacerdotal beliefs, has made four voyages to Australia, 
eight visits to the United States, travelled all through 
India, toured many of the countries of Europe, as if 
they were but extensions of the railway connections 
of his native land and that he has visited every 
town and hamlet on a white motor-car, preaching sal- 



A TRAVELLING POPE 135 

vation, declaring that the Salvation Army was made 
in heaven, and that in all its changes and so forth it 
bears the " finger-marks of God," we are bound to 
acknowledge that to him in reality the world is his 
parish. 

He views Holland as an average vicar of the Church 
of England would weigh up the opportunities of a small 
mission hall in an out-of-the-way village. A trip to 
America gives him as much concern as a sermon would 
do to the Archbishop of Canterbury in Edinburgh, 
simply because the mind is under the spell of this 
world-conquest. He is no traveller in the ordinary 
sense of the term. 

It was during a campaign in Switzerland twenty 
years ago that I awakened to his Caesarism. We were 
travelling en route for Lucerne when his son-in-law, 
then Commissioner Booth-Clibborn, jumped from his 
seat and cried : 

" General, oh, what a magnificent view there is here 
of Mont Blanc ! " 

I at once rushed to the window, to revel in the 
magnificence of the aspect. I saw the General frown. 

; ' What has that to do with saving souls ? " replied 
the warrior evangelist. 

We were dumb (at least I was), and it took me long 
before I could solve the riddle of the sarcastic reproof. 
Mr. Clibborn argued the matter with his leader, but 
I fancy that at the end of the debate the son-in-law 
decided that when it came down to Salvation business, 
_the old man was General first and father-in-law on 
rare occasions ! 



136 GENERAL BOOTH 

Here, then, we see this wonderful tourist bending 
the forces of civilisation steam, electricity, railway 
tracks, and ocean greyhounds to the design of a 
Salvation Csesar. And we see too that, whether he 
gives his benediction to the opening of a small-holding 
experiment or a soul-converting campaign in Japan, 
he is thinking of to-morrow and the relation of the 
Army's system to the greater Army that he dreams 
of for the whole world. 

In one of his most inspired moments he delivered 
an address to his Staff upon the Salvation Army of 
the future. He called it a vision. And among the 
forces that he saw at work were : 

Homes for the Detention of Tramps. 

Transportation Agencies for Removing Slum Dwel- 
lers from one part of the world to another. 

Steamers owned and chartered by the Salvation 
Army for the purpose. 

Stupendous factories, splendid stores, colossal work- 
shops, and vast industrial enterprises. 

Inebriates' Home for "men and women who drink 
distilled damnation in the shape of intoxicants." 

Rescue Operations of many orders for the deliverance 
of fallen women. 

Land Colonies evolving into Salvation cities. 

Orphanages becoming villages and Reformatories 
made into veritable paradises. 

The working out of my idea for a World's University 
for Humanity. 

A Salvation Citadel in every village, town, and 
city. 



HIS WORLD-WIDE VIEWS 137 

I can see this old prophet like a seer standing among 
his faithful Staff delivering this finale to the vision : 

" And now in the very centre, as it were, of this 
heavenly plain, I see a vast amphitheatre, surrounded 
by lofty hills, stretching up far away beyond the 
power of eye to follow, all lined with the mighty 
throngs of human beings. Human once, but they are 
now celestial. . . . But who are they and whence come 
they ? They are Salvationists. They were Salva- 
tionists on earth : they are Salvationists for ever. 
You can see it. They wear the uniform. You can 
hear it. You have heard them sing before." 

I have said the General of the Salvation Army thinks 
in worlds. It is not inconsistent with his ideas of the 
celestial world that he thinks in eternities, and if in 
heaven there are no red guernseys and big drums, I 
have a notion that the General will feel rather out of 
place. At any rate, we have in these extracts from his 
deliberate, if somewhat metaphorical, orations the 
key to his world-campaigns. And if I try to describe 
one of these campaigns I shall describe all, for the 
General follows in all one line of action. 

The Salvationism of the traveller will be clearly 
understood when I state that when the General re- 
ceived an invitation to the Palace at Tokio to be intro- 
duced to the Emperor, the arrangement well-nigh 
broke down because the General had neither morning 
nor evening dress. The Acting Ambassador could not 
see how he could, with propriety, appeal to the Japanese 
Court for an exemption. Any explanation might be 
liable to misunderstanding. There was no time for the 



138 GENERAL BOOTH 

smartest tailor in the city to make one, and even if 
there had been time, I have a notion that unless re- 
ceived in his Salvation Army regalia the General would 
have diplomatically extricated himself from the di- 
lemma. 

Fortunately, a smart Salvation Japanese, Brigadier 
Yamamura, one of the ablest literary officers in the 
Army, suggested a visit to the Minister for Foreign 
Affairs. There was a parley between the Salvation 
Army Brigadier and the Japanese statesman. The 
Minister suggested that the good General should en- 
deavour to borrow a suit for the occasion. 

" But," said the Salvationist, " he is taller than any 
European in Tokio, and then think what the English 
would say. If King Edward received General Booth 
in his red guernsey our illustrious Emperor will con- 
sider himself in good company." 

The argument was convincing, and so the General 
entered the sacred grounds of the Mikado in his 
" Blood and Fire " habiliments, while the Acting 
Ambassador and other officials wore the regulation 
Court dress. Report has it that the Emperor thought 
the General's uniform the most attractive of all present 
at the function, his own included ! 

The moral of which is that in all things General 
Booth is a Salvationist. His travelling impedimenta, 
reading, companions, and itinerary are all fixed so as 
to advance the cause. The only time I knew him to 
thoroughly relish sight-seeing was during a flying visit 
to Jerusalem in the year 1906. The customary visits 
to the Jordan, Bethlehem, Olivet, Bethany, and the 



HE KISSES THE HAND OF A LEPER 139 

Church of the Sepulchre were gone through with a zest 
which seemed to indicate that, for once, the General 
was lost in the man. But it was only for a season. 

Gethsemane, like a well-kept suburban garden, ap- 
pealed to him. Around its high walls were decrepit, 
semi-nude, demented-looking lepers, with their piteous 
eyes and extended arms, begging for alms. General 
Booth, reminded by the conservatism of custom 
despite the flight of time, and his first impressions of 
New Testament reading, stood and exclaimed, " Here 
we have the garden of the Lord and the stricken of 
man : the symbols of the Divine and the human." 

A leprous-stricken old man stepped forward, crouch- 
ing and crying, " Backsheesh, good Englishman." 

The General beckoned him to come near, and as he 
handed the beggar a copper, he bent down and, to the 
consternation of the company, kissed his hand ! The 
lepers, Syrians, Russian pilgrims, and dragomans, as 
well as his Staff, were amazed. 

" Who is he ? " asked a Russian, who could speak 
English. 

I tried to explain in a few words, and then the 
identity of the General with Christ's cause dawning 
upon him, he rushed forward just as the General was 
in the act of entering the garden, and said : 

" Come, sir, come, oh ! come to my country ! " 

In the garden itself the General was mute. He 
knelt under the ancient sycamore and cried in a tear- 
ful voice : 

" Oh God, we are tempted to think that Thy 
bloody sweat, Thy agony on the tree, is all in vain. 



140 GENERAL BOOTH 

Who is sufficient for these things ? My God. . . . My 
God ! " 

He next ascended Calvary. There his spirits 
seemed to rise with the rarefying breeze that was 

playing upon the green hill, and as his little party sang, 

\ 

f( Were the whole realm of Nature mine, 

That were a present far too small ; 
Love so amazing, so Divine, 

Shall have my soul, my life, my all ! " 

he turned to Colonel Lawley, and said : 

" We must have a soul-saving meeting in Jerusalem 
to-night." And he did. 

When in Japan, he had no time to enter into the 
temples and discuss with the doctors of Buddhism the 
moral and social well-being of the Empire ; no time to 
get into raptures over Fuji ; no time to explore the land- 
marks and monuments of the race, nor even study first 
hand the Europeanisation of the industries and habits 
of the people. He had only time to preach and save 
souls, and turn every minute not spent in fulfilling 
his supreme mission into one long note of interroga- 
tion. 

And yet he is a constant seeker after facts about 
people, their occupations, habits, religion, as well as 
all about the topics upon which he is directly con- 
cerned. 

He is a careful preparer of his campaigns. An 
exhaustive correspondence takes place before he 
decides upon visiting a country. When the decision 
is arrived at, schedules as to arrangements are 
sent out to the Territorial Officer, who has to detail 



HIS METHOD OF TRAVELLING 141 

everything that the General requires for each day 
and in each town. His billets have to be carefully 
selected with respect to accommodation, distance 
from meeting-places, or mode of travel, whether by 
rickshaw or cab ; the times of meeting, the size of 
hall, and its freedom from traffic and other noises 
have all to be specified. 

An important item is the menu. The General in his 
latter years has adopted a vegetarian diet, and it 
follows that his hostesses have to be advised as to what 
he takes for breakfast, luncheon, tea, and supper 
he has no dinner in the conventional sense. 

An incident in connection with one of his con- 
tinental journeys led him to adopt this arrange- 
ment. The millionaire inhabitant of the town, on 
hearing that the Army's Chief intended to visit the 
place, applied to have the honour of entertaining him. 
The invitation was accepted : the General has a 
weakness for millionaires in a purely philanthropic 
sense, of course. He believes that by relieving them of 
some of their superfluous wealth he can add to their 
interest in the affairs of the world. 

Well, the train was late in arriving, and the General 
had to drive from the station direct to the place of his 
public engagement. After the meeting, tired and 
disappointed with the day's itinerary, the General 
hoped that his new millionaire friend would relieve 
the monotony of the day. He entered the supper- 
room, gorgeously illuminated and filled with the 
celebrities of the neighbourhood, including " my lord 
the Bishop," the Burgomeister, and heads of the 



142 GENERAL BOOTH 

University. Introductions over, the host made a 
formal speech of welcome, and when the General sat 
down on his right, he said : 

" Now, General, make yourself quite at home. We 
have everything here, and I have engaged a special chef 
from Paris to cook your food. Now, what will you 
have to begin with ? " 

I was present at that sublime moment. The General 
looked at his secretary and then at the table, with its 
glittering gold and silver dishes, and in the most polite 
manner in the world apologised for his secretary. 

" He ought to have known my little weaknesses 
and informed you as to their nature. I am rather a 
tiresome eater. I take very little for supper." 

" Here is some light soup or salmon, General. And 
what will you say for a drink light national wines, 
or the best vintage from France ? " 

"No, thank you, sir," replied the General. " If you 
please, just a small basin of bread and milk ! " 

I will not attempt to describe the looks of the 
guests. A tragedy was written in the distressed con- 
tractions of the millionaire's face. 

That night General Booth resolved that a similar 
mistake should not be made again ; hence the secre- 
tary's duties included the despatch of a detailed menu 
previous to his visiting a town, which is a subject, 
however, that has often given the General's hosts and 
hostesses more anxiety than all other responsibilities of 
entertaining. 

General Booth is a good sailor. His voyage to Japan 
formed one long round of industry at sea as well as 



HIS METHOD OF TRAVELLING 143 

on land. There is a sense, however, in which he is 
extremely punctilious and hard to please. The 
proximity of his cabin to noisy passengers, or some 
grating and disagreeable disturbance during the night, 
will irritate him, and his secretaries will be commissioned 
to remove the cause, or the captain will be appealed to 
to provide a more congenial cabin. I have known the 
General change his cabin three times in the course of a 
single voyage. 

On one voyage a cabin near the General's was the 
rendezvous of after-dinner card-parties, and the 
fortunes of the game would be attended with more 
hilarity than was congenial for the old General, then 
deeply engaged in the compilation of a special brief. 

I was commissioned to appeal for a modification 
of the entertainment. Not being quite successful, we 
were treated to a dissertation upon the difference 
between the discipline on board an American ship as 
contrasted with an English. Still, on the whole the 
General is riot, considering his age and the position he 
occupies, an awkward passenger, and he receives the 
best hospitality that can be procured on board ship. 

His life on board is interesting. He travels first class. 
He generally has two cabins, one for himself and 
another next to it for the patient secretary-valet. 
The one room communicates with the other by an 
electric bell. Both cabins are fitted with the essentials 
of an up-to-date office, stationery racks, typewriting 
machines, etc., and the General works on an average 
ten hours per day while at sea. 

His rule is to call his secretary about 8 a.m., when he 



144 GENERAL BOOTH 

has tea specially made for him, from a blend which the 
General carries with him wherever he goes. Needless 
to say, the brand is the one that he is anxious the 
public should accustom itself to in the interests of the 
Army's missionary cause. The profits derived from 
the sale are hypothecated to this section of the work. 
At this tea, generally taken in bed, the secretary is 
present, for during the night it is almost certain that 
the General will have had some thought upon a branch 
of the work upon which he will desire to expatiate and, 
for the sake of form and entertainment, solicit advice. 

After this mean refreshment the General spreads his 
papers out for the day, takes ten minutes' walk on 
deck, and returns for prayers. Prayers are times of 
ordeal as a rule. Their utility is dependent upon 
purely temperamental conditions. If the General is 
in one of his aggressive moods, or fancies that his 
unworthy Staff are in danger of being contaminated 
with their superior surroundings, he will certainly 
find occasion while the Scriptures are being read to 
tender wholesome warnings as to the evils of luxurious 
living and the demoralising effects of the deck. I 
remember being caught in the act of playing quoits, 
and for days I was held up as a woeful specimen of 
the ease with which one can take the first step on 
the slippery slope of backsliding ! Nevertheless, the 
prayers are characteristic of the General. 

Scripture is read on the rotary principle, and the 
General is certain to pass some remarks upon the 
reading. 

" Higgins," he would say, " you are inclined to be 



OBITER DICTA 145 

monotonous. Your tone of voice is too uniform. Put 
a little more feeling into it. Cox, you have an excel- 
lent voice, but at times it is too dramatic. Forget that 
you have such a fine instrument and read a little bit 
quicker. Nicol, you drop your voice. Where did you 
get that emphasis from ? Scotland, I reckon. Not 
so fast, brother. Remember your stops." 

His impromptu comments are always unconventional. 
One morning the selection related to an incident in the 
life of Moses, a favourite Bible study of the General's. 
Interrupting Higgins in the reading, he leant back 
in his rocking-chair specially made for him and 
mused thus : 

"What was Moses? A Bishop, or a parson, or a 
General ? Whatever he was designated, he had his 
troubles with his temper, and his mother-in-law, and 
the manna. He must have had a dull time in that 
wilderness, though it must have been a good drill- 
ground for the submerged tenth of his day. Poor old 
Moses ! I wonder if he was ever harassed by critics 
and pessimists and pressmen ! Without the discipline 
and hardness of the life I can't see how Moses could 
have made a people do you, Higgins ? 

" The British Colonies object to my submerged. 
They want money, and men who have been to the 
Board Schools. They are mistaken. Men, when 
drilled in habits of industry, and who have become 
habituated to work, are the class that will turn the 
earth to advantage. Moses made the best farmers and 
the best fighters the world has ever known or ever 
will know out of slaves ! We are all mistaken as to 



146 GENERAL BOOTH 

what the poor can do. The battle of the next century 
will be between brains and character. 

" If I were a betting man, I would put my money 
upon the man of character. Where did Moses get his 
political economy and statesmanship from ? The land, 
the land, the land ! And there is more common sense 
to be picked up on a farm than at Oxford or Cambridge. 
Let us pray ! Cox, lead. And be short, and don't 
use big words." 

Sometimes the prayers of his Staff vexed his soul : 
if one were too religious, he would overhaul it after- 
wards ; if too loud and overdrawn, as Lawley's would 
be, he would say : 

" We are not going to hold a meeting on board to- 
night, Lawley. Remember that the Lord expects that 
you will put your head as well as your heart into your 
petitions." 

Lawley would only smile, or say : 

" General, if I didn't let my heart out, there would 
be no Johnnie Lawley." And the General would pass 
on and say, " He is hopeless ! " But in an aside to 
a member of the Staff he would add : 

" I like Lawley, but don't let him know that I said 
so. He would have swelled head for the rest of the 
voyage." 

After prayers, a stroll ; not long, but sufficient to 
make him eager to get back to his sermon-making with 
a new verve for work. He rarely cultivates the social 
side of life on board ship. The majority of passengers 
bore him. He considers the life that the average first- 



INCIDENTS OF TRAVEL 147 

class passenger leads detrimental to body and soul. 
The General, therefore, is not sought after like other 
celebrities. The passengers on board the Minnesota 
the ship that carried us to Yokohama were an excep- 
tion, however ; they had the American weakness for 
a genuine sensation, and when it was found that the 
Salvation Army Chief would spend his seventy-ninth 
birthday on board and that a little maid would also 
celebrate her natal day on the same date the 10th of 
April a bevy of American ladies prepared a monster 
cake and after dinner persuaded the General to talk 
on the lesson of his life. 

But the General was as smart as the Yankee ladies. 
When he had finished his address and cut the cake and 
made an appropriate speech in honour of the little 
American girl, he slyly turned to his lady friends and 
hinted that it was usual to receive gifts on such an 
interesting day. The ladies were for a moment taken 
by surprise. The ship was rolling. The ceremony had 
lasted longer than was expected, and passengers were 
making for the companion-way ; but a happy thought 
occurred to one, and the ladies rushed into their cabins 
and seized various articles one a soap-dish, another 
a jewel-tray, and a third a fancy coal-scuttle ; and 
armed with these extemporaneous offertory-boxes, they 
" bombarded " the saloon and deck, and the funds of 
the Army were that night enriched by some twenty 
or thirty pounds. It was a happy and profitable 
birthday ! 

Sometimes an opportunity arises for the General 
to show his magnanimity. A fireman died and was 



148 GENERAL BOOTH 

buried at sea, and when it was ascertained that he had 
left a widow and two children, his Staff were instructed 
to procure liberty from the chief officer to pass the hat 
round in aid of the bereaved, and being adepts at the 
business, they collected 90 and handed that sum over 
to the Company to invest in the widow's interest : a 
good act that, curiously enough, broke down the preju- 
dice of the scion of a noble house in England then on 
board, who ever since has been a consistent friend of 
the Army. 

Another aspect of the General's appetite for evan- 
gelising the people is his readiness to conduct religious 
services on board. What a picturesque sight it is to 
see the veteran preacher standing amidships among 
the third-class passengers, proclaiming in his strong, 
resonant voice the story of salvation ! The scene 
makes a living mosaic in the evangel of the great globe- 
trotter. Men and women and children, sailors and 
stewards, lend him a hand by " singing up, mates," as 
he calls them. First-class passengers lean over the 
rails of the upper decks and survey the living picture. 
Something like the solemnity of the grave creeps over 
the motley audience when the patriarchal-looking 
preacher removes his hat and reveals his snow-white 
head, and then, with closed eyes, raises his voice in 
prayer, " for the dear ones at home, and for courage 
to endure the trials and responsibilities that await us 
in the land to which we are sailing, the officers of this 
good ship, the crew, the stewards, and the passengers " ; 
and as he cries, " Lord, we are all journeying to another 
port. Have we got the correct chart ? Have we got 



PREACHING ON BOARD 149 

the right captain on board ? Is our ship weather- 
proof ? Are we insured against the dangers and quick- 
sands of the world ? " the Sunday-evening service has 
a mellowing effect, as if the old man knew something 
about the reality of the other world. 

I have spoken to many people who have heard the 
General on land and have never been moved by the 
eloquence of his gospel, but they have acknowledged 
that the night they heard him on the water they were 
convinced that the evangelist had the ring of the 
prophet about him. It is certainly the case that the 
nearer you get the General of the Salvation Army to 
the people, the clearer shines the spiritual light and 
touch that the man possesses. I have listened to him 
in college, lecture-hall, and assembly with impatience, 
but never once have I listened to him without soul- 
pleasure when he has spoken in a shelter or at a street 
corner, or at a railway station, or "down among the 
thirds " of an ocean greyhound. 

The greatest traveller in the world, it is impossible to 
tabulate the mileage he has covered since the night 
he pledged his word to his bosom companion to live 
only for the salvation of the world. In his eighty- 
second year he is still travelling. As I write he has 
begun a journey on the continent of Europe that 
would stagger a man in his prime. Within thirty days 
he will conduct twenty meetings and deliver twenty 
lectures in the principal cities of Holland, Germany, 
Switzerland, and Italy, and finish in Rome with an 
exposition of the movement's relation to Church 
and State. His Holiness the Pope draws an ecclesi- 



150 GENE&AL BOOTH 

astical fence around St. Peter's, and beyond that he 
will not travel. General Booth, a self-appointed Pope, 
has contracted the world to a parish. In that parish 
he moves about with apparently as much ease and 
method as a priest does in an ordinary English parish. 

The influence of these pilgrimages upon the imagina- 
tion of his people has exercised a sort of supernatural 
charm. They have made the Army feel in its com- 
ponent parts that its General belongs to no land or 
people in particular ; they have confirmed the part of 
local men in the sanity of its ideals. The General is a 
persuasive, masterful diplomat ; and the campaigns 
have yielded great moral and spiritual results. 

Excepting in one or two countries, however, he has 
not launched any scheme that was born of the sorrow 
and need of that particular country. The " Darkest 
England " scheme was at least an honest and great 
attempt to show a more excellent way of dispensing 
charity and supplying work for the poor of England. 
But he has not attempted to found anything original 
in Germany or Holland or France to grapple with 
their particular social evils. Then the Army has failed 
to do anything on a large scale in South Africa, and in 
Eastern, Western, Central, and Northern Africa ; 
it is unrepresented in these great divisions of the great 
continent. The " Blood and Fire" banner has not 
been unfurled in Siam, China, the Philippines, Russia, 
Poland, Turkey, Greece, Spain, Persia, Brazil, Mexico, 
Palestine, and other parts of the world ; and in many 
of the semi-heathen countries where the Army is 
represented it has scarcely taken root. In a few 



OFFICIALLY RECEIVED EVERYWHERE 151 

it is only kept alive by the moral influence of social 
agencies. 

In the countries visited General Booth is invariably 
officially received by the highest representatives of the 
State. Kings, Queens, Presidents, Governor-Generals, 
Premiers, and Cabinets have honoured him, especially 
since he was received at Buckingham Palace by the late 
King Edward and Queen Alexandra. His figure is 
never mistaken for anyone else, and the common people 
salute him wherever he is as one of themselves. I have 
been on board a train in a prairie State when it was 
held up by a gang of navvies " just to get a look at the 
old man," and I have stood by his side while he has 
addressed ten thousand people at a railway station, 
while his train waited till he had finished. " You are 
not an Englishman," a French philosopher told General 
Booth in Paris " you belong to humanity " ; and the 
General acts as if humanity belonged to him. 



CHAPTER VII 
THE BRAIN CENTRE OF THE ARMY 

International Headquarters Trunk Departments The System of 
Reporting, Councils, and Secretaryship Past Failures at Super- 
vision Disagreements and the General's Veto Details of the 
Daily Life 

As a mere study in the creation of a modern business, 
the Salvation Army Headquarters is worthy of an 
important place in the commercial world. The late 
Mr. Justice Rigby described it, in a speech at the 
Mansion House when General Booth was first welcomed 
there, as a useful commercial college for young men, 
and it certainly provides the key that unlocks the 
door to the organisation of the movement. 

It is situated in the middle of the south side of Queen 
Victoria Street, and therefore conveniently placed. 
It is six-storied and embraces a frontage of three 
hundred feet. Besides a book and uniform store, the 
premises are occupied by the Salvation Army Reliance 
Bank, the Salvation Army Assurance Society, the 
Salvation Army Citadel Co., Cashier and Accountant's, 
Subscribers', Finance, Foreign, Home, Property, Legal, 
and Secretarial Departments, all of which are con- 
nected by telephone and a sj^stem of special messengers 
with other trunk departments in London, such as the 
Men's Social Department in Whitechapel, the Head- 

152 



THE BRAIN CENTRE OF THE ARMY 153 

quarters of the Women's Social Department in Mare 
Street, Hackney, the International and Staff Colleges 
at Clapton, the Trade Department at King's Cross, 
the Printing and Lithographic Departments at St. 
Albans, and the big Emigration Offices on the opposite 
side of Headquarters. 

It is the Brain Centre of the Salvation Army. 

In 1881 the General resolved upon transferring the 
Headquarters of the Army from Whitechapel to 
101 Queen Victoria Street. Now the Army possesses 
the lease of the premises stretching from 78 to 107. 
Only occupying a portion of this extensive range of 
City offices, the Army is able by letting to practically 
sit rent free, the increased increment and the enhanced 
rentals enabling the Army to do so. At the time of the 
transfer there were employed eighty officers and 
employees ; now there are 270. The numerical 
difference is accounted for by the progress of the 
Salvation Army and the steady centralisation of the 
Army's administration. 

When I entered the ranks, the United Kingdom was 
divided into big divisions under officers who possessed 
larger powers than are exercised by more responsible 
officers to-day in other countries. A futile attempt was 
made to manage the field affairs by Provincial Secre- 
taries, representing the Home or National Head- 
quarters, but that savoured too much of the " London 
firm," and was so cumbersome that it had to be 
hurriedly abandoned. Then the country was divided 
and subdivided into provincial and divisional com- 
mands, the former being subservient to the latter. 



154 GENERAL BOOTH 

There grew up under this system such an array of 
secretaries and such a breakdown of the principle of 
direct responsibility, that if it had continued there 
would have been internal rebellion. It therefore 
proved a failure, though affording at the same time 
a striking illustration of the inherent attachment of the 
leaders to a masterful supervision. 

Under the plea of developing the Army on the 
principle that every responsible officer should have an 
understudy, inspection and super-inspection became an 
intolerable burden, and the transaction of business 
was often turned into a burlesque. I have known an 
officer to wait three weeks for a decision upon an 
ordinary request that would now take but three days 
to obtain. A Field Officer had indeed at this period of 
the Army's direction as many as five or six masters. 
He had his divisional officer, and under him two other 
officers connected with the 3 7 oung people's or junior 
work, and his " P.O.," as the chief Field Staff Officer 
was named. His mail-bag was always packed with 
letters from Divisional Headquarters relating to most 
trivial matters and written without any appreciation 
of local circumstances. Here is a tiny illustration of the 
red-tapeism that this triple system of supervision led 
to: 

" DEAR CAPTAIN, We are in receipt of your returns 
and deeply regret to observe that you have, for the 
second time since I was appointed, sent me the Ser- 
geant's form improperly filled in. How is this ? God 

bless y u! "...Ensign, 

" Young People's Secretary." 



RED TAPE 155 

Yet the officer addressed was in charge of a village 
with only seven soldiers and drawing a salary of 3s. 6d. 
a week ! The British War Office could scarcely com- 
pete with the Salvation Army at one time in its regard 
for Saint Red-tape. 

The Divisional Officer who had the direct super- 
intendence of eighteen to twenty corps had to report 
practically everything that took place in each corps to 
the "P.C." or Provincial Commander, who generally 
had the direction of four or five Divisional commands. 
Then the Provincial Commander had to report ex- 
tensively to the Commissioner in charge of the field 
affairs in London, and the Commissioner had to 
report to the Chief of the Staff, and the Chief of the 
Staff to the General ! 

Let us suppose that an officer desired to become 
engaged to be married to a soldier of his corps. What 
took place ? The Field Officer had first to acquaint the 
Divisional Officer, who in turn had to report to the 
Provincial Commander. A delay would ensue in order 
to give the Provincial Officer time to enquire into the 
character and qualifications of both parties. Apart 
from the wisdom of such a proceeding, this invariably 
meant the delay of some weeks, it then being the rule 
for Provincial Commanders to make such enquiries 
personally. 

If, for instance, he should discover that the young 
woman was not likely to become a successful Field 
Officer, he possessed the power to say so to the male 
officer and advise him accordingly. Many a love 
match has been broken off in this way, the underlying 



156 GENERAL BOOTH 

reason being that the interests of the Army are superior 
to those of the individual. 

If, on the other hand, the Provincial Officer was 
satisfied that the engagement, viewed from the stand- 
point of the probable success of the parties as officers, 
and officers only, was likely to be suitable, the Pro- 
vincial Officer would then report to the Home Depart- 
ment. Think of it ! 

Here, again, months might transpire before London 
agreed to the engagement. In the meantime, human 
nature being what it is, what if the young man, eagerly 
waiting to know his fate, broke the rule which forbids 
his courting while in charge of a corps to which his 
fiancee belonged ? Suppose he saw her somehow, it 
could only be to explain that he must not kiss her, or 
show any evidence of affection, till Headquarters in- 
formed him of their good pleasure on the matter ! If 
he went beyond that boundary and paid her a visit of 
consolation, and were it repeated and considered too 
frequent in the estimation of some busybody, and 
the conclusion of that busybody were to get to the 
ears of the Divisional Officer, that superior would 
advise an immediate farewell of the Field Officer, for 
the Divisional Officer is always on the side of pre- 
serving the peace of the corps. Individual interests, 
when they clash with the corps, are always over- 
ridden. 

But, as I have stated, this treble-barrelled system of 
administration had to be modified. Mr. Bramwell 
Booth saw that, if it served any good purpose at the 
time it was introduced, it had outlived its usefulness, 



SYSTEM HIGHLY CENTRALISED 157 

and he threw it overboard. The Provincial Command 
was dissolved, and the Commanders rewarded with 
secretarial positions at the National Headquarters. 
The divisions were enlarged and redistributed, and 
younger men placed in charge of them with the titles 
titles count for righteousness in the movement of 
Divisional Commanders. They were also promised 
increased powers of direction ; but as a matter of 
fact their responsibilities have been largely curtailed. 
They are now principally inspectors and reporters. 

It will thus be gathered that the brain power of 
the organisation is highly centralised, and when it is 
added that Great Britain is no longer treated as a 
separate command, as is Switzerland, and that instead 
of a Commissioner being in charge of its affairs, Great 
Britain is controlled by the Chief of the Staff, with the 
aid of a Commissioner, it will be seen that that leader 
must be a man who wields considerable influence, and 
it is to him, Mr. Bramwell Booth, belongs the credit of 
the development of the International Headquarters 
along these lines. 

There are eight trunk departments at the Inter- 
national Headquarters, more or less independent of 
each other, but all dominated and to a large extent 
directed by Mr. Bramwell Booth in his capacity as 
Chief of the Staff. These are : the Foreign Mission 
Department ; the Home or National Department, 
which superintends the affairs of the corps or spiritual 
societies in the United Kingdom ; Finance and Sub- 
scribers Department ; Property Department ; Assur- 
ance Department ; Literary and Publicity Department ; 



158 GENERAL BOOTH 

Emigration Department; while other important depart- 
ments embrace the Young People's League, Candidates 
for Officership, Trade, and Training. Then there are 
Expenditure Boards. These were instituted to scru- 
tinise and check the expenditure of all the departments 
and promote the general economy of Headquarters. 

At one time the expenditure of International Head- 
quarters was very indifferently supervised. The duties 
of these Boards are defined by special minutes signed 
by the Chief of the Staff. 

The principal department at International Head- 
quarters, usually presided over by one of the most 
reliable officers in the Army, is of course the Foreign. 
The First Foreign Secretary was Commissioner Railton, 
who twenty-five years ago conducted all the corre- 
spondence with the aid of a couple of clerks and a man 
to see to the despatch and reception of officers from 
foreign service. To-day the Foreign Office numbers 
about fifty officers of various grades, including clerks 
and travelling agents. The world is divided into sec- 
tions to suit the working arrangements of this Office. 
One Under-Secretary has the manipulation of the 
business relating to the Army's operations in Europe ; 
another America and Canada, and so forth ; and these 
officers are responsible for carrying out all the routine 
affairs connected with their departments. The heads 
of these minor departments have at one time all been 
on active foreign service and are familiar with several 
languages. (It is a curious fact that, with all the 
linguistic ability represented in this Missionary De- 
partment of the Army, Mr. Bramwell Booth has not 



THE FOREIGN OFFICE 159 

opened a European and Oriental Translation Bureau. 
There is money in it !) 

It is not an uncommon sight to find men and women 
from the uttermost parts of the world on the floor of this 
Foreign Office, speaking or writing in various lan- 
guages. The streets of Jerusalem at Pentecost wit- 
nessed the first miracle under supernatural Christianity. 
Here, in this heart of London, one may discover men 
and women who when they entered the Salvation Army 
could not parse a sentence in the English language, 
talking perfect Hindustani, Javanese, Japanese, and 
the leading tongues of the continent of Europe. It is 
a school of languages, whose avowed object is, as we 
have learned, the conquest of the nations of the earth 
to the Cross of Christ. 

The idealism of the Salvation Army permeates all 
the departments, and it may be frankly acknowledged 
that the Foreign Office of the Salvation Army reflects 
the wisdom of the man who has been its chief organiser. 
It is altogether a well-thought-out piece of mechanism, 
and worth considering in view of the international 
aims of the Army. 

Let us see then how the international interests are 
guarded. Attached to the Foreign Office is a body of 
Travelling Commissioners who tour the world in the 
spiritual interests of the Army. Their chief objects 
are to fan the flame of the spirit of the one, world- wide, 
undivided Salvation Army, teach the doctrine of 
Holiness, hold spiritual councils with officers and 
soldiers, address public gatherings upon the general 
work of the Salvation Army, extolling, in particular, 



160 GENERAL BOOTH 

its social branches. Occasionally it all depends upon 
the status of the Commissioner an International 
Travelling Commissioner may be commissioned to 
make an enquiry into the state of the Army in the 
country visited, in which case he is afforded an oppor- 
tunity of stating his views to the Chief Officer on the 
spot, that is in the event of the Travelling Commis- 
sioner's report being of an adverse character. But this 
custom is djdng out. There is too much of the element 
of the policeman about it, and it is resented not only 
by the head men, but by the younger fraternity, who are 
disposed to stand less and less interference on the part 
of officers not ordinarily clothed with the garments of 
administrative authority. These Travelling Commis- 
sioners are overrated men. Their journeys are reported 
in the War Cry as if they were making history, and 
always with a big brushful of adjectives. Confined to 
a spiritual sphere they are welcomed and do good. 
Beyond that sphere they are incapable of doing any- 
thing but mischief. 

The Foreign Office itself is the chief recording angel 
of the organisation. Not a week passes but an officer 
from another country visits London, and it is the duty 
of the Foreign Office to see that that officer is met and 
entertained. It keeps a paternal eye upon the visitor 
during his stay, and acts toward him, if necessary, the 
part of a benevolent inquisitor. The visitor's informa- 
tion respecting the country from which he comes is 
tapped and supplied to the Chief of the Staff, and if 
it is considered of special importance to the General 
himself, who if the lower powers think that in the 



BUSINESS OF THE FOREIGN OFFICE 161 

interests of the country concerned he is likely to make 
a useful man in the future will invite him to tea at 
his own house. A precis of these interviews is made 
out and pigeon-holed, but woe be to the visitor if, 
when he returns to his own battleground, he finds that 
the Foreign Office has reported to his superior the 
substance of what he said when in London ! On the 
whole, however, this method adds strength to the 
Army. The Foreign Office is also responsible for see- 
ing that the most is made of the visits of foreign officers 
for stimulating missionary zeal among the corps at 
home. The Foreign Office directs the visits of the 
General to countries outside Great Britain, and stimu- 
lates enthusiasm for the movement and for the needs 
of the mission field in regions beyond. 

The purely business relations of this office with the 
Chief of the Staff and the General illustrate the opera- 
tion of the General's veto. A mass of departmental 
matters are left to the decision of the various Boards 
at the Foreign Office. Their functions are limited 
to passing accounts and discussing questions of 
transfers, reports, censoring the official newspapers 
of the Society, and examining proposals of increas- 
ing or decreasing the Staff abroad. A minute is 
kept of all the decisions and recommendations arrived 
at, and copies supplied to the Chief of the Staff. As 
the Chief of the Staff is directly represented on all 
these Boards by one of his secretaries, and as he is the 
officer deputed to analyse the minutes from his (the 
Chief's) standpoint, it follows that Mr. Bramwell Booth 
is kept well posted up with the routine of the Foreign 
M 



162 GENERAL BOOTH 

Office, and, if the vigilant secretary " spots " anything 
that is not " just so " in the minutes, he draws the at- 
tention of his master to it, and thus his place on the 
Board is justified. In fact, such is the control of 
the International Headquarters by the via media of 
private secretaries, that the great executive Chief 
knows what is going on in all departments day by day, 
and often hour by hour. The channels for receiving 
information are many, but for imparting information, 
few. 

The Chief of the Staff is the real head of the Foreign 
Office. He also presides over its main deliberations 
once or twice a week, and oftener should necessity 
arise. 

For these sittings elaborate reports are carefully 
typed, and on each item on the agenda the depart- 
mental view is set forth. The Chief can thus see at a 
glance where his men are on any given subject. Much 
time is wasted in trying to save time, a feature which 
I have observed in other religious societies. 

Again and again I have seen a shameful waste of 
time and money upon these preparations. A week in 
an up-to-date house of business in the City would 
convince Mr. Booth great organiser as he undoubtedly 
is that he overdoes the use of red tape, and sterilises 
the independent thinking of subordinate officers. 

The Commissioner of the Foreign Office and his 
Assistant Commissioner take an active part in the 
discussions at these councils, as well as the direct repre- 
sentative of the country whose affairs may happen to 
be under review. 



THE GENERAL A PEACEMAKER 163 

The subjects discussed are : financial and property, 
discipline, large appointments, special developments, 
inspection and auditorial reports, and from time to 
time points of policy. 

Matters of importance suggested at these Boards are 
deferred for the judgment of the General, and, if there 
is any difference of opinion upon a line of policy or 
the standing of a first-class officer, it first manifests 
itself at this particular council. These differences are, 
of course, reported to the General always by the Chief ; 
and when he calls his son and Foreign Commissioners 
together, such is the commanding influence of the 
General that he usually succeeds in carrying the Staff 
with him, and his verdict is accepted and carried out 
most loyally. The differences are no longer men- 
tioned, even although strong feeling may have marked 
the discussions at Headquarters. 

For some years past, however, a habit has been 
cultivated of avoiding the unpleasant as far as possible. 
The General is now unable to endure long and harassing 
conversations, so that matters of first importance have 
practically been decided by the Chief of the Staff 
himself. 

But the General is still par excellence the master 
diplomatist and peacemaker. I have known the 
keenest difference of opinion on important subjects 
to exist between father and son, more particularly 
where members of the family have been concerned, a 
subject on which the General is naturally sensitive. 

It is well known that at one time deep feeling pre- 
vailed as regards the policy pursued by Commander 



164 GENERAL BOOTH 

Booth-Tucker, when that officer first had charge of the 
Army's missionary work in India. He adopted ex- 
treme " native lines " of propaganda, requiring English 
men and women to live in native quarters, dress and eat 
as natives, and even wear caste-marks on their fore- 
heads and fakir-coloured uniform while begging from 
Europeans at their homes or among the ships in the 
various harbours. 

In the name of self-sacrifice and a death-consecration 
for the salvation of India, delicate European ladies were 
subjected to degrading conditions of life. Not a few 
suffered martyrdom or became incapacitated for con- 
tinuous labours among the lower castes where the 
great bulk of the Army's work is carried on ; some 
died from enteric, cholera, and other Oriental diseases. 
Commissioner Eailton denounced these methods at the 
councils named, and his views were shared by the 
majority of officers in India and others at home. 

To all appearances the General upheld the policy 
adopted by his son-in-law, and passed some severe 
strictures upon Church missionaries who ventilated in 
English newspapers their views on the use of these ex- 
treme methods. The General's daughter, Mrs. Booth- 
Tucker, adopted the attitude that her husband, having 
spent most of his days in India, knew more about the 
essentials of a successful campaign than any other 
officer in the Army. 

But as week after week and month after month 
passed on, and telegrams flashed the news to England 
that some zealous officer had succumbed to disease, 
though in reality the deaths were believed to have been 




Copyright, Bolak. 



COMMANDER BOOTH TUCKER. 



INDIAN AFFAIRS 165 

caused by the semi-fanatical adherence to habits of 
living afterwards proved to be too arduous for the 
very natives, the feeling on the subject deepened. 

Commander Booth-Tucker published figures he is 
an adept at percentages to show that the Army's 
death-rate among its officers was no higher than that 
of other missionary societies. Thus he widened the 
breach between the two parties at home. I confess 
to having defended the policy simply because it ap- 
peared to be endorsed by the General, and in those 
days that was my be-all and end-all. Once I tried 
to place the alternative view before him, and for my 
daring was denounced as a disturber of peace at the 
International Headquarters. Officers who resigned in 
India rather than submit to the degradation of these 
lines were called traitors, and men like Colonel Musa 
Bhai, a native officer, who proclaimed that the way 
to the heart of India was along this new and more 
excellent way, were exalted as saints ; and to this day 
a Colonel Weresoyria a brave, spiritual soul is held 
in sacred remembrance for his devotion to the very 
methods that partially led to his untimely death. 

It was a critical period in the Army's history. The 
outside world was unaware of what was going on ; but 
if this system had been persisted in, it is no exaggeration 
to assert that there would have been no Salvation Army 
in India to-day, and that the forces of the Army in Aus- 
tralia, Sweden, America, and Canada would have been 
dispersed. For from all these countries officers had 
gone forth to the Army's mission field in India, and 
comrades at home were receiving private correspond- 



166 GENERAL BOOTH 

ence from them testifying to the dissatisfaction that 
was felt throughout India. 

In this crisis the General acted with great astuteness. 
He dealt a death-blow at the whole system, but not till 
the right moment was reached for doing so. He de- 
bated the question with his advisers, temporised, mini- 
mised and immortalised the losses of officers, and 
exalted the gains to the Army arising out of the 
undoubted fact that a certain entrance to native 
thought had been obtained by the tribute the Army 
paid to India in discarding the names and dress and 
food of the mighty Sahib. And then he promised that 
he would go out to India and study the subject for him- 
self on the spot. This proved a master move. From 
that very moment all dissatisfaction in England came 
to an end, for officers respect the General's judgment, 
when he really sets to work to understand a question. 
They felt sure that when he got to India he would 
denounce the begging of rice from natives, living in 
huts, and the adoption of social practices that were 
both insulting and degrading to the tastes of white 
men and women. He did so. More reforms were intro- 
duced into the Army's work in India than had been 
dreamed possible by those who had criticised the 
methods of Commander Booth-Tucker. So one by one 
the system was either modified or abandoned. Even 
the huge properties that had been leased in Colombo, 
Madras, and Bombay were ordered to be abandoned. 
Money was literally thrown away in bricks and mortar 
by those who preached and proclaimed the doctrine 
that to save India the white man must abandon his 



CHIEF OP STAFF RULES EVERYTHING 167 

trousers, and bring Jesus Christ and His Gospel to its 
millions in the garb, spirit, customs, and idioms of an 
Oriental. 

There is nothing which answers to a Grand Council 
at the International Headquarters of the Salvation 
Army. It is only when some serious internal trouble 
or the occasion for some social function arises that the 
chief officers are called together. There is no assembly 
that regularly meets, or other well-defined and es- 
tablished institution which may be called the Inter- 
national Headquarters' own. 

The Field Officers have their officers' meeting once 
a month or once a fortnight, and there is an annual 
meeting of all grades of officers presided over by the 
General or Chief of the Staff ; but although the great 
burdens of the Army are carried by the National and 
International Headquarters under one roof, the Chief 
of the Staff directs, rules, and commands each depart- 
ment. The tendency of his policy for the last twenty 
years has been to let one department know as little as 
possible what the other is doing ; and that applies to 
heads as well as subordinates. Hence, while exhibiting 
the appearance of a strong organisation, there is a 
peculiarly real exclusiveness about International Head- 
quarters which noonday prayer-meetings and occa- 
sional spiritual conventions have failed to remove. 

The Assurance Department is a thing apart from 
the life-stream of the Headquarters as a whole. This 
semi-separateness also enters into the private life of 
the officers. The Chief of the Staff has tried several 
plans to control that, so as to exert the greatest possible 



168 GENERAL BOOTH 

personal influence over their lives at home and at the 
various corps throughout London to which they belong, 
but these efforts have only served to make the officers 
wary and chary about imparting information about 
themselves. 

A (Commissioner Pollard, a man of singular depart- 
mental ability, and enjoying the confidence of the 
General and Chief of the Staff unhappily he is no 
longer connected with the Army tried his hand at 
monthly meetings at which a certain amount of in- 
formation was imparted to the Headquarters staff 
and certain changes were explained, but he could not 
sustain the departure. Then several attempts were 
made to hold spiritual gatherings under the direction 
of leading officers ; but that led to gossip and com- 
parisons as to the personnel of the leaders, and that 
fell through. Then the Chief of the Staff and Mrs. 
Booth took to meeting the departments separately. 
That was more effective, but on general rather than 
on particular grounds. 

A form was introduced on which an officer had to 
state how many meetings of the Army he attended 
during the week and what part he took in them and 
so forth. That has proved also a dismal failure. 

From time to time the Chief of the Staff has been 
perturbed by the manifestation of certain evils, such 
as the proportion of officers who would appear at 
business out of uniform, the number of novels found 
in the offices, and the whisperings of clandestine visits 
of officers to places of questionable amusement. For 
example, I myself was once guilty of accompanying a 



A GREAT BUSINESS CENTRE 169 

distinguished officer to the Lyceum to enjoy and 
profit by seeing Henry Irving play " Thomas a Becket." 
But, alas ! we were found out ! 

Other officers went regularly but were not reported. 

The Chief of the Staff never quite forgave me for 
that lapse, and I cannot blame him, for one officer 
with a Bohemian temperament could not but corrupt 
the men and women who were being trained to a life 
of separation from these and other worldly attractions, 
and I hereby tender him my sincere apologies for this 
and other departures from grace, and hope that he is 
more successful now than heretofore in securing an 
organic as well as a spiritual unity in his own creation. 
For Headquarters is essentially Mr. Bramwell Booth's 
affair. 

The business habits of the Staff are commendable. 
The officials are, as a rule, punctual and industrious. 
Office hours are from 9 a.m. till 5.30. The officers are 
paid poor salaries, and many have a hard struggle to 
make ends meet. Sickness and misfortune necessitate 
appeals for grants, which officers resent, as they come 
before Boards whose members are not very scrupulous 
about their allusions to these appeals. 

There is an elaborate system for revising salaries, 
and if there is a department that deserves sympathy, 
it is the Board that has the task of considering the 
recommendations of the heads of departments for the 
increase of the salaries of their staff, which takes place 
in December of each year. About the end of the year 
they generally display a weakness for curtness of 
language which is understood only by those who are 



170 GENERAL BOOTH 

familiar with the religious temperament. It is curious 
that people who make a loud profession of being wholly 
and solely given up to the war are generally the loudest 
in denouncing the remuneration which they obtain for 
their noble services, and are the first to rush into corre- 
spondence with the Chief of the Staff if in their opinion 
their increase amounts to only Is. 3d. per week instead 
of Is. 6d. 

Connected with Headquarters are no cricket, bicycle, 
or football clubs. No encouragement is given by the 
Chief of the Staff to healthy outdoor games or rifle or 
gymnastic exercises. The consequence is a not alto- 
gether large proportion of anaemic men and women. 
The officers reside in districts like Walthamstow, 
Penge, Clapton, etc., where the Army has large corps. 
The officer or young boy or girl employee officers in 
embryo have to be up early in the morning and rush 
off by workmen's train for the City, where they lounge 
about for an hour after arrival, and enter the office, 
as so many in London have to do, half dead with ennui. 
Their work allows of little if any real healthy exercise. 
A " slushy " lunch and cup of tea in the afternoon, and 
as soon as they reach home and have partaken of a 
not very invigorating meal they have to hie off to a 
meeting, which is generally held in a stuffy atmosphere. 
That meeting concludes as a rule about 9.30 to 10 
o'clock, and after the meeting there are the tempta- 
tions to young people to gossip or sweetheart. And 
so one may be pardoned for raising a voice against 
the rigid attempts that are made by this and other 
religious houses in the City to impose a code of morals 



THE STAFF BAND 171 

that violates all sense of proportion, and ignores the 
conditions that make for physical robustness and 
independent thinking. 

A creditable exception applies to a Staff Band, which 
makes incursions into the country twice or thrice a 
month, and occasional trips across to the Continent. 
A smart set of fellows, under the baton of a veritable 
Sousa a man whom Bernard Shaw described as the 
livest man on this side of the Atlantic this Band has 
saved many men for the Army. The bond of music 
and comradeship has kept them together ; and if a few 
cricket and football clubs could be organised in the 
same spirit, Mr. Booth would not have to lament, as he 
has to do, the loss of promising young men who know 
what is transpiring in the outside world, and know too 
that it is not half so black as it is painted by the 
votaries of a cult to whom all who do not swear by their 
shibboleths are on the wrong road. 

Altogether, the Headquarters is a worthy tribute 
to its creator and director, and these observations are 
only intended to accentuate the fact that, with all its 
grace, the Salvation Army in Queen Victoria Street is 
a very human affair after all. 



CHAPTER VIII 
SALVATION ARMY SAINTS 

Professor Drummond and the Mysterious in Religion Jacob Yonker 
His Conversion and Work His Will Hedwig von Haartman 
Her Letters Her Work -Jack Stoker His Conversion His 
Work 

IF Professor Henry Drummond's theory of the mys- 
terious in religion is sound, then the Salvation Army 
supplies a valuable contribution to the study of that 
principle of Christianity. He maintained that 

" Salvation in the first instance is more connected 
directly with morality. The reason is not that salva- 
tion does not demand morality, but that it demands 
so much of it that the moralist can never reach up to 
it. The end of salvation is perfection, the Christ-like 
mind, character, life. Morality is on the way to this 
perfection : it may go a considerable distance toward 
it, but it can never reach it. Only life can do that. 
For the life must develop according to its type ; and 
being a germ of the Christ-like, it must unfold into 
a CHRIST." 

These are things hard to be understood by the man 
of the street. The sceptic asks : " Where and in 
whom are the signs of this Christian life ? If Chris- 
tianity has in it such mystic power, let us have proof 
of it." The man of the world doubts the presence 

172 



SALVATION ARMY SAINTS 173 

in humanity of what Drummond calls " something 
with enormous power of movement, of growth, of 
overcoming obstacles, to attain the perfect." The 
Church believes in the presence of the Divine, and if 
men's vision of the spiritual were not so blind, they 
would behold the clearest evidence of its uplifting 
sanctifying energy in the image of God reflected in the 
penitence of, say, an Italian peasant before his father 
confessor, as well as in the beautiful lives that have 
been carved out of rough human granite blocks by 
the peculiar tools employed by the Salvation Army. 

No review of this movement would be complete if it 
omitted a reference to some of the lives that it holds 
up as its patron saints. Let us look at one or two. 
The first was " made in Germany." Jacob Yonker, 
a " man of the world," who fought for his Fatherland 
at Sedan, entered business, made it a lucrative success, 
and then became sick of the materialistic end to 
which everything around seemed to be tending, his 
own life in particular. 

A Heilsruf (War Cry) fell into his hands, and that 
piece of literature impressed him. A Methodist at the 
time, a devout Sunday-school worker, a model em- 
ployer of labour, and a total abstainer, he had not 
attained to the perfect life as Drummond defined it. 

Did the Army show the way to it ? Its journal 
declared that it was possible, and so he went to Basle 
and there studied the Corps life of the Army. To his 
amazement, he discovered common people absorbed 
with a passion for the salvation of souls ! Here, at 
last, he found so he thought a people who under- 



174 GENERAL BOOTH 

stood the practical meaning of the Cross, and a " call " 
came to him to follow the Army. 

He severed his actual connection with business, 
attached himself to an Army Corps as a plain private 
soldier, came to London to complete his salvation 
education ; and of his experience at this time he 
wrote : 

" When I went out for the first time in a red jersey, 
it was a terrific death for the old man. And when I 
came to riding fourth class, where I had always gone 
first or second before, I certainly felt it ; but there is so 
much opportunity to work for God. When you get 
among the very lowest, as soon as they see the uniform, 
they say : 

" ' Hullo, here comes the Salvation Army ; you 
must get converted.' 

" And when you get amongst the most intelligent 
they know too that the Army is not there as a Chris- 
tianity of controversy, but as an agency to compel 
people to come into the Kingdom. 

" Another time when we met with some friends, one 
said to me, ' Oh yes, the Army may be very well in 
its way, but why need you have gone into it ? ' ' One 
thing is clear to me,' I said, 4 the world has got too 
many capable men, but for God's Kingdom men are 
wanting.' " 

Mr. Yonker was commissioned as a captain by 
General Booth at Clapton, rose to be the second-in- 
command of the work of the Army in Germany, regu- 
larly devoted the major portion of his profits from his 
investments to the extension of the Army's work in 
his Fatherland, and by the sweetness and saintliness 



JACOB YONKER 175 

of his life drew many people to see the Army and 
religion in a sympathetic light. After devoting twelve 
years' service to the Army in Germany he fell dead 
while attending the funeral service of a brother officer 
in Berlin. After his death his last will and testament 
proved a document of extraordinary interest, and the 
truest comment upon the spiritual influence of the 
Army upon his life : 

" The amounts of which mention is made in this 
paper proceed from money which I have received, or 
am still to receive, from the Dorsteiner Foundry in 
Dorstein for selling them my patent right on the Brick 
Press Machine which I have invented, and which was 
constructed according to my design. In fact, I put the 
whole of the proceeds from this business on this 
account. 

" Already years ago I resolved in my heart to give 
the whole profit derived from this machine to God ; 
that is to say, to the work of God, and indeed have 
already assigned it to the Salvation Army, years ago, 
for its work in Germany, also all profits up to the 
present connected with it. After the duties on this 
capital have satisfactorily been paid, I desire that 
the whole capital should remain for the Salvation 
Army in Germany. 

" I therefore keep this paper dealing with the 
matter, and have arranged for a separate account to 
be kept by the Berlin Commercial Association. All 
profit and interest derived from this money, or from 
securities bought with the same, come into this sepa- 
rate account and are reserved for the above-named 
purpose. 

" I intend to yearly bestow the interest for the work 



176 GENERAL BOOTH 

of the Salvation Army, and, if necessary, also to take 
from this capital, though I would like to preserve this 
as a special reserve for the Salvation Army. 

" At my death I desire that the total amount of this 
separate account shall come to the Salvation Army, 
and I bequeath this therefore herewith to General 
William Booth, in London, and in case of his decease 
to his eldest son, the Chief of the Staff, Bramwell 
Booth, to be used for the work of the Salvation Army 
in Germany. 

" Should any of my heirs regret this action of mine, 
they may read and think over the following : 

"1. God has, by means of the Salvation Army, 
brought great blessing to my soul, and I owe, next to 
God, much thankfulness to the Salvation Army. 

" What I do is a small matter in comparison with the 
great salvation which I have obtained by the grace of 
God in the victory over self, the world, and the Devil, 
and testimony of a heart cleansed by the blood of 
Jesus Christ. 

"2. God has, by means of the Salvation Army, 
brought great blessings to our ' Fatherland.' 

"Not only in that thousands have already been 
saved from sin and hell, and that the Social Work has 
been the means of blessing hundreds in body and soul ; 
but what is still more, many have through the instru- 
mentality of the Salvation Army experienced the bless- 
ing of full salvation from sin, and a life of constant 
victory through Jesus Christ. They are living witnesses 
to this that we are, and can continue to be, more than 
conquerors they show it by their words and life, and 
from their lives proceed continually blessings for others. 
They will communicate this spirit to others, and the 
fire when helped up will spread itself. This I certainly 
expect, and for this I pray. 



JACOB YONKER 177 

" Also the Salvation Army has been a blessing for 
most of the churches and associations, in that it has 
spurred them on to do and dare more for God and 
souls, and to act more fearlessly for Jesus and His 
Kingdom. 

" 3. Since the day on which I commenced to do some 
work for God, and especially from the time I began to 
lay aside a definite part of my income (for many years 
about a tenth) for His work, God has not only blessed 
me in my soul, but also in earthly store, and if I have 
done something more for Him He has returned it to 
me manifold. It stands as a miracle before my eyes, 
and I am not able to describe how I see and feel 
about it. 

" Through giving I have not become poorer, but 
richer ; I mean, as I write it down here, in actual 
cash." 

An organisation which can turn such a human type 
into the fine gold of a noble consecration has surely got 
hold of the ideals that must and ought to keep alive the 
old fire of enthusiasm for the reign of God in the lives 
of men. 

And if we turn to Finland we shall, I think, trace 
the operation of a similar spirit. Hedwig von Haart- 
man is, to the common people of Helsingfors, and 
Borga, what Father John of Kronstadt was to 
St. Petersburg. Of this gifted lady a Finnish soldier 
of the Salvation Army wrote : 

" She came to us as Jesus came. Her life was a 
constant inspiration to us. She came to us as an angel 
of heaven. She was so different from us men who 
had lived wicked lives, plunged in drink and sin, with 

N 



178 GENERAL BOOTH 

wretched godless homes. How should we dare to 
draw back and shun persecution while she went for- 
ward ? " 

This woman warrior of salvation gave up a com- 
fortable home and friends, aristocratic and refined 
society, to follow the Army. At a time in the history 
of Finland when religious liberty was receiving its 
political quietus from the Russian Pobiedonosteff, she 
donned the Salvation Army uniform and descended to 
the "dives" of Helsingfors, and with the companion- 
ship of a guitar, and a few timid men-mortals, sang 
and testified of Drummond's " enormous power," of 
the grace of God to make the bad good and the vile 
virtuous and unselfish. 

Dragged before magistrates and Governor-Generals, 
ordered to desist from proselytising her fellow men and 
women, waylaid and assaulted by lewd men, deserted by 
friends who fancied that she was imperilling the cause 
she had at heart by the measures that she adopted, 
she followed what she believed to be a Divine light. 
The modern lady was merged in the lover of the de- 
based and abandoned. Imperturbably she sang songs, 
preached salvation, and won Finnish families, drunk- 
ards, harlots, thieves, anarchists, and infidels to a 
professed faith in the Son of God as their personal 
Saviour, and saw evidence of Drummond's power in 
a change of conduct and conversation. 

We obtain a glimpse of this life in those sacred 
epistles that daughters exchange with mothers. This 
is one : 

" I have not seen any of my relations as yet at any 



HEDWIG VON HAARTMAN 179 

meetings. I perfectly understand that, to begin with, 
they will not like us. But that is not what we are 
striving for to be liked. Our wish is to make people 
think, and this they would begin to do if only they 
would come and listen to us quietly for a little time. 

" You ought to see our platform, mamma ! Our 
men soldiers look so nice in their red jerseys, and the 
women with their bonnets. God bless them ! Many of 
them are so truly given up to God, and therefore 
spreading blessing around them. Some have even 
offered themselves as candidates, to be later on re- 
ceived as cadets. 

" Last Sunday's meetings were most wonderful. 
When the evening meeting was over they all sat quite 
undisturbed, and we had literally to beg them to 
leave. 

" Yesterday I visited two families in which last 
Saturday a man and woman had been saved. It was 
a very beautiful visit. The relations told how changed 
they were in their lives. The man had come home in 
the evening, and kissed his little child and his wife, 
whom he had before knocked about. 

" The wife was so glad that the next day (Sunday) 
she came to the hall and said to me, ' I really love 
these meetings.' 

" But, poor new converts ! They have a hard fight 
to endure, for everyone around them not only the 
unsaved, but even the Christians say, ' Don't go 
there ; the whole thing is but a pack of lies.' ' 

And this " life " affords delight, from a strange 
source, if we understand Hedwig von Haartman rightly. 
This is indicative of something more than a skilful 
strategist and tactician : 



180 GENERAL BOOTH 

" God has still helped us, although in many ways 
things are very difficult. The Devil plans and plots 
what he can do with us. And now, during the last 
days, he has attacked us in a new way that is, through 
the roughs. They have been absolutely dreadful both 
inside the meetings and when they were not allowed 
in outside as well. 

" We considered the thing and prayed to God for 
help and wisdom, for we saw that the mistake was in 
a sense with our own people, who have not been as 
patient and loving with the roughs as they ought. 

"So all at once I got an idea. That was to have a 
meeting entirely for roughs. Every single one was 
allowed in, and they were given all the front seats, 
while the soldiers sat either behind or among them. 

" You should have seen the change that came over 
these dreadful men ! They were so well behaved, they 
listened so attentively, and when the invitation was 
given seven of them came out and knelt at the penitent 
form. It made me so happy ! " 

When she saw the work of the Army established in 
Finland, sickness overtook her. She passed from the 
crush and responsibilities of the battlefield to the 
silence and mystery of the sick-chamber. Her ex- 
perience of the transition is embodied in counsel to her 
faithful lovers in the bonds of her kingdom : 

" I had such an intense joy in coming this summer 
to Finland. I have rejoiced as perhaps never before 
in my life. Then came this severe illness, and all my 
feelings went, and I saw and felt only suffering and 
pain and the shadow of death. But I am walking 
wholly by naked faith, for I know that Jesus has 



HEDWIG VON HAARTMAN 181 

promised to be with me every day and every hour, and 
that my Redeemer liveth and will triumph over dust. 

" I send you one farewell greeting, and say to you, 
perhaps such times will also come to you, and maybe 
they will come directly after some great joy." (She 
had been recently married to a scholarly Swiss Salva- 
tionist.) " Then do not slacken your faith ; even 
though you can see nothing and feel nothing, you will 
have the victory. 

" I thank you for your prayers, and ask you to press 
on. I would like to meet you all again in heaven by 
and by." 

She too died like Jacob Yonker, of Germany, 
bequeathing to her Fatherland a legacy of service, full 
of tender compassion for the oppressed. Hers was a 
truly noble life. 

Students of psychology and the religious idea may 
discount the conclusion to which I have come, that 
lives of the type described are the outcome of the 
*' enormous power." At any rate, they may not be 
prepared to ascribe to the Salvation Army organisation 
any particular gift or influence for making character 
of this order. And they can certainly point in support 
of the contention to the fact that in the cases cited 
both Jacob Yonker and Hedwig von Haartman were 
instructed from their youth up in the knowledge of a 
spiritual life ; that they had acquired considerable 
experience in the service of God before they donned 
the scarlet jersey and hallelujah bonnet of the Army ; 
and that their steps may have been dictated by a 
measure of egotism or at least dissatisfaction with the 
lethargy and spiritual deadness of their religious sur- 



182 GENERAL BOOTH 

roundings. A concatenation of circumstances pro- 
duced in them an impulse which the Army acted upon, 
and thus they became devotees and martyrs for the 
cause. 

This reasoning so common in considering religious 
experiences is, I suggest, superficial, though for the 
sake of argument I am prepared to accept it, premising 
that it is certainly a remarkable aspect of both their 
lives that, possessed of a natural robustness and inde- 
pendence of character, they adhered to their faith in 
the Salvation Army to the end. No one will question 
the purity of their motives or the lustre of their conse- 
cration to the salvation of their Fatherland. Why 
should we, then, not give them credit for finding in the 
work of the Army, and in the acceptance of its teach- 
ing, all that they claimed for it ? 

But we will look at an Englishman's life that was 
not at one time permeated with any higher inspiration 
than the gratification of his animal instincts. Perhaps 
a brief sketch of his spiritual development from a con- 
dition of moral " tadpolism " to the full-grown altruist 
will be of more service to the enquirer after the secret, 
if it is a secret, of the Salvation Army's power to turn 
men of one type into men of another. 

Here is Jack Stoker, for example. By what power 
was this man made to see ? By what power was he 
subdued from being a man in brute form to one of the 
most lovable and gentle of men ? He was a pitman, 
illiterate, drunken, and abandoned by his friends. He 
married a happy Northern lass, and within twelve 
months Jack was a widower, with a tender baby on 



JACK STOKER 188 

his hands. He took to drinking and horse-racing. He 
drank and lost heavily. He would work for a week or 
fortnight, and then with the proceeds perhaps about 
ten pounds would carouse in public houses till every 
penny was absorbed in drink and in betting. His 
companions were foul-mouthed scoundrels, a bull- 
terrier, and his young child, which he invariably carried 
wherever he went except to the pit. He would roll it 
up in a shawl, tuck it in the corner of an ale-shop, set 
his dog to guard it, and then drink till he was drunk. 
One morning he was discovered in a field where he had 
slept all night, and inside his overcoat was his child ! 

A parson once attempted to reason with him. 

" I couldn't understand the gentleman," he said. 
" He spoke in parables." 

" What do ye want me to dae ? " I asked. 

" Read your Bible," he said. 

" I canna read," I told him. 

" Then come to church," he advised. 

" I hae nae claes," I answered. 

" Ask God to help you." 

" I am always daeing that, sir, so help me God." 

The parson gave him up. 

The police were his best friends. They winked at 
many of his revelries, and it is said that their reason 
was not altogether philanthropic. Jack Stoker had 
a couple of fists that had made deep impressions upon 
the faces of several members of the force, and they were 
merciful ! 

He was invited to attend a Salvation Army meeting, 
conducted by one of those sweet Salvation lasses that 



184 GENERAL BOOTH 

have done more to redeem the Salvation Army from 
dryness of soul than they get credit for. Jack and a 
few more of his mates sat and listened with respect, 
he with his dog as usual. Dogs are allowed inside 
Salvation Army places of worship under certain circum- 
stances. This was such an occasion. No one had 
the pluck to object to the notorious " Jack Stoker " 
taking his dog with him into that mission hall. 

After the service was concluded and the men ad- 
journed to their rendezvous, a discussion arose as to 
the qualities of the woman preacher and her sermon. 
All were agreed that the sermon was clever, but no one 
quite understood the meaning of the text, " When the 
prodigal came to himself." 

" Dost thou knaw Scripture, Jack ? " Stoker was 
asked. 

" That I do," he replied, although he had never read 
a line of the Book. 

" Well, what does that text mean, Jack c come to 
himself ' that we canna guess at, lad." 

" You must have been badly brought up," he re- 
plied. " It is as plain as thy speech, mate. Why, the 
poor de'il had got so far down that he had pawned 
everything to his very shirt. He came to himself ! " 

And the men gravely accepted Stoker's interpreta- 
tion of Holy Writ and called for a pot of beer. 

The hallelujah lass heard of the story, and gave it 
forth that Jack Stoker would be brought to the Lord. 
God had given her the assurance that he would be 
saved. 

Jack treated the Captain's prediction as a great joke, 



JACK STOKER 185 

and drank more and more on the strength of it. One 
Saturday evening he was so intoxicated that he rolled 
into his dog-kennel and made it his bedroom for the 
night. When he awoke next morning with a dry, 
parched tongue, an aching head, and a miserable feel- 
ing because he had neglected to attend to his little 
child, he struggled to his feet, and just then he heard 
the band of the Hallelujahs go past singing, " Oh, you 
must be saved to wear a crown ! " A big ball of emo- 
tion swelled up in his throat, and scarcely realising 
what he was doing, he strolled into the Army hall, 
and at the close of the service Jack Stoker was on his 
knees praying ! 

It is difficult to find the appropriate term to describe 
a cross between a prayer and an oath, penitence and 
ignorance. But whatever word defines it, Jack Stoker 
declared, " I'll drink nae more. I'll try and be a good 
man and a kind father to my child. Aye, God help 
me, that I will ! " 

Next morning Jack, to the surprise of his mates in 
the pit, landed at the seam without cursing. They 
fancied that he was sick. 

" Thou art not thyself to-day, Jack," one remarked. 

" Thou'rt reet, lad," Jack said. " I went to the 
Hallelujahs last night, and I made up my mind to be 
good, and I don't know, lad, how to begin. I hae nae 
picks. They are all in pawn." 

"I'll lend thee one of mine, Jack," said one of his 
chums, glad for the sake of the town that he was going 
to turn over a new leaf. 

" Na, na, a Christian ought not to borrow, lad," 



186 GENERAL BOOTH 

Jack replied, so careful was he to recognise at the 
start that Christianity, as he understood it, was to be 
measured by good conduct. 

Within three years this illiterate and drunken miner 
was preaching to one of the largest congregations of 
men in the North of England. Now married to the 
lass that predicted that he would be saved, General 
Booth had the courage to commission them to catch 
the souls of his class in the town of Sunderland. 

In that town is a monument to the memory of 
General Havelock. It can be seen, from its altitude, 
a considerable distance away. There is another monu- 
ment, but it is invisible, and yet worshipped by many 
who at one time degraded their bodies, cursed and 
persecuted and maimed their wives, and pawned their 
children's boots for beer. To-day they are peaceable 
and clean and Christian citizens, and they are those 
who bless the day that ever Jack Stoker came to 
Monkwearmouth. When he left at the word of com- 
mand to go elsewhere Sunderland wept. The Mayor 
gave him the Godspeed of the town, and hundreds of 
reformed men and women sang one of his favourite 
songs of salvation as the train took him away to 
another battleground in the Army. 

And as I write, he and his wife lie dying in a York- 
shire hospital, their faces radiant and their hearts 
calm with the peace of God. They have fought a good 
fight, and are about to finish their course with ten 
thousand blessings on their heads. And what I wish 
to emphasise is not the man's work, but the man. 
He is the greatest wonder. As an interpreter of Scrip- 



SALVATION ARMY SAINTS 187 

ture, as a human well of compassion for the inebriate, 
as a successful winner of souls, he has few equals in this 
organisation ; and when he is called to his reward the 
nation will not go into mourning, and the great news- 
s^ papers of the land may not even chronicle his death. 
But what will the publicans and sinners think ? And 
the happy wives and bairns in the North of England ? 
Aye, and the angels in heaven ? 

Will the Salvation Army continue to raise up such 
men and women ? On that depends not so much their 
religion as how they apply it. That an "enormous 
power" accompanies the Army's preaching no one 
will deny. What is frequently forgotten is that the 
life begun in men is often throttled or destroyed by 
the very means employed to bring it about. 



CHAPTER IX 
SOCIAL SALVATION 

The Social Scheme The Farm Colony In Darkest England and the 
Way Out 104-,000 subscribed in a few weeks Some Criticisms 
Some Encouraging Features Some Recent Developments 

IN the year 1891 General Booth startled the world with 
an announcement that the Salvation Army would 
organise a great Social Scheme with the object of ren- 
dering shelter to the homeless crowds of our large 
cities, establish depots for supplying out-of-works with 
temporary labour, open labour exchanges, poor men's 
hotels, drunkards' homes, prison-gate brigades, slum 
posts, rescue homes, women's shelters, maternity 
homes, hospitals, a poor man's lawyer, and a whole 
network of agencies for inspiring the miserable and 
sunken masses of society with the idea that no one 
need starve, or steal, or commit suicide while physi- 
cally able to perform sufficient labour to meet the cost 
of his food and maintenance. All these agencies were to 
be co-ordinated or grouped under two departmental 
heads, one for the women's wing and the other for the 
men, the whole to be called a City Colony, and to be 
administered by Salvation Army officers. 

The second part of this Social Scheme was to be 
called the Land or Farm Colony, to which men were 

188 




Copyright, Bolak. 

THE GENERAL AND MR. BRAMWELL BOOTH 
DISCUSSING THE FARM COLONY. 



SOCIAL SALVATION 189 

to be transferred and restored to at least a measure of 
moral and physical stamina in the City Colony. On this 
Farm Colony, or community, there were to be all sorts 
of small industries, but the chief occupations would be 
those connected with market-gardening and general 
farming. This Colony was also to combine training 
for men who should be transported to another land, 
which was to be named " The Over Sea Colony," where 
they were to be placed upon an independent footing, 
given land to cultivate or permanent work suited to 
their ability, the moral idea being that the colonists 
would obtain a real start in life. This Colony was to 
be established upon co-operative principles, the Salva- 
tion Army to hold in perpetuity the title-deeds, so that 
it would exist wholly and solely for all time for the 
benefit of the submerged tenth. 

There were to be no religious tests. The complete 
scheme was to be managed by the Salvation Army, 
without representatives from outside Associations. 
The colonists would, as a mark of discipline, be ex- 
pected to attend one Salvation service a week, and 
General Booth stated that as the Army was un- 
sectarian, the entire effort would be free of the least 
semblance of proselytism. He humorously declared 
that an infidel could participate in all the benefits that 
his scheme might confer upon him, and that he could 
" live and die and be buried as an infidel, and have a 
stone over his grave to say so, provided that he paid 
for it." 

The whole scheme was detailed in the book entitled 
In Darkest England and the Way Out, a book that 



190 GENERAL BOOTH 

proved an enormous success and which was translated 
into several languages. The profits derived from the 
sale amounted to considerably over 10,000, which 
the author, General Booth, generously handed over 
to the Darkest England Fund. The book itself was 
written, and to some extent inspired, by a warm friend 
of the Army, Mr. William T. Stead. He had followed 
the Salvation Army from its inception, and criticised 
it in a friendly spirit from time to time. If the General 
requires a defender on the Press to-day he can always 
rely upon the facile pen of Mr. Stead. 

The time was opportune for launching such an enter- 
prise both as it related to the Army and the spirit of 
the times. The work of the London County Council 
had revealed to the Churches that charity was not 
making very serious inroads upon the immorality and 
social degradation of the slums. It was beginning to 
illuminate the civic conscience as to insanitation, bad 
housing, and the parasitic classes that roamed about 
the docks, bridges, and other resorts of the homeless. 
Trade was also dull and the cry of the unemployed 
was heard in the land. The spirit of Poor Law Re- 
form was in the destructive stage of progress. Yet 
no one seemed able to propound a new scheme im- 
pregnated with the humanity and imagination neces- 
sary to make it a success. Noble philanthropists like 
Shaftesbury and Peabody had appeared on the scene 
of despair from time to time, casting rays of light upon 
the dismal plight of the overcrowded and out-of-works ; 
but their schemes lacked comprehensiveness, unity of 
organisation, and the men to carry them to a logical 



THE -DARKEST ENGLAND" SCHEME 191 

triumphant success. Then, again, the scouts of Labour 
and Socialist parties were at work, and though 
they were derided by the Press and looked upon as 
visionaries, it is now conceded that they served to 
accentuate the growing discontent against the dole 
system of dealing with the necessities of the poor. 
They focussed the attention of the public upon the 
need of a more scientific and economic treatment of 
the evils from which they suffered. 

At the psychological moment General Booth of the 
Salvation Army stepped forward with his great social 
scheme. 

But other circumstances were at work within the 
organisation which almost forced the leader of the 
Army to devise an effort that should run side by side 
with the spiritual work, for enabling the officers to 
effectually deal with men and women in distress who 
asked the ordinary Captain for aid. Here is an ex- 
ample of what I mean : 

At the close of a Sunday meeting which I conducted 
in Colchester just before the " Darkest England 
Scheme " was launched, ten persons knelt at the 
penitent form. Two of these were confirmed inebri- 
ates. One was the wife of a well-known man and the 
mother of seven children. She was clearly a case for 
an inebriates' home, and the first for a more stringent 
reformatory. But the Salvation Army had no such 
institutions. Of the ten penitents two more belonged 
to the tramp class. A young man had embezzled a 
sum of money and had run away from home, while 
another was a woman who could only be dealt with 



192 GENERAL BOOTH 

in a hospital. Now, all that I could offer this minia- 
ture company of degenerates was the consolation of 
salvation. It is easy to argue, as some theorists and 
preachers do, that the function of the Church is not 
to repair the moral wrecks of our economic system ; but 
when you are confronted with repentant fellow-mortals, 
cursed by heredity, a demoralising environment, and 
the contaminating effects of drink and other evil 
habits, what is the Church for, I ask, if it is not to take 
such by the hand and help them to lead a better life ? 
Aye, and help them by more than pious words and 
lofty counsel. 

The Salvation Army was even more helpless in this 
respect than the Churches. It claimed that it was 
specially raised up by God to rescue the lost, and to 
a large extent it was apparently succeeding in en- 
listing the attention of these classes. Many of its con- 
verts, the stories of whose reformation enriched the 
literature of the movement, encouraged the hope that 
the Army was the only reply to the despairing and 
forlorn. And yet, except for a few rescue homes and 
a home for the reception of ex-prisoners, and one or 
twa shelters and Slum Posts, the Army was doing next 
to nothing but holding meetings every night and all 
day on Sunday. Help for submerged people was de- 
pendent upon the charity of an individual soldier or 
a friend, the worst form of charity that can be ad- 
ministered both in its results and effects upon society. 

As an officer who knew the mind of the field officer, 
I fearlessly asserted that the Social Scheme, when it 
was introduced, meant the salvation of the Salvation 



THE "DARKEST ENGLAND" SCHEME 193 

Army. We hailed it as a relieving force to an army 
in an awkward situation. The fact is, the organisa- 
tion was beginning to stagnate. The interest in its 
methods had begun to wane. The cessation of perse- 
cution had left it without a theme for exciting public 
sympathy. Attendance was down. Soul-saving was 
down. The membership was a most fluctuating 
quantity, and the Army was hampered financially. 

The dramatic introduction of a new policy with the 
bold challenge that the Army Chief would, if the money 
were forthcoming, eventually rid England of pauperism, 
and establish a system that would stamp out the evils 
of the casual ward and drain our social morass of its 
pestilential parasites, was seriously accepted by a sec- 
tion of the public. The Army itself was wildly en- 
thusiastic about it. It revived the spirits of the 
organisation. Everywhere the subject was talked 
about and discussed. Nonconformist chapels were 
thrown open as they had never been before to officers 
of any and every rank, to lecture upon the General's 
Scheme, whether they knew much about it or not. 
The Scheme was debated in clubs, literary societies, 
and conferences of Poor Law Guardians, and when 
the General formally launched the effort in the old 
Exeter Hall, he stated that if the public would provide 
him 1,000,000 to establish the experiment and supply 
him with 100,000 per annum, he would demonstrate 
the success of the scheme he had described in his book 
In Darkest England and the Way Out. Money for the 
experiment rolled in. Within a few weeks 104,000 
was subscribed, and it seemed to some as if the de- 
o 



194 GENERAL BOOTH 

spised, ridiculed, and persecuted " Corybantic Chris- 
tianity " of the Salvation Army was to evolve a 
solution for the socially submerged classes of the 
cities, while political economists indulged in either 
airing or confounding theories. 

Before dealing with some of the objections that have 
been brought in recent years against the Social Work 
of the Salvation Army, it is but rendering General 
Booth and his associates the barest justice to enume- 
rate what he has actually accomplished during the last 
twenty years : 

Shelters for the poor and destitute, 30 ; High-class 
Hotels for working men, 15 ; Factories, Workshops, 
and other industries, 30 ; Farm and Industrial Colonies, 
5 ; Cheap Food Depots, 20 ; Labour Exchanges, 30 ; 
Small Holdings experiment, 1 ; Young People's Re- 
formatories, 5 ; Emigration Offices, 10 ; Anti-Suicide 
Bureaux, 5 ; Lost Relatives Department, 1 ; Dis- 
charged Prisoners' Aid Societies, 10 ; Special Relief 
Agencies (such as Food Depots on the Embankment, 
local efforts arising out of strikes, etc.), 20 ; Receiving 
and Rescue Homes, 90; Maternity and other Hos- 
pitals, 5 ; Inebriate Homes (both sexes), 2. When 
one remembers, however, that there was a falling off 
in the donations of the public toward the maintenance 
of the experiment three years after the initiation of 
the scheme ; that the Army has had to contend with 
trying obstacles in obtaining suitable buildings in the 
cities for its shelters ; that it has had to select, train, 
and develop officers from the ranks of the Army who 
could combine business management with religious 



SOCIAL AGENCIES 195 

zeal ; arrange and rearrange their plans to fit in with 
the increasing and exacting demands of local authori- 
ties ; combat the criticism of friends and enemies of 
the scheme ; learn bitter and expensive lessons from 
the failures of individual experiments the above table 
of results forms as remarkable a document as the 
tabulation of the Salvation Army's progress as a whole. 

The Salvation Army reporters have not failed to 
magnify unduly, I suggest these results, and one 
of the methods by which they do so is in the embodi- 
ment of a schedule in the annual reviews of the Social 
Scheme. This schedule always gives the number of 
meals supplied at the cheap depots, the cheap lodgings 
for the poor (the Army has no free shelters), meetings 
held, receipts from the poor for their food and shelter, 
number of applicants for work, and so forth ; all of 
which is misleading and unscientific because of the 
fact, admitted by officers, that the shelters are fre- 
quented by a class two-thirds of whom are regular 
attendants, just as there is a class who regularly make 
the common lodging-house and casual ward their 
nightly habitation. 

This characteristic of the Army's reporting is univer- 
sal, and to be deplored on public grounds. The Army 
has yet to understand the A B C of impartial writing 
and diagnosis, a defect that is simply a concomitant of 
the leader's platitude that " we have no time to record 
failures we are too busy consolidating victories." 
As if a true statement of failure, and a careful study 
of the lessons to be derived from failure, would not be 
beneficial to the cause concerned and the progress of 



96 GENERAL BOOTH 

the reform. But there it is. The defect has become a 
disease. I defy anyone to search through the deluge of 
literature issued from the Salvation Army Press and 
find in it one single impartial report of any of its opera- 
tions in any land. Where a semblance of impartiality 
is introduced it is covered by so many generalities that 
nothing definite can be ascertained from it. 

In Mr. Harold Begbie's book Broken Earthenware 
this defect in the Army's reports is frequently brought 
to notice. I know personally every one of the converts 
whom Mr. Begbie has, with vivid descriptive talent 
and a philosophic temperament, depicted in that book. 
But it will surprise those outside the Salvation Army 
who have read that book it will surprise no one inside 
to be informed on the authority of one who suggested 
the publication of such a work, that it is not repre- 
sentative of the character of the work of the Army 
Corps in London. For every thief that came under 
the ministry of the Army in Notting Dale, twenty went 
to the devil, and some became worse than ever. That 
Mr. Begbie omits to tell. For every drunkard re- 
formed, for every tramp made to labour, and for every 
trophy canonised in that work, there have been hun- 
dreds I say so with deliberation and after renewed 
investigation of the Corps who did not materialise 
into honest, industrious, sober men and women. I 
say so with deep regret ; and I say so believing, at 
the same time, in the basic principle that the author 
referred to has so graphically upheld. But what a 
loss to the Church and State, and to the Army itself, 
it is that Mr. Bramwell Booth, when he instructed 



BROKEN EARTHENWARE 197 

Mr. Begbie to study his " broken earthenware," did not 
at the same time give " the other side." Was it fair 
to that author's reputation as a student of psychology 
and moral phenomena ? I only recite this instance to 
emphasise the painful deficiency in the Army's general 
reporting, and the uneasy feeling one experiences when 
one reads of millions of starving people fed and housed 
and redeemed through the instrumentality of the 
Social Scheme. 

This does not prevent one, however, from recog- 
nising the unique boon that the Social Scheme has 
been to the science of sociology, to say nothing of the 
untold blessing it has been to an uncounted number 
of individuals. 

It has been my privilege to hear the General in 
public and private, times without number, talk criti- 
cally of the Social Scheme, and expound his dreams for 
its development. It would be injudicious on my part 
if I disclosed what I felt to be confidential in these 
talks. Neither he nor any great leader of men ought 
to be quoted when thinking aloud. I shall discard, 
therefore, what he has said in moments of severe retro- 
spectiveness about the Darkest England Scheme, and 
confine myself to the following combination of several 
conversations in different parts of the world : 

" I never think of it but what I repeat what I have 
said about the parent of the Social Scheme the 
Salvation Army it is not what it is, or what it has 
done, that provides me with the happiest reflection : 
it is what it will be. If a man is drowning, what is the 
first instinct that prompts us ? It is the sense of 



198 GENERAL BOOTH 

humanity. We do not stop to enquire if he is a Russian, 
or a German, or an infidel, or a Protestant, or a Catho- 
lic. We do not ask if he ever stole or lied, or even took 
the life of his fellow-man. We at once try to save him. 
That is my argument for the shelter. If there are men 
in our big cities without shelter, or barely the means 
to procure shelter, I say stop theorising and discussing 
the effects upon the social and political cults of the 
hour. It must be right to help him. Therefore help 
him. Why do I make him pay for his shelter ? Be- 
cause the best way to save a man is not to try and 
do it for him, but make him do it himself. What next 
does that man require ? Hope. He reached the posi- 
tion I describe because there is no chance in the labour 
market, no chance for him at the labour exchange, 
no chance with his friends, and no chance with the 
Church or the State ; only the workhouse or the casual 
ward, and he is not old enough perhaps or beaten down 
enough to seek these asylums of the State. 

" Well, we meet that man with a kind word and a 
promise to do our best for him. That is more than he 
will get on ' the road,' or from the swell that throws 
him a sixpence to get rid of him. Then what next ? 
Work, work, work, and again work, the most desirable 
and often the most difficult thing to obtain. That is 
why I consented to open paper-sorting shops and 
small light industries. I have nothing better to offer 
them. If I had, it would be at their disposal. The 
remuneration is small, I admit, but I do not admit that 
the paper-sorting department of the Army is an 
ordinary factory. If it was, I would tell my officers 
to go into the open labour market and select the 
ablest men and give them the trade-union rate of 
wages. It would pay me to do so expert labour pays. 
But these men are not able to do the work of experts, 



THE GENERAL'S AIM ~ ~199 

and therefore the remuneration is fixed according to 
a scale determined by what we can afford to give after 
allowing for management and oversight. If a profit 
should, after all, be made out of the sorting-rooms, 
well, even the poor fellows need not grumble, for they 
can have the satisfaction of knowing that it will go 
into the department for dealing with them in another 
way." 

" And what next ? Salvation. I do not sail under 
false colours. Nine-tenths of the men who float down 
the stream of unemployment are first drawn into it by 
their own folly or wickedness. Hence my officers are 
trained to conduct meetings calculated to impress 
the men with the truth that a God of mercy and 
power is ready to help and save them. If that is 
proselytising, then I am a proselytiser. I declared that 
was my intention when I wrote Darkest England. Read 
it. Here it is : 

" ' I have no intention to depart in the smallest 
degree from the main principles on which I have acted 
in the past. My only hope for the permanent deliver- 
ance of mankind from misery, either in this world or the 
next, is the regeneration or the remaking of the in- 
dividual by the power of the Holy Ghost through Jesus 
Christ. But in providing for the relief of temporal 
misery, I reckon that I am only making it easy where 
it is now difficult, and possible where it is now all but 
impossible, for men and women to find their way to the 
Cross.' 

"It is charged against the scheme that we aim at 
making it self-supporting. How unreasonable ! Has 
not the world had enough of the dole system and of 
indiscriminate charity ? The recipients of our charity, 
in addition to criticising the work as a whole, protest 
that we make money out of the shelters and some of 



200 GENERAL BOOTH 

the industries. It is not correct. But what if it were ? 
The fact supplies the best answer to those who label 
my plans Utopian. Millions are spent upon the Poor 
Law, and yet at the end of the year the poor are still 
with us in even larger numbers. Under my method, 
now in operation for over twenty years, the men either 
pay for their shelter or work for it, and if I had more 
money I could, on the principles that have been 
demonstrated so successful, take hold of other, if not 
all grades of the poor (with the exception of the en- 
feebled, who should be kept by the State in a condition 
of health and comfort), and make them work for what 
they consumed, and pay a fraction towards the main- 
tenance of the institution under which that oppor- 
tunity is afforded them. 

" I feel much the same about prisoners, tramps, in- 
corrigibles, and rogues, a proportion of whom ought to 
have their civil rights entirely forfeited, until they were 
certified, after treatment in a colony, established for 
the purpose, that they were fit to be released. There 
is a deal of false sentiment as to the rights of man. A 
man has, I contend, a right to live, a right to have an 
opportunity to work, to be educated, and generally to 
possess the means of a healthy existence. But, if 
man, by his persistent and repeated misconduct, for- 
feits any of these rights, or shows that he will not profit 
by what society, through the law, inflicts upon him, 
then he ought to be deprived of his liberty until such 
time as he gives evidence of the return of mental and 
moral sanity." 

With which the majority of political economists 
will agree. The questions that have been raised of late, 
however, are scarcely touched by the General in this 
and other defences. 



MR. JOHN HANSON 201 

Perhaps the most indefensible thing about the 
^ Army is that it does not condescend to answer per- 
fectly legitimate criticism. It circumvents, postpones 
dealing with, or only partially replies to points, 
and these of the least importance. It does anything 
and everything but face straightforwardly an attack 
upon its work. 

Mr. John Manson, in his Salvation Army and the, 
Public, has exposed the social work to a most analyti- 
cal examination, and no one can read his comparisons 
between what was promised in the original plan, and 
what has been carried out, his dissection of balance 
sheets and returns, his rather merciless exposure of the 
shelters, factories, and the farm colony, without 
realising the danger that will confront the Army when 
the Social Scheme comes to be weighed in the scale of 
results, as it must be some day. 

With many of the criticisms in that book I have no 
sympathy. Mr. Manson has the skill of the man who is 
clever at pulling down, but who cannot build. Besides, 
he ignores the operation and power of the Divine Spirit. 
He has nevertheless presented a serious indictment of 
the Army, and one that has caused much grief to friends 
and officers and believers in the integrity of the leaders 
of the Army. His book ought to be answered ; but up 
to the present all that the public has received from the 
General, Mr. Bramwell Booth, and other responsible 
leaders of the movement, in the form of reply, are 
denials of the general truth of the book, and captious 
and frivolous allusions to the man in the official organs 
of the Army Press. Outsiders Premiers, Judges, Mem- 



202 GENERAL BOOTH 

bers of Parliament in numbers have been called in 
to render testimony to the value of the work, and 
essays have been published by Mr. Arnold White, 
Mr. Rider Haggard, and Mr. Harold Begbie, more or 
less interesting, and confirmatory of much that is good 
and beautiful in the lives of officers and converts. 

But no man of any weight has examined the work 
with a friendly and critical eye. Not a criticism ger- 
mane to the value of the scheme as a national institu- 
tion has been examined in the light of facts. Mr. 
Rider Haggard's latest book, which professes to extol 
the shelter as an agency of salvation, moral and social, 
does not contain a single instance of one who has been 
permanently helped to an independent livelihood 
not one ! 

Now, General Booth, in this singular attitude toward 
the public, is scarcely true to himself. He has shown 
that he can be brought to reason by the compromise 
entered into with the trade unions over the notorious 
Harbury Street carpenters' shop. It was alleged that 
sweating was practised there I know it was. The 
Army officials argued to the contrary, and I am rather 
ashamed that I was among the number. But the 
facts proved too stubborn for the leaders of the Army, 
and an arrangement was come to by which both the 
men and the Army will, I think, eventually be the 
better. Why, then, does the General only answer 
attacks when he is driven to the wall ? Personally, I 
could never understand it when I was officially de- 
fending the organisation, inasmuch as the Army has 
a reply, if not convincing, at any rate sincere and 



A BOON TO THE COMMUNITY 203 

reasonable, to almost every assault upon its general 
position ; and if it would only acknowledge the justice 
of some of the criticisms upon particular departments 
of its social work, the public would, I believe, feel 
ever so much happier than it does as to the reality of 
the work. As it is, there is an uneasy feeling that all 
is not well with the Army, for which the leaders are en- 
tirely to blame. If a census of opinion could be taken 
to-morrow on the question provided the census se- 
cured the officers immunity from scrutiny the verdict 
would be in favour of replying to the attacks that have 
been made upon the trunk departments of the Social 
Scheme. 

I finish these observations with a personal testimony. 
Ever since the Army started social work I have been a 
constant and sympathetic student of its developments 
in all lands, and this is my deliberate verdict upon the 
whole scheme of social salvation reform : 

1. That the Salvation Army by taking up social 
work conferred a distinct boon upon the community. 
It has lifted the study of sociology into a warmer 
atmosphere. 

2. That the Salvation Army, by introducing social 
auxiliaries to its campaigns for the salvation of the 
sunken masses of the people, has awakened the 
Churches of Christendom to a more practical concep- 
tion of its mission in this century. The leader in the 
van of social progress in the Churches has been, during 
the last twenty years, the Salvation Army. Till the 
book In Darkest England and the Way Out appeared, 
the Churches generally were asleep on social questions. 



204 GENERAL BOOTH 

3. That the Salvation Army has been unwittingly 
the best argument in support of State Socialism. It 
has accentuated discontent, confirmed the wail of the 
exponents of Socialism, and by failing to secure the 
co-operation that the leader desired by which he 
asserted he could deal a death-blow at pauperism the 
Army has supplied the Socialists with a powerful 
weapon in favour of their programme. 

4. That hi departing from his individualistic theories, 
and going in for the wholesale management of sub- 
merged humanity by means of shelters, metropoles, 
and colonies, General Booth has forced the pace of 
State interference with the general social conditions 
of the poorer classes of the people. 

5. That the Social Scheme has forcibly illustrated 
the utter helplessness of present methods to rid society 
of the evils which foster destitution, vice, and idleness. 
The official organ of the Army admitted, at the opening 
of the year 1911, that despite better trade and the 
decline of unemployment, as registered at labour ex- 
changes and verified by trade-union returns, the distress 
in London was as great and as acute as ever. 

6. That the Army has not faced the logical conclu- 
sion of the experience that it has gained in dealing 
with the submerged masses, with the result that it is 
perpetuating failures, and deceiving people with the 
idea that all it does for the poor is beneficial, whereas 
much that it does is injurious to the poor. 

7. That the proportion of men socially and perma- 
nently redeemed from destitution is infinitesimal when 
compared with the time, labour, and money expended 



COMMENTS 205 

upon their reformation. If the Army were to alter its 
return forms so as to tabulate the number helped, and 
the number permanently restored as the outcome of 
that help, the results disclosed would prove to be dis- 
appointingly small. The Scheme as a social restora- 
tive is, indeed, a failure. As an ameliorative agency 
it is a success. 

8. That the religion of the Salvation Army is a 
greater failure, if tested by results, among the men's 
social agencies than in any other branch of its opera- 
tions. The general idea about the Salvation Army is 
that the nearer that it gets to the most abandoned 
classes the more wonderful and the more numerous 
are the converts. It is a sad admission to pass on to 
the world that the opposite is really the case. The re- 
sults are fewer. General Booth would almost break his 
heart if he knew the proportion of men who have been 
" saved," in the sense that he most values, through his 
social scheme. But he ought to know, and the Church 
and the world ought to know, and in order that it may, 
I will make bold to say that the officials cannot put 
their hands on the names of a thousand MEN in all parts 
of the world who are to-day members of the Army who 
were converted at the penitent forms of shelters and 
elevators, and who are now earning a living outside 
the control of the Army's social work. 

9. That the Women's Social Work is, on the con- 
trary, as great a success in this respect as the Men's is 
a failure. The moral, social, and spiritual value of that 
work can scarcely be over-estimated. It reflects un- 
dying credit upon all associated with Mrs. Bramwell 



206 GENERAL BOOTH 

Booth in the management of rescue homes, shelters, 
hospitals, and inebriate institutions. The State should 
appoint a commission to examine the work as a simple 
object-lesson upon how to deal with unfortunate and 
vicious women. 

10. That the colonisation experiments are too costly, 
too cumbrous, and have not to any appreciable extent 
been utilised for the purpose for which they were 
organised. It is admitted by the General, if I am not 
mistaken, that he committed a serious mistake in open- 
ing the Hadleigh Farm Colony before he was sure of 
the location of the Colony Over the Sea. Up to the 
present that section of the Army's social programme 
has not been given effect to. The General has made 
several attempts to find a suitable tract of land, and 
almost succeeded in inducing the British South Africa 
Company to part with a million acres for the purpose 
of establishing the Colony in the highlands of Rho- 
desia ; but the terms offered by the Company were 
considered by General Booth to be too exacting, and 
the negotiations came to an end. This was most un- 
fortunate, inasmuch as the success of the General's 
scheme can never be considered complete till he has 
had an opportunity of showing what can be done with 
rejuvenated city labour in a colony managed, as it 
would be, in a country away from the surroundings 
and temptations of squalid dwellings and low ale- 
shops. If the money sunk, for instance, in establish- 
ing the Farm Colony at Hadleigh had been devoted 
to the work of the City Colony, the results would 
probably have been 1000 per cent more encouraging. 



COMMENTS 207 

As it is, only about two hundred colonists on an average 
are settled in that Colony. They have no living interest 
in it. For all practical purposes it is simply a glorified 
workshop, except that as a property with a consider- 
ably enhanced increment, it must in time become a 
valuable commercial asset to the Army. That time is 
a long way off, however, owing to heavy mortgages 
resting upon it. As an experiment it has proved 
nothing that we were not familiar with before. As a 
social picture it is interesting. The old Castle of 
Hadleigh still crumbles to the earth. The Thames is 
seen from the heights of seven hills, and the estuary 
that glides past the pasture-lands of the Colony is 
very engaging to men beaten in the war with sin 
and misery. The place is an inspiration till the men 
drop into their grooves of work, and then they realise 
that the drudgery of the City Colony is only excelled 
by what they go through here. The Hadleigh Colony 
has been of real aid to a number of able-bodied paupers, 
who have passed a period of probation at market- 
gardening previous to being transferred to Canada. 
Still it has been much exaggerated by those not 
familiar with the relationship of the Colony to the 
scheme as outlined in the General's book. 

11. That while the Army colonies can no longer be 
charged with insanitation and overcrowding, and the 
general administration has considerably improved, 
there is force in what some critics have pointed out 
again and again, namely, the commercial spirit has 
seriously nullified the power of the social and reforma- 
tive. The officer in charge of a shelter is actuated by 



208 GENERAL BOOTH 

a compound influence. He has to make the shelter 
pay its way in fact, he has to improve its income. 
He has to work hard to do so. He is up early and late, 
is at the beck and call of all concerned, and, as a rule, 
he has no leisure for qualifying himself for the most 
arduous of all his tasks personal dealing with the 
inmates of the shelter. The majority of officers fall 
under the temptation of the commercial spirit. One 
can tabulate returns of inmates, the receipts at the 
box-office, and the amount received at the bar of the 
cheap-food depot. On the other hand, one cannot so 
easily calculate the value of a heart-to-heart talk with 
a prodigal son or a repentant wife who has been de- 
serted (and the shelters are the happy hunting-grounds 
of the wife-deserters), nor can Headquarters secre- 
taries calculate the value of a splendid human meeting. 
When, therefore, the shelter officer's figures are ex- 
amined, and he finds, as he does, that more attention 
is paid to the financial side of the account than to the 
spiritual, it is small wonder that the shelters and 
elevators degenerate into shoppy or lodging-house 
affairs. 

It seems, therefore, to be fair to conclude, if these 
propositions are correct, that the effort, worthily and 
nobly conceived, and extended to its present dimen- 
sions, is still hi an unsatisfactory stage. It has at- 
tacked many, but solved no single problem. It has 
drawn into its many nets of mercy thousands of the 
ghosts of our social underworld and inspired them with 
cheer and some little hope ; but the march of poverty 
still goes on. Lazarus, with all his sores, is still at the 



CONCLUSIONS 209 

gates. The horrors on the Embankment show no sign 
of dying out. Thirty thousand men at least are out of 
work in London. The nomads of our civilisation wander 
past us in their fringy, dirty attire by night and by day. 
If a man stops us in the street and tells us he is starving, 
and we offer him a ticket to a labour home or a night 
shelter, he will tell you that the chances are one out of 
ten if he will procure admission. The better class of 
submerged, or those who use the provision for the sub- 
merged in order to gratify their own selfishness, have 
taken possession of the vacancies, and so they wander 
on. If a man applies for temporary work, the choice of 
industry is disappointingly limited. One is tempted to 
think that the whole superstructure of cheap and free 
shelters has tended to the standardisation of a low 
order of existence in this nether world that attracted 
the versatile philanthropist at the head of the Salva- 
tion Army twenty years ago. If we look to the land 
as the solution of one-half of our social problems, all 
that General Booth can point to is a colony of casual 
labourers at work on his colony at Hadleigh and to a 
handful of small holders learning petit culture under 
favourable conditions. 

But, unlike the evangelist of earlier days, the leader 
of the Salvation Army would appear to have gathered 
very little new light upon the problems on which he 
is at work. He stands by a somewhat antiquated 
laissez faire, and seems incapable of seeing the rise of 
new forces in the world. In dealing with the objec- 
tions that he anticipated when he launched his scheme, 
he argued that if the work upon which he was to em- 



210 GENERAL BOOTH 

bark would be better done by the State, he would let 
them try, and leave it alone himself. Now all that has 
changed. The State has started shelters, swept aside 
miles of insanitary dwellings, brought the lodging- 
houses of the metropolis under vigorous inspection, 
established public baths and laundries, assumed a 
master control of a thousand and one things that con- 
cern the food and housing of the people, and recently 
ensured, by the application of the Children's Free 
Meals Act, that the education of the children of the 
metropolis shall be carried on under reasonable con- 
ditions. The National Administration of affairs has 
not been idle. The Local Government Board have 
multiplied their ramifications, and the Old Age Pen- 
sions Act has at least chased some of the horrors away 
from the aged poor of the land. Labour Exchanges 
have worked a small revolution, and if developed on 
the lines that are suggested at the Imperial Conference, 
may do more to solve some of the problems that 
General Booth and the Church and other Armies are 
engaged upon than anything else. The Prison Com- 
missioners have resolved upon the abolition of the 
ticket-of-leave system, and the substitution of notifi- 
cation to Discharged Prisoners' Societies, in which 
figure the Salvation Army, the establishment of a 
central association for giving effect to this and other 
provisions, more or less in the direction of bringing 
voluntary agencies under the ultimate control of the 
State. And yet there is one gleam of hope in what 
the General and his brave army of officers have 
brought on to the arena of social endeavour. He 



THE VALUE OF TEARS 211 

has shown what sanctified passion is capable of doing 
and undoing. It is still the paramount power when the 
task is the regeneration of the individual. If that fails, 
then nothing in heaven or earth can succeed. An 
officer in the Salvation Army whom the General was 
questioning as to the failure of his Corps, had tried 
everything and failed. 

" Did you ever try tears ? " said the old man. 

The young man had not. But officers as a rule know 
how to weep and work, and man for man they are 
a wonderful combination of devotion, compassion, 
and practicality. 



CHAPTER X 
THE QUESTION OF NUMBERS 

A Question of Policy Some Statistics Difficulty of Retaining Re- 
cruits Some Reasons New Methods Required Sensational 
Accompaniments of the Penitent Form Noisy Advertisement 

WHAT is the numerical strength of the Salvation 
Army ? This question has occupied the attention of 
many of its critics, without resulting in any definite or 
even approximate reply. 

While the Salvation Army has consistently published 
an annual statement of accounts, it is somewhat para- 
doxical that its leaders have refrained from giving 
statistics of membership. Again and again, and in 
almost every country where the Army is at work, no 
official statement as to the numerical strength of the 
Salvation Army has been published. 

Headquarters regularly publishes the number of 
staff and field officers, local officers, bandsmen, corps, 
outposts, shelters, rescue homes, training homes, with 
the number of cadets in each, prison-gate missions, the 
number of lodgers in shelters, and a mass of other 
minutice. But for some mysterious reason, no mention 
is ever made in these statistical statements of the 
number of soldiers (or members). These figures re- 
main a secret. Guesses at the numerical power of the 



A STUDIED RETICENCE 213 

Army have been hazarded by responsible and irre- 
sponsible officers. For example, it has been stated that 
the number of Salvationists in the world goes into 
millions ; and I have seen a report somewhere that in 
England alone the number of uniformed warriors is 
more than that of the combined Methodists' and 
Baptists' membership. 

The secrecy adopted on this question is somewhat 
curious, for sooner or later the Army must disclose the 
fact. Why not now ? All other religious agencies 
tabulate their membership. On what ground does 
the Army stand by a policy of silence on such a vital 
matter ? Is it quite honourable ? Is it in harmony 
with its professed regard for letting the world know all 
about its affairs ? 

The question of soldiership is recognised by the 
General as of paramount importance. It is the test 
of an officer's success. On every Corps report -form 
that a field officer sends to his superintendent is a query 
as to the number of soldiers in the Corps at the be- 
ginning and end of each week. A local census board 
meets monthly to deal with transfers, removals, ad- 
missions, and deletions. It is the most important 
meeting in the life of the Corps. The Divisional Com- 
mander or Superintendent of the Corps is judged by 
the number of soldiers he adds to the Corps under his 
direction. If the number goes down, he is reckoned 
a failure ; if it increases, he is considered a success. 
So that progress in the Salvation Army is measured 
by the number of Salvationists that responsible 
officers add to the roll. 



214 GENERAL BOOTH 

As a method it is very sound. By it, the Army can 
estimate the strength of the movement, as well as the 
practical means of ascertaining the value of the 
enormous expenditure of time, energy, and outdoor 
and indoor evangelisation put forth in landing a sinner 
at the mercy seat. The Churches who lament a decline 
of membership might do worse than call upon Mr. 
Bramwell Booth for a wrinkle or two on how to tabu- 
late results. A Corps is a soul-saving and soldier- 
making agency. Without it there would be no Salva- 
tionists, and without Salvationists there would be no 
officers and no Social Scheme and no Salvation Army. 
Surely, then, it is in the interest of workers of the 
Salvation Army that they should not be kept in ignor- 
ance as to the number of their comrades in every 
country where the Army is at work, their own in par- 
ticular. If the numerical strength is small, then the 
fact should be sounded from the house-tops, for greater 
honour belongs to the organisation for accomplishing 
what it has with inferior numbers. If the membership 
is great, then both the Christian and the non-Christian 
world ought to be in possession of the fact, so that the 
full significance of the attainment may be duly acknow- 
ledged. 

But should not the number be not only stated, but 
analysed by the Army ? I have never yet met an 
officer who appreciated the reasons alleged to be given 
by the General for withholding the information. 
Officers desire to have it in their possession. If it is 
wise policy to inform soldiers of the numerical strength 
of their own Corps, is it not conducive to a proper 



DIFFICULTIES IN PUBLISHING NUMBERS 215 

appreciation of the Army's work that its total roll-call 
should be well and adequately advertised ? 

Why then, I ask again, is the membership wrapped 
up in a cloud of mystery ? There must be some power- 
ful reason why the General, in his interviews with 
pressmen and in his reviews of the Army from time to 
time, evades and talks round this question. Up to the 
present I have not been able to discover a reasonable 
explanation for the singular silence. One explanation 
given is that as the standard of membership in the 
Army is higher and more exacting than what is re- 
quired from an average Church, the publication of the 
total membership of the Army if published would be 
attended with serious misapprehension, and therefore 
it is not given in the Year Book not at all a very 
impressive reason. The Army is not a Church, and is 
not judged, praised, or condemned according to 
Church standards. 

Another reason assigned is that the publication of 
the fact might lead the public to a false conclusion as 
to the sum- total result of the work of the movement. 
The Army's membership, it is asserted, is made up 
mainly of workers. The truth, however, is that the 
Army authorities are squeamish about announcing the 
membership lest, with all their high-sounding state- 
ments as to progress, and their repeated declaration of 
thousands and hundreds of thousands of converts that 
\ have been won to the Army, critics might turn the 
difference between the number of converts and soldiers 
into ridicule, and thereby show that the Army's re- 
vivalism is a gigantic failure. 



216 GENERAL BOOTH 

If, for instance, a critic were to put himself to the 
trouble and expense of tabulating the number of con- 
verts reported in the War Cries of the world, and then 
place the total alongside the number of Salva- 
tionists, the net result might show that not five con- 
verts out of every hundred became members of the 
Army ! That would be a most damaging revelation, 
and rather than face such a possible indictment, the 
Army has gone on, year after year, playing and parley- 
ing with the question. The attitude suggests a limited 
sense of the obligation under which the Army lies to 
tell the world the actual outcome of their struggles 
at making Salvationists. If this fear really explains 
the silence of Headquarters as to its membership, then 
it is both craven and short-sighted. They have only 
to compare their efforts with those of the Churches 
to show that the making of members is a perplexing 
and disappointing process, and even if the figures re- 
veal, as they assuredly would, a shocking disparity 
between the number of people who find their way to 
the roll-book via the place of penitence, what then ? 
Is it not as well to admit the losses, and to pass on 
to the world the experience which the Army has 
acquired in its undoubted endeavours to stem the 
leakage ? 

The enquiry as to the strength of the Salvation Army 
remains unanswered. After referring to reliable figures 
in my possession and reckoning the progress of the 
Army at a reasonably high percentage since the date 
to which these figures refer, I consider the following 
a fairly accurate estimate of the number of Salvation 



SOME USEFUL STATISTICS 21? 

soldiers in each country where the Army is at work. 
It is the first statement of the kind that has been given 
to the world. The following is the list : 

Great Britain and Ireland . 115,000 soldiers 

France and Switzerland . 6,000 ,, 

Germany .... 5,000 

Holland and Belgium . 6,000 

Denmark .... 2,500 

Sweden .... 10,000 

Italy and Spain . . 200 ,, 

Austria . . . . 50 

South Africa . . . 2,500 

Australasia . . . 30,000 

Canada .... 20,000 

United States . . . 30,000 

India .... 20,000 

Japan . . . . 1,500 

Java .... 500 
Jamaica, South America, 

and other parts . . 5,000 

256,950 

As nearly twenty thousand of these are in the pay of 
the Army as officers, it may be accepted that, in round 
numbers, there are a quarter of a million registered 
members of the Army in the world. That is the numeri- 
cal result of forty years' evangelisation throughout the 
world. Personally, I think the above statement the 
most astounding outcome of one man's consecration 
to the service of God that the world has ever seen or 



218 GENERAL BOOTH 

known, even when allowance is made for the number 
who are soldiers of the Army by mere profession, and 
the number is subtracted that have been won to the 
ranks from comfortable Christian homes. The natural 
corollary to a table of this importance is, What is 
a Salvationist, and what is his work ? The en- 
trance to the kingdom of heaven via the gate of the 
Army is narrow an ordeal which, if made a condition 
of ordinary Christian membership, would probably 
considerably thin the roll-calls of the Churches. A 
mere profession of faith and a testimony of good 
character are not sufficient credentials to constitute a 
member of the Salvation Army. A Salvationist pledges 
himself to a life of obedience, abstinence from all in- 
toxicating liquor, and self-sacrifice for the good and 
salvation of the world. He is expected to wear a uni- 
form, abstain from the use of nicotine and drugs, and to 
avoid theatres, music halls, football matches, cricket 
matches, and all worldly dress and entertainments. 

Before comparison is made between the progress of 
the Army and that of any other religious organisation, 
a basis of comparison would be very difficult to devise. 
Moral character and a public confession of faith in the 
Divinity of Jesus Christ is all that is necessary for 
admission into the Congregational Church. The terms 
of membership of the Wesleyan Methodists are a little 
more exacting, and with the Baptists the conditions 
are more exacting still. But if the lady members of 
these and other Nonconformist bodies were expected 
to wear on Sundays the ponderous, sombre, coal-scuttle- 
shaped bonnets that the Salvation Army glories in, 



115,000 MEMBERS IN GREAT BRITAIN 219 

there would soon be, to use a commercial phrase, a 
serious " slump " in chapel attendances. And if, in 
addition, the male section of the members had to 
forgo the soothing influence of their pipe and cigarette, 
and devote their Sundays to making processions 
through slum alleys and selling War Cries in low public- 
houses, it is possible something nearer chapel bank- 
ruptcy than a " slump " would be the result. Then the 
Salvation member is expected to sing and speak in 
public, and give, when called upon, a reason for the 
faith that is within him. So that altogether the crea- 
tion of a quarter of a million of people, sworn to con- 
form to the vow of obedience and abstain from the 
luxuries and the pleasures of society, is an achievement 
that cannot be measured by a statistical table, al- 
though there is no earthly reason that I can conceive 
of for withholding the number so pledged from the 
knowledge of the public. Consequently I shall sleep 
with an easy conscience for daring to enumerate the 
numerical standing of the Army in the countries 
named. I hope we have heard the last of the objections 
to the publication of an official return of its members 
year by year. 

The announcement that there are only 115,000 sol- 
diers or members of the Army in Great Britain and 
Ireland will come as a painful revelation, inasmuch as 
the public has been led to estimate the strength of the 
movement as phenomenal. It is nothing of the kind. 
When the women members are deducted from the 
total, as well as the young people of twenty years of 
age, the number of adult members will be found dis- 



220 GENERAL BOOTH 

appointingly small. And that fact compels me to put 
my finger upon a constant source of anxiety to all 
grades of officers, namely, the difficulty not of making, 
but retaining members. The fluctuation that prevails 
in the majority of the Corps in respect of membership 
is one serious problem never absent from the executive 
minds of the Army. It distresses, perplexes, and 
baffles all. 

Here is an illustration of the perplexing thing. We 
will suppose that Captain B follows Captain A in the 
command of Birmingham Fifteen. The membership on 
the books is 180. At the first census-board meeting, 
Captain B is present and goes over carefully the names 
on the roll-book. 

" Who is he ? " he asks the Sergeant-Major, con- 
cerning number one. 

"Oh," the board replies, "he is for all practical 
purposes a non-member. He pays his weekly cart- 
ridge ; that is all. We seldom see him." 

" He ought to be struck off the roll then. Who is 
number seven ? " 

" Seven goes to chapel. He has not fired cartridges 
for weeks, and refuses to see a sergeant." 

" We must have his name off," proceeds the Cap- 
tain. " And number thirty ? " 

"We told your predecessor, Captain, that he ought 
not to be allowed to remain on the roll." 

" Strike him off. And thirty-five Mrs. Blackthorn 
I've been hearing that she is a questionable charac- 
ter." 

" There is a deal of truth in the report. We ought to 



SOME REASONS FOR THE FLUCTUATION 221 

tell her finally, that unless she attends the meetings 
and pays up her cartridges, we cannot retain her name 
on the roll." 

" Certainly," says the Captain. " We must have a 
clean roll at any price." 

I have known the names of dead persons kept on the 
roll for years, and people who have been confirmed 
backsliders. And so it goes on until the Board agrees, 
under a passion for " purifying " the roll, to the re- 
moval of thirty names that were no doubt originally 
added to Birmingham Fifteen with assurances of their 
bona-fides. 

At the end of Captain B's command he has added, 
we will suppose, thirty-five new soldiers to the Corps, 
though in reality the advance is only five, owing to the 
number struck off when he entered upon his duties. 

Captain B leaves at the end of twelve months and is 
succeeded by Adjutant C, who, perhaps, is a greater 
stickler for a clean roll than his predecessor, and when 
his second census-board meeting has been held he has 
deleted fifty names from the roll, with the result that 
at the end of fifteen months' work the Army's position 
at Birmingham Fifteen is weakened by the loss of 
forty-five members ! 

The evil for such it is is a complex one, and, in 
my opinion which will be accepted for what it is 
worth is an incurable evil, for there must be some- 
thing inherently weak in an organisation that spends 
tens of thousands of pounds per annum in saving one 
hundred thousand souls, a fair estimate, and yet finds 
that at the end of the year the net gain in bodies and 



222 GENERAL BOOTH 

brains and service is practically nil after making pro- 
vision for losses by death, emigration, transfers to 
missions and Churches, and backsliding. 

This vast subject, suggested in this comparison, 
is one that only the late Professor James could have 
handled with the necessary ability. For does it not 
destroy the validity of the whole claim of conversion 
at the penitent form ? In any other field of activity 
such a disparity between gains and losses would be 
condemned by common sense, although, as Lord 
Morley says, common sense is very rare. Does it not 
diminish the force of, if not altogether nullify the claim 
which the General attaches to the Army as such to 
be considered as specially raised up by God ? At 
any rate, in all my experience I have not heard a 
leader of the Salvation Army discuss this feature of 
the work in the light of sober fact, excepting on one 
occasion, by the General himself. 

There lie before me now the rough notes of an inter- 
view that I had with the General during one of his 
long campaigns. He discoursed upon fifty causes of 
backsliding, the subject having been specially forced 
upon his attention at the time by a serious decline in 
the number of officers and soldiers in the United 
States. He had been framing " fifty causes of back- 
sliding." Among the reasons he ascribed were : 

Some backsliders were never frontsliders only im- 
pressed made sorrowful on account of the burden of 
sin, and merely resolved to amend their ways. 

Some were not brought to the birth too easily dealt 
with at the penitent form. 



THE GENERAL ON LAPSES 223 

Some were killed at birth through neglect and lack 
of friendly recognition. 

Some were not cradled and nursed and cared for by 
visitation, encouragement, and prayer. 

Some died soon after their conversion, for want of 
work. 

Some were drawn away by the attractions of the 
world and the lust of the flesh. 

Some were insincere and hypocritical. " Many are 
called, but few are chosen." 

I will not venture to improve upon the above plain- 
spoken indictment of the evil by the greatest living 
authority upon the subject of spiritual life in all its 
forms. 

I believe that General Booth would gladly lie down 
and die if, by so doing, he could obtain a satisfactory 
solution of this question. Why does the Army gain 
so little out of the enormous victories that it admits 
to winning week by week and year by year ? Why ? 
There must be something wrong somewhere. The 
leakage is too serious to be treated lightly, and my 
poor contribution to the problem is this : I believe 
that the Army utterly lacks the gift of the spiritual 
horticulturist. If it had studied the law of growth as 
it has studied how to convict men of sin in the 
general sense of the term, the result of the Army's 
work throughout the world would have been truly 
marvellous. But it would not expend time upon the 
diligent study of the science of self-preservation till it 
was well-nigh too late to do so. Now they are just 
beginning to study the whole problem. 



224 GENERAL BOOTH 

The Army is successful in drawing attention to its 
gospel. It can play upon the emotions and not in- 
sincerely. It can dazzle before humanity an alluring, 
captivating hope. In itself the Salvation Army is a 
shrine of a sort of Freemasonry for a certain type of 
human nature. Its system of classifying men into 
grades of glorified positions with yellow, red, silver, 
and gold decorations, titles and promotions which 
all differentiate one class from another appeals to the 
egotism of the flesh, all of which are inextricably mixed 
up as characteristics of the Kingdom of God. But the 
Army fails to lead them. It is a smart pleader, but a 
poor reasoner. It can stir the emotions, at times to 
white-heat passion, but fails to create a corresponding 
reverence for the sacredness of the ordinary duties of 
life. It asserts claims which tend to destroy the sense 
of spiritual proportion. It places the Army, as such, 
before wife, home, children, friends, and leisure. So 
that in course of time there arises a conflict between 
two forces feeling and duty and it is needless 
to say that among the shifty, weak, and backboneless 
classes from whom the Army draws a fair proportion 
of its converts, a large number become mere creatures 
of feeling. 

Let me come down to hard facts. Duty requires 
from a father that he shall occasionally stay at home 
and influence his children in those directions in which 
only a father can ; but if it is " band-practice night," or 
there is some attraction at the hall, duty goes to the 
wall. The Army fosters an unhealthy regard for home 
and the stern realities of business life, not in theory, 



SOME CHANGES NECESSARY 225 

of course, but, as is often the case in religious move- 
ments, the dominant force is not its teaching so much 
as its practice, and it is so in this case. The illustration 
could be carried further. I know whereof I write, 
and have bushels of sad and sorrowful instances of 
Corps whose week-night meetings are made up of 
nothing but go-to-meeting maniacs, who are as far 
removed from Christians in respect of telling the truth 
and practising the virtue of charity as are millions 
who do not know and have never heard that these are 

N <the pillars of heaven. 

Na The Army will have, if I am right in these premises, 
to revise its entire system for the care and nursing of 
its converts ; nay, it will have to revise its notions 
of conversion. At any rate, the Army's methods of 

* physical compulsion should be abandoned forthwith. 
People wearing an anxious look at the close of a meet- 
ing are seized by sergeants as if they must there and 

> then decide to go to heaven or hell. A prayer meeting 
should be a most holy and sacred place, and not an 
auctioneer's shop. Sinners are literally dragged in 

^ some meetings to the penitent form. And when there, 
often amid yells of delight while people are " rolling 
out " to the penitents' bench, they are supposed to be 
receiving spiritual counsel. All the laws of delibera- 
tion, thought, and prayer are thrown to the winds 
while men and women are supposed to be passing from 
death to life. Shameful orgies are often practised. I 
have indulged in them myself. I have seen officers 
dance around a penitent form while sinners have been 
led weeping to it. I have heard officers ask that 
Q 



220 GENERAL BOOTH 

coppers might be thrown on to the platform to make 
the day's offerings up to a certain sum, while men and 
women at his feet have been endeavouring to seek the 
help of God to make restitution for sin, or find a way 
of escape from the lashings of a guilty conscience. Then 
converts are " rushed through " to a registration room, 
where their names are taken, and I have known the 
same converts in less than three weeks stand on a 
public platform and declare their acceptance of 
doctrines that many of the officers dare not preach, 
and vow that they will live and die in the Salvation 
Army. 

Is it any wonder, then, that for every hundred per- 
sons that kneel at the penitent form, not five per cent 
remain faithful to the faith that they there profess ? 
Is it surprising that there should be such reactions and 
losses and lapses when these are some of the conditions 
under which spiritual children are supposed to have 
been born into the w r orld, and that weak and ignorant 
men and women are morally compelled to swallow 
doctrines upon which the Churches of to-day are rent 
in twain ? Is it any wonder that there should be no 
conscience on this subject when, notwithstanding the 
knowledge that officers possess as to the worthless- 
ness of penitent-form figures, week after week the 
official organ of the movement gives special and sensa- 
tional importance to reports from Corps of soul-saving 
events, and rhetorical exaggerations on every subject 
that it attempts to vindicate ? 

I give a few instances selected at random from an 
average War Cry : 




Copy right i Bolak. 

A TYPICAL "HALLELUJAH LASS." 



SALVATION ARMY LITERATURE 227 

A prize is awarded every week to the correspondent 
who sends in the most interesting soul-saving report, 
and in the War Cry for February 25, 1911, this was 
awarded to Coventry I, and was headed " Could show 
Four Sovereigns " what a convert had saved in a 
few weeks since he gave up the use of beer. Yet will 
it be believed that this incident is reported in connection 
with the celebration of the thirty-first anniversary of 
a Corps whose membership is less by one hundred than 
it was during the first year of its existence ? 

The next report states that the meeting was " swayed 
by the Spirit of God," and " three souls accepted the 
invitation to seek Salvation." The building " was 
packed." Where is the relative truth between the 
" swaying " and the results ? 

" The Army Flag at the Masthead " is the title of 
a characteristic report of a campaign which succeeded 
a visit of the General to Swansea. It glows with 
references to the converts ; but it does not point out 
that eighty-five per cent of these converts were back- 
sliders. The report concludes : " Amongst the con- 
verts were men from the common lodging-houses ; 
some had never been to the Army before." 

At Worksop we are informed that " twenty- two boys 
and girls came out for salvation." 

In the same issue the following remarks were passed 
upon a worthy Colonel : 

" Salvation Army advertisements differ from other 
advertisements in that they are absolutely true ; and 
we are able to uphold that unique claim because 
Colonel , throughout the whole time he has had 



228 GENERAL BOOTH 

control of the Army's trading operations, has insisted 
upon every quality ascribed to goods that are offered 
for sale being capable of entire substantiation." 

On page 14 of the same paper we are informed that 
" a novel wall decoration " is not only " imperish- 
able," "but cannot lose colour, break, or deteriorate, 
being executed in solid copper. . . . Price Is. 6d." 
And this is " absolutely true" and " capable of entire 
substantiation." 

Speaking again of the man who passed this adver- 
tisement, the War Cry states : " The Colonel has a 
keen hatred of anything like misrepresentation," and 
" Nobody has ever seen Colonel perturbed ! " 

In a leading article on the death of one of the 
Army's truly great characters, Mr. Bramwell Booth 
asks : 

" Who but the Army could have won him from his 
former wildness ? Or, had others succeeded in bringing 
about his conversion, what would they then have done 
with him ? " What egotism ! It is refreshing to learn 
from the same pen, however, that "it is faith in the 
wonder-working power of God that saves and keeps 
from sin." 

Examples by the score could be multiplied of this 
spirit of inflated egotism and exaggeration from any 
issue of the official organ of the Salvation Army 
demonstrative of at least one of the main causes that 
partly explains the inability of the Army to lead its 
penitents from the penitent form to the soldier's roll. 
This spirit is displayed by nearly all officers, the 
General giving the lead, The sense of proportion 



SALVATION ARMY LITERATURE 229 

would appear to have temporarily died in the veteran 
leader of the Army when he wrote this sentence : 
" Holland to-day presents one of the most stupendous 
chances for extending the Kingdom of Jesus Christ to 
be found in the world." And then without qualifica- 
tion he goes on : " Here you have a people that are 
willing to listen, to consider, and to act ; a Govern- 
ment, a Church, and a Nation that are just discovering 
our value, and are at least ready to profit by it ; and 
liberty for the fight, combined with a force of staff, 
field, and local officers and soldiers all ready to be led 
to victory, with Jehovah waiting to crown every faith- 
ful effort with unprecedented triumph." 

Many of the Army's friends contend that while this 
spirit permeates the literature of the Army of which 
the above are extremely mild illustrations the converts 
of the Army cannot thrive. They believe that the cause 
of the evil to which I have referred is to be found here. 
It may be so. My own belief is that it is simply symp- 
tomatic of a constitutional malady that is almost in- 
curable, and must be left to work out its own destruc- 
tive end. It would be well-nigh impertinent were I 
therefore to play the part of adviser to the executive 
of the Salvation Army. They know their own business 
best. I am no longer in their councils. The place 
I occupy is that of the spectator who sees most of the 
game and where the weak points are. I have touched, 
very lightly I consider, upon one of these weak points ; 
but that the Army will admit the need of a radical re- 
form in the spirit and methods of the work among their 
own penitents I do not for a moment expect. The facts, 



230 GENERAL BOOTH 

however, are as I have stated, and it is not by 
shutting their eyes to them that the leaders of the 
Army will remove their ugliness. They are deplored 
by all, but no one has the courage to advocate the 
claims of a new penitent form or a revision of the very 
principles of the Army. The Army needs a respect 
for accuracy of report and a scientific sifting of the 
figures which relate to their converts, recruits, and 
soldiers, accompanied by a regular statement as to 
the number of its members in all lands. In time I 
believe someone will stand up in its councils and 
demand such a statement, but that time is not yet. 



CHAPTER XI 
RIFTS IN THE FAMILY LUTE 

Family Hierarchy and its Failure The First Salvation Army Split 
A Booth rises against a Booth Ballington Booth against General 
Booth's System A Dramatic Combat between Brother and Sister 
in New York A Second Son's Rebellion The Story of the Clib- 
borns' Secession Why the General does not see his Children 
A Reconciliation Proposal 

GENERAL BOOTH has been a man of sorrows. He has 
walked the streets of London without the proverbial 
sixpence in his pocket. He has drunk the bitter gall of 
tyranny ; known what it is to be oppressed, distressed, 
and cast down ; experienced some of the tragedies of 
the City clerk ; and worked at the problem of living on 
next to nothing. In his career as a preacher, he sur- 
vived the drudgery and respectable poverty of a 
travelling Methodist parson fifty years ago ; and, with 
the aid of a domestic genius, provided a large family 
with a fair education ; and, saddest chapter of all in 
the book of his life, he has felt the bitter pang of un- 
utterable sorrow, on account of the failures of some 
of his children to realise his ambitions for the idol of 
his life the Salvation Army. 

General Booth believed, and, for all I know, still 
believes, not only that he and his partner, but all their 
offspring, were appointed by Providence to shape, 

231 



232 GENERAL BOOTH 

mould, and bequeath to the world of sin and misery 
a New Hope. 

" Every hair on my head and every ounce of blood 
in my veins, and all that I have for time and eternity 
wife, children, and grandchildren, born and to be born 
are God's and the Salvation Army's. I know 
nothing among men but the ' Blood and Fire.' I 
have no pleasure, no joy or sorrow, and no home, no 
friends, and no children outside the Salvation Army." 

I have heard him use these words or their equivalent 
over and over again. 

The saddest day in the career of the General was 
jiot when the sun of his life went out on October 4, 
1890 (the day when "the Mother of the Army" 
passed away), but when the unity of his family was 
broken by the secession of one of his children from 
the Flag. Ever since the General has worn a sad 
look. For it must be remembered that the children 
were cradled and educated in the spirit of an extreme, 
anti-worldly Christianity. They were taught to 
believe that their mission in the world was to be that 
of soul-savers, and as they rose to maturity, one and 
all distinguished an individuality of character that 
was inspired by the dominating ideal that has mastered 
their parents, saving souls. A more remarkable 
family in the service of humanity it would be hard to 
find in the history of Christian enterprise. 

The officers and soldiers of the Salvation Army 
recognised their superiority ungrudgingly and re- 
ligiously. An article of faith with Salvationists for 
many years was the unity, love, and self-sacrificing 



MR. BRAMWELL BOOTH 233 

lives of the General's family ; they pointed to it as 
an article of faith in their Salvationism. Many of the 
General's staff officers, it is true, felt that the parents 
were too ready to place their boys and girls in respon- 
sible positions before they were qualified to fill them. 
It was easy, however, to condone such weakness 
because of the rare ability displayed by them. They 
were all able speakers, daring leaders, and they 
gradually became remarkable administrators and 
attractive personalities on the platform. They were 
superior, educationally, to the bulk of the officers, 
and by the time they were placed in independent 
commands they had shown the qualities of real states- 
manship. 

I deal elsewhere with the eldest of the family, 
Mr. Bramwell Booth, a truly able man. Ballington, 
the next son, was beloved by all. While in command 
of the Training Home at Clapton he was held in a sort 
of adoration by all the lads. He had the luring gift 
of a hypnotist over them. He was the most human 
of all the members of his family. He wept over the 
little slips of his men, laughed with them, and fought 
and lived with them when they left the Home for the 
field. 

If he visited a Corps he had no ambition to be made 
a hero in the drawing-rooms of Christian society. He 
preferred to eat and sleep with the officers in their 
humble apartments. 

And he was such an attraction on a platform ! 
He could play with an audience as a Paderewski can 
with his instrument. His anecdotes and solos (the 



234 GENERAL BOOTH 

latter to the accompaniment of an English concertina) 
won him a way into the hearts of all. He was, in 
short, a combination of the warm sympathy of his 
mother and the magnetic personality of his father. 

At the age of twenty-five he went to Australia as 
joint Commander of the work there, and was foolishly 
idolised. He returned to England, married Miss Maud 
Charlesworth, the daughter of a clergyman of the 
Church of England, a lady endowed with the qualifica- 
tions of a Demosthenes, and when they took command 
of the Army's work in America no prophet was needed 
to foretell their success as leaders, and their possible 
apostasy from the cast-iron system of the movement 
as it had begun to develop in England that is, from 
an American standpoint. 

The Americanisation of their views came into conflict 
with the international system of control. At the end 
of eight years' service an order came from the General 
which they thought both unreasonable and unwise. 
It was an order to say farewell to the command of the 
United States and be prepared to assume another. 

Now this, it is no exaggeration to state, came as a 
thunderbolt from the blue. The Americans were not 
prepared for it. It was well known that Mr. and Mrs. 
Ballington Booth could be made no exception to the 
law of the Army with respect to change. But in view 
of the fact that the Ballingtons had redeemed the 
cause in the States from ignominy for it had been rent 
again and again by dissension before they took charge 
and that they had built an imposing Headquarters 
near Union Square, and were personce gratce with official 



DIFFERENCES IN AMERICA 235 

and governing bodies throughout the country, and 
that gradually the movement was rising to a position 
of respect among the Churches ; the staff and field 
officers looked upon the act of parting from their Com- 
mander as almost insane, and thoroughly English. 

Then the order came at a very awkward moment in 
the relations of the United States and Great Britain. 
The tension over the Venezuelan controversy was so 
intense that one Saturday afternoon a howling mob 
assembled outside the Headquarters of the Army in 
West Fourteenth Street, and shouted, "Down with 
the English Army." English officers were hooted as 
they walked about the streets, and hissed when they 
rose to speak or offer explanations of the crisis that had 
arisen in their ranks. 

The newspapers, of course, did not make the task 
of the peace plenipotentiaries, despatched by the 
General to New York, any easier. 

But what led to the final wrench was probably the 
appearance of Mr. Ballington's brother Herbert on 
the scene. At the time Commandant Herbert Booth 
was in charge of the operations of the Army in Canada. 
He was not popular there, and this was common know- 
ledge in the United States. When therefore he, as a 
representative of the family, as well as the Inter- 
national Headquarters, ran over, in disguise, from 
Toronto to New York to try to persuade Mr. and 
Mrs. Ballington Booth to accept the order of their 
father and leave America, the last element of disturb- 
ance to a painful situation was introduced. As in 
many families, even in this ; a member of the Booth 



236 GENERAL BOOTH 

family only served to kindle a new flame of resentment 
on the part of the Balling tons towards Headquarters 
in London. It was an open secret that it was the in- 
tention of the General to confer the command of the 
United States upon Herbert ; but if he ever had any 
chance of becoming an acceptable leader, he lost it by 
his interference in this dispute. 

Now, what was the nature of the dispute ? The 
question is of world-wide interest, in view of possible 
defections in the future. It would be unwise to enter 
at any length upon the separation of the son from 
the father. This is not a history of the internal 
relationships of the Booth family. The broad facts, 
which are of legitimate public interest, may be briefly 
stated. 

It is customary in the Salvation Army to change the 
- leaders of countries every five years. Owing to special 
circumstances the building of a National Head- 
quarters, etc. the General gave his son Ballington 
an extension of three years, and at the end of that time 
issued marching orders to him, and, as it happened, to 
^ twenty other Territorial Commissioners, all of whom 
accepted their orders with unqualified acquiescence. 
' The exception was the General's son Ballington. 

" What will the General do ? " That question was 
on the lips of every Salvationist. If he conceded the 
wish of the son and the American Staff, there was an 
end of discipline. If he insisted upon his command 
being carried out, there would be a serious split in the 
States, and the advance of the Army would once more 
be retarded for a number of years, while the Army 



THE AMERICAN POSITION 237 

would lose two of its most popular and efficient officers, 
and the General a brilliant son and daughter. 

The Salvation Army world looked on the combat 
that followed with bewilderment. The Army was not, of 
course, taken into confidence upon the issues, and has 
not from the day of the son's secession to this. They 
only knew that, for some mysterious reason, a Booth 
'had risen against the command of a Booth a son had 
defied a father. Such a contingency had not entered 
their wildest dreams. Was he not the man who had 
insisted upon the doctrine of implicit obedience from 
hundreds of cadets who had received their commission 
at his hands both in the United States and in England ? 
It was unthinkable. 

To make matters worse, the General at the time of 
the rebellion of his son was in India. Time passed on. 
The day of Ballington's farewell was fixed, and the 
great Carnegie Hall in New York was leased to give 
him and his wife a popular and representative send-off . 
But the rumbling sounds of war were heard. The 
Staff officers were almost to a man opposed to the 
change, and they determined to unite and force the 
hand of London. They appealed against the decision. 
They were kindly but firmly told that the controversy 
had entered upon a stage that almost involved the 
existence of the Army itself ; and, to the credit of the 
American Staff, they recognised that aspect of the situa- 
tion. They perceived that if the General insisted upon 
the farewell of twenty Commissioners who did not 
bear his name, and yet permitted his son to remain in 
charge of the States, there would at once be a justifica- 



238 GENERAL BOOTH 

tion for the criticism that was felt to contain a big grain 
of truth at that period, namely, that the Army was 
a family concern, and that all the talk of international 
unity and a world-wide Army was so much window- 
dressing. 

But then the American Staff thought a compromise 
could be effected. The question of obedience to the 
vow that their leader had made did not appeal to 
them as it did to other members of the great Salvation 
Army family. The American Salvationists are too 
matter-of-fact, and accustomed to consider a case on 
its merits ; they were not swayed by what a man 
might promise an organisation twenty years before, 
and on that ground they thought that their leaders had 
a fair case. As usually happens when a religious revo- 
lution breaks out in a denomination, a number of side 
issues are imparted to the discussion and certain per- 
sonal elements aggravate the situation. It was so 
in this schism. 

Into these it is unnecessary to enter. The great fact 
is that at this time the controversy crystallised into a 
fight between the One United Salvation Army and the 
American preference for Mr. and Mrs. Ballington 
Booth, the simplicity of whose home life and the 
devotion of whose lives had raised the organisation 
to a high pedestal of respect in the Union. It would 
have been a splendid struggle had it been possible to 
keep out the personal and family element ; for on the 
one side, arrayed against the authority with its arm 
of power in London, were national prejudice and in 
no part of the world can that be expressed with such 



A QUESTION OF AUTHORITY 239 

sharpness of speech and with such hot feeling as in 
America and personal hero-worship. On the other 
hand was the General, evidently showing for the first 
time in his career what he meant the Salvation Army 
to be independent of family influence, governed by 
one code of commands, no respecter of person or 
country, and determined to be in reality world-wide 
in its unity with one faith, one aim, one flag, and 
one General. 

A curious feature of the conflict was the number of 
American-born officers who were on the side of the 
General, though he had not always appeared to 
advantage either in officers' councils or in public 
meetings. They thought him domineering and too 
English, but admired his fighting qualities, and he 
was getting an old man and was respected throughout 
the world. His stoutest opponents in the struggle for 
unity were some of his own nominees trained in the 
English Training College at Clapton. 

It may be asked, what was Mr. Ballington Booth's 
position ? Perhaps the clearest answer to that 
question is conveyed in the words of Mr. Ballington 
Booth himself : they were spoken on the day when 
he decided to see the Chief of the Staff in London 
'* before taking the separation step. He and his wife 
had spent a sleepless and yet prayerful night. They 
resolved, at the close of their final review of the 
circumstances, to carry their grievances to London. 
Mr. Ballington and I were waiting at Mount Clair 
Station, New Jersey, for the suburban train to take 
us to New York, where he intended to despatch a 



240 GENERAL BOOTH 

cable with the gratifying news that he would see his 
brother, Mr. Bramwell Booth, before making the final 
wrench. This, I thought, was an important step 
towards reconciliation, as I had imagined up till then 
that the two brothers were not altogether in harmony 
with each other. 

I asked him to put his principal grievance against 
his father in a nutshell. 

Mr, Ballington replied : "I think that is a fair 
question, A difference such as has arisen ought to be 
put into a few words. Well, I will tell you. I wave 
aside personal questions, which my brother has 
foolishly allowed to colour his vision. I will even con- 
cede that there is something to be said on both sides. 
I will also put aside the question of the Americanisation 
of the Army and the false charge that Maudie (Mrs. 
Ballington Booth) has played for the support of the 
rich at the risk of thwarting the making of simple 
Salvation soldiers. I resent that charge strongly. 
You have seen the simplicity of our home, our dress, 
and our lives. We are the same wherever we go, 
whether among millionaires in New York or among 
the toughs of the Bowery. Brush aside all these and 
other semi-personal aspects of the controversy, and 
what have we left ? A grave fundamental principle 
separates me from the International Headquarters. 
Long experience on this continent has taught me that 
England does not understand America any more 
than America understands England. Yet we are being 
governed as if America was part of England. It is 
true that we speak the same language, pay homage to 
the same literature, and profess the same religion; 
but there is as much difference between the American 




Copyright, Bo Ink. 

MISS EVANGELINE BOOTH AND HER FATHER. 



MR. BALLINGTON BOOTH 241 

and the English nation as there is between the French 
and German. The one subject that separates me in 
spirit from my father, as General, is the system that 
he persists in developing to the detriment of the work 
in America. I can go, nay, I will go, to London and 
repeat this objection to my brother, the Chief of the 
Staff, although I fear that such a visit will only prolong 
the strife and intensify the difference between us. 

" That, then, is the bone of contention. I have no 
quarrel against Mr. Bramwell Booth. He is a gentle- 
man, a competent executive officer, an able administra- 
tor, a man of vast experience in handling men, and he 
is a loyal son and soldier to his father and General. 
He is a thorough system- worker. But mark this : it is 
not the system-worker I object to, it is the system, 
and the author and upholder of that system is my 
father. My quarrel is with him, and if he is not com- 
pelled to admit the despotism of his system before he 
passes away his successors will live to curse it." 

Within an hour of the delivery of this striking 
statement a cable was received intimating that 
Mr. Ballington's sister, Miss Evangeline Booth, was 
on her way to America, in the hope of bringing about 
a reconciliation between the Ballingtons and the 
General. That was an act that sealed Mr. Ballington's 
resolve to leave the ship. He considered the coming 
of his younger sister an insult, and from that moment 
he ceased to take the slightest interest in the discussion 
of the questions at issue. We know the sequel. 

The actual blow r at the union of the Army in the 
United States fell with the cancelling of the Carnegie 
Hall farewell meeting. That was the signal that all 



242 GENERAL BOOTH 

pourparlers at peace were futile. Then a dramatic 
event followed the publication of a manifesto by 
William Bramwell Booth, Chief of the Staff in London. 
In the name of his father he accepted the challenge 
of his brother^and published broadcast a flamboyant 
call to all officers to be true to their pledges and stand 
by the One Flag. It was a master-stroke of daring, 
and for a moment stunned even the Press of America, 
for it found an echo in the breast of many Americans, 
who endorsed the claim of the General to be obeyed. 
But for that they would have despised it ; was it not 
forged in " the bureaucratic fortress of the Army in 
London " ? 

This manifesto convinced Ballington and his wife 
that behind the parleying was a strong and even 
terrible hand of power ; the blow unnerved them. 
Plans had been laid for a general revolt of officers, 
and the capture of the organisation in the States 
and the institution of a rival Army. Ninety officers 
had given a tacit assent to the design, and were only 
waiting for their leader to summon them to action. 
But, like many a protester in the past, Mr. Ballington 
wavered, and while he did so another Booth appeared 
on the stage with the magnetism of a charming 
personality and a reputation for being an ideal Salva- 
tionist. The Field Commissioner Miss Evangeline 
Booth had been hurriedly despatched by her father 
to make a final appeal to the Ballingtons, failing which 
she was authorised to assume the direction of affairs, 
pending the permanent appointment of a responsible 
leader. With the quickness of thought she grasped 



MISS EVANGELINE BOOTH 243 

the main principles of the position, and fought the 
opposition that had taken concrete form with an 
alacrity and persuasiveness that captured waverers, 
and even one or two prominent and avowed an- 
tagonists. 

One scene in her endeavour to win over the re- 
calcitrant members of the National Staff is engraven 
upon my memory. The Ballingtons had suddenly 
emerged from a hiding-place and appeared some 
said they had captured the Army's Headquarters in 
West Fourteenth Street and about a hundred officers 
were on the premises, expecting the crucial moment 
to arrive when the secession would assume definite 
form. Mr. and Mrs. Ballington Booth were accom- 
panied by a member of the legal profession and staff 
officers who had signified their opposition to the 
London regime. 

I was a spectator of their proceedings, and, on 
perceiving the drift of affairs, I at once communicated 
with Miss Booth, who, owing to the physical strain 
of the situation, had been compelled to seek some 
quiet in rooms behind the building. There was some 
danger that her health might collapse. 

As I hurried to her apartments I was intercepted 
by supporters of the seceders and informed that, in an 
hour, we should have to look elsewhere for shelter ! 
Though I knew that that was legally impossible, it 
required no foresight to see that the battle royal 
between the two parties must be fought there and then. 
Though not in supreme command I was only one of 
two peace plenipotentiaries there are moments when 



244 GENERAL BOOTH 

even a subordinate must initiate steps that may lead 
to calamity or victory. This was one. I scampered 
over a wall, rushed a back-door entrance leading to 
Miss Booth's rooms, and demanded that she should 
at once come to Headquarters. Her attendant 
remonstrated, and I was threatened with excommuni- 
cation for daring to suggest that a sick woman should 
face another wrangle that day (there had been two 
wordy encounters in the former part of the day with 
the Staff). But living or dead, she had to come, and 
I am glad to say that with a calmness and self-posses- 
sion that could hardly be excelled, Miss Booth followed 
the directions given her, ascended to the fourth floor 
by the elevator, and demanded admission to the 
room where the staff officers in view of what 
followed I will not call them conspirators were 
assembled. 

She was refused admission. Knowing the structural 
arrangements of the building, I succeeded in obtaining 
an entrance for her, though the process was somewhat 
undignified, for I knew that when once inside, all the 
skill of the most inveterate opponent of the London 
policy would not get her out until she had discharged 
her message to them. 

It was a dramatic moment. Imagine a body of 
smart, indignant, plotting men and women closeted 
here, waiting for and expecting every moment that 
their former leader (now in conference with his legal 
and rebel friends in an adjoining room) would come 
forth with the guarantees that he would start a rival 
organisation and call upon all present to sign a declara- 



A CRITICAL MOMENT 245 

tion of faith ! To all appearance, in a few moments, 
a blow would be hurled at the only religious organisa- 
tion in the United States that declared that self- 
government meant one government, and that outside 
the territory of the Stars and Stripes ! 

Dramatic, indeed ; it was tragic ! 

In one room sat the brother, hesitating as to whether 
he would undo the work that had been accomplished 
in the name of his father. In the very next room 
was his young sister, tear-stricken, placid, pale, and 
yet courageous a lamb among wolves begging for a 
calm reconsideration of the position. Ballington's 
sanctuary represented a policy of separation and dis- 
ruption ; in the warrior-child's a struggle for unity was 
about to end in defeat or triumph. A family and an 
army divided. 

" Comrades," Miss Booth said in an earnest tone, 
when she had passed into the presence of the would-be 
mutineers, " will you kindly let me have one word 
before you break your vows as soldiers of the Flag, 
men and women whose names have stood among the 
poor and homeless and vicious as saviours, helpers of 
the helpless just a word ? " 

There was a murmur and a pause. The wife of a 
Brigadier put her handkerchief to her eyes. Was she 
thinking that she owed to the Army a reformed husband 
and a happy home ? Perhaps. At any rate, she said 
to one by her side, " Bob, give Miss Booth a chance." 
And the good soul was speedily rewarded with a smile 
from Miss Booth that she afterwards told me would 
never be forgotten. 



GENERAL BOOTH 

The General's daughter proceeded : 

" Thank you ! I am not come here to coerce one 
officer. You are Americans. The right to have and to 
hold an opinion of your own is your greatest heritage. 
I respect it. I am not here to argue the merits of the 
unfortunate dispute between my father, the General, 
and my brother, your late Commander. The time for 
that has passed. I will say nothing about the grey 
hairs that are turning white on that noble head as we 
stand here, of the heart that is bleeding, of the mother 
who is surely looking down from heaven upon her 
son in the next room, and his little sister here, pleading 
that the life's work of my father may be kept unbroken 
by disruption. 

" Some of you are fathers. The boys and girls by 
your side to-day will grow up to honour you, I hope, 
and I pray that they may be worthy of their consecra- 
tion and the example that you have set before them. 
But, as parents, you will know what the General must 
be passing through at this hour while journeying across 
the sea from his visit to a heathen land. You know all 
that. There are currents that are running in this sad 
dispute that come oozing out of crushed and lacerated 
hearts. God forbid that you or yours may ever ex- 
perience the agony that our brave General is under- 
going." 

And Miss Booth wept. 

" But it is not on that ground, comrades, that I ask 
you to think twice before you decide to lay down your 
swords as Salvation warriors. Is it right to do so ? 
Do your consciences approve the step you propose to 
take ? When you and I go down to the Valley, we 
shall need the power of a clear conscience to sustain 



A CRITICAL MOMENT 247 

us in that hour of darkness. Do not let us add a single 
act to our lives that will rise, in the light of that day, 
to flood our souls with shame, and show us how we 
sold our spiritual birthright for a mess of pottage. 
What will the gain be ? Are you sure of your ground ? 
Have you quite taken in this fact, comrades, that we 
are fighting for something that is dearer than flesh 
and blood, dearer than the life of the dear General 
himself ? We are fighting for every Salvationist in the 
world. It is our right to command, and our privilege 
to obey. It is for that that we are fighting. We may 
have to fight it in poverty, and under obloquy and 
slander and misrepresentation. We may have to begin 
afresh in America with our Bible, and the old banner 
that stands for compassion and peace and brotherhood 
all the world over. But we shall go through. I am 
pledged to go through. And if, at the last moment, you, 
my dear comrades, will give us your hearts and hands, 
as before, this incident will never be mentioned save 
to warn others to hold fast to that which is good, that 
no man take their crowns." 

What did she mean by these last words ? 

A weak, wobbling Colonel, one of those men who 
may be useful on occasions a man who studies the 
current of things and frames his opinions accordingly 
exclaimed, " There is a way out of the difficulty 
here, boys. I think we ought to give Miss Booth a 
chance to explain herself." 

A general conversation followed. 

In the meantime the seceders had been informed of 
the unexpected invasion of Miss Booth and com- 
mitted a tactical blunder. If they had shown a strong 
hand, and issued a counterblast manifesto, declaring 



248 GENERAL BOOTH 

the dissolution of the Salvation Army, and Mr. Balling- 
ton Booth's determination to reconstruct the organisa- 
tion on the principle of incorporation, there can be no 
doubt that the eloquence of Miss Booth would have 
' been as water spilt on the ground. But, like Crom- 
well's enemies at Dunbar, the Ballingtons served her 
cause more effectually than did her friends. They 
hesitated, and lost. She showed a strong hand, and 
won. 

Those who had tacitly agreed to leave the Army the 
moment that the flag of secession was raised were filled 
with chagrin. Their names generally were well known, 
and now that Miss Booth had expressed her determina- 
tion to go on with the work of the Army at all costs, 
and that nothing would disturb her possession of 
Headquarters, how would these officers stand at the 
International Headquarters in the future ? For under 
the Army's code of discipline mutiny was a deadly 
sin. In this dilemma they turned to Miss Booth, 
and that lady proved as wise a diplomat as she was a 
gallant General. She promised, at the close of the 
conversation referred to, that the rebels should, 
out of consideration for the fact that they were largely 
influenced by a brilliant leader, receive an indemnity, 
on condition that they would personally express 
regret for not having entered a protest when rebellion 
was suggested. 

The effect of this declaration was electric. Men and 
women almost danced with delight. The Army in 
America and for America was saved ! The wives of 
staff officers wept with joy, and vowed that, though 



THE FIRST RIFT 249 

they loved their late Commanders, they would be true 
to the Army, and with the toll of twelve o'clock that 
night the last act of repentance was ratified, and Bal- 
lington Booth the idol of ten thousand hearts 
was no longer a Salvationist or a son of his father, 
in the Army sense of the term. 

The first rift in the family lute had taken place. 
There was consternation without confusion, sorrow 
without anger, victory without the beating of drums 
or waving of flags. Ballington and his wife fled from 
the building. 

The Press were indignant, and almost vowed 
reprisals. Ballington Booth was called upon to at 
once start a rival Army, and rich and influential friends 
came forward by the hundred and promised him 
support. For weeks it appeared as if the sequel to the 
victory for unity at the National Headquarters 
would be a wholesale rout of officers and soldiers 
throughout the various States. Several Colonels and 
Majors and Staff Captains refused the indemnity, 
and in Philadelphia, Chicago, Boston, Rochester, 
Buffalo, St. Louis, and other cities, where the Army 
had a fair muster of soldiers and friends, minor splits 
occurred. Practically all the friends of the Army 
sided with the Ballingtons. 

On the other hand, the Salvation Army maintained 
a splendid fighting front. They refused to com- 
promise with the insurgents. Having defined their 
position, which was that Commander Ballington 
must obey his General and say farewell to America, 
and go wherever the General might choose to send 



250 GENERAL BOOTH 

him, and that officers and soldiers must accept or 
reject the new appointment with its consequences, 
be what they may, they laid down a twofold policy : 
(1) silence as to the cause and circumstances of the 
controversy ; and (2) steadfastness to the work 
entrusted to them. 

This policy was accepted. For any departure from 
it the responsibility rested not with field officers, 
who had to bear the brunt of the secession. Indiscreet 
and voluble staff officers kept the poisonous flames of 
controversy so much alive that many people's faith 
in the purity of religion was shaken. The Salvation 
Army split in the United States did the cause of 
religion generally a good deal of injury. 

Mr. and Mrs. Ballington Booth were not inactive. 
They gathered their seceding comrades together, and 
after reviewing the situation, decided to organise 
another army under the American law of incorporation, 
with a Grand Council, the General or President to be 
elected by a restricted vote. Church membership 
was not to be a disqualification. 

This latter clause was, I venture to think, a fatal 
mistake. It created the impression that the new 
organisation would be a proselytiser and draw upon 
the Churches for its workers and support. At any 
rate, the rival Army was formed, registered, and 
launched with the attractive title of " The American 
Volunteers." Statesmen, Church dignitaries, and 
philanthropists wished it God-speed, and the eloquence 
of Mrs. Ballington Booth in its support was a guarantee 
that the new venture would at least meet with a 



THE SECESSION 

popular reception. As Mrs. Ballington Booth, who 
had a warm sympathy with prisoners, announced her 
determination to adopt prison-gate work as a de- 
partment of the new Army's labours, the newspapers 
added their quota of praise to the enterprise of the 
Balling tons. Whatever may be said as to the wisdom 
of the Ballingtons' secession, they too kept to the 
unwritten compact and did little to feed the feud 
between the two organisations. 

And what has happened since the breach ? The 
Volunteer Army is still in being and doing good work. 
Mrs. Ballington Booth has created, or greatly helped 
to create, a new sentiment with respect to the treat- 
ment of convicts and prisoners. She has carried on a 
most commendable work in convict prisons, and is 
now recognised as the ablest and most gifted advocate 
of convict reform in the United States. 

The Salvation Army has also advanced, especially 
in its social work. Its spiritual branch makes no real 
progress whatever, and there can be no question, I 
think, but that the secession caused a revulsion against 
actual membership in the Salvation Army by many 
Americans who up till then were showing a disposition 
to think seriously of the movement as having a sound 
'religious basis. Now they look upon it as philan- 
thropic only. The Salvation Army as a religion is not 
a success in the States. Out of the ninety millions 
it has not forty thousand names on its roll of member- 
ship. On the other hand, the officers are among 
the hardest worked in the entire movement. They 
raise large sums of money for the poor. In point of 



252 GENERAL BOOTH 

numbers the officers have nearly doubled since the 
split, and Rescue Houses, Metropoles, and Salvage 
Brigades have been organised in large cities. The 
Colonies for the transfer of city workers to the land, 
upon which Mr. Rider Haggard reported to the British 
Government, have not proved a success. 

The General deplored the loss of his son and Mrs. 
Ballington Booth ; but he adhered to his policy, and 
his last visit to the States showed that he was even 
more popular than ever. 

Another and abler son fell out of the ranks for the 
same reason. Mr. Herbert Booth occupied a place in 
the affections of British officers similar to what his 
brother Ballington did in America. He was a success- 
ful director of the Training College at Clapton. He 
distinguished himself as a field commander. He ap- 
pealed to the imagination of the field. He was a clever 
organiser. His superintendence of the Army's first 
Crystal Palace demonstrations gave them a lead from 
which they have not departed. He possessed, as his 
mother predicted he would exhibit, the commanding 
will of his father, and naturally came into frequent 
collision with his brother, the Chief of the Staff, whose 
mind does not travel so rapidly, and is, by training, 
less disposed to embark upon showy enterprises. Then 
the elder brother had to consider ways and means, 
and though often approving Herbert's schemes in 
principle, he had to put a veto upon them, as a Chan- 
cellor of the Exchequer has to do when some excellent 
project is submitted to him. 

Bramwell and Herbert Booth did not quite hit it off. 



MR. HERBERT BOOTH 253 

While the father was at hand these differences never 
reached an acute point. It was only after Mr. Herbert 
Booth's marriage to Miss Schoch, of Amsterdam, that 
this difference began to be recognised and lamented. 
For though far from faultless, Mr. Herbert Booth was 
considered a splendid coadjutor with his brother, and 
when he was appointed to the command of Canada 
the loss was generally felt to be a mistake. 

With his departure from the British field the 
position in Great Britain was weakened. His virtues 
as a leader in England, however, did not dazzle the 
followers of the Army in the democratic Dominion of 
Canada. He was not a success there. His strong rule 
was resented, and he soon had the resignations of 
officers, internal controversies, splits, etc., to grapple 
with. The position of the Army in Toronto was re- 
duced to a fragment of what it was under that less able 
man, Commissioner Coombs. Mr. Herbert Booth was 
then appointed to Australia. Here he met with a 
warm reception from all classes. His wife by this 
time had become a fascinating public speaker and a 
new force in the social life of the Army, as well as an 
effective advocate of agencies for the reclamation of 
fallen women. Her eloquence won for her the support 
of the rich and the co-operation of the Governments 
of the various States. 

The leadership of these two remarkable people 
seemed destined to give the Army a place second to 
none in the Commonwealth, when, as in America, a 
bolt as from the blue fell upon the situation. Com- 
mander and Mrs. Herbert Booth resigned their com- 



254 GENERAL BOOTH 

missions as officers shortly after the General's second 
visit to the command. 

The circumstances which led up to this calamity have 
been very carefully kept from the rank and file of the 
Army. Even in Australia, officers and soldiers are un- 
aware to this day of what actually led to the separa- 
tion. It is generally supposed that the cause of his 
resignation was threefold : 

1. The resentment of Mr. Herbert Booth at the 
tightening process of control in the Foreign Office at 
the International Headquarters. General Booth was 
accompanied by a Commissioner, who was deputed to 
give effect to this policy in certain specific matters. 

Mr. Herbert Booth strongly demurred to this as 
derogatory of his status in the Army, as calculated to 
reduce Australia to the level of an English province, 
and as certain to bring about dry-rot in an Army that 
depended for its inspiration upon increasing rather 
than in diminishing the power of qualified leaders. 

2. The bad feeling which the General generated by 
his expressed antagonism to the class of Rescue Home 
and Reformatory which his son and daughter were 
organising all over the Commonwealth. Here one is able 
to put one's finger upon one of the General's serious 
defects. He will not recognise that any distinction 
should exist between a Rescue Home in Whitechapel 
and in Melbourne. He makes no allowance for the 
difference between the social standing of the criminals 
in Australia and of the same class in England. Hence 
the painful sensation that was felt throughout the 
whole of the Australian territory when it was known 



MR. HERBERT BOOTH RESIGNS 255 

that the General objected to the neat and attractive 
uniform that Mrs. Herbert Booth had designed for her 
women officers. The influence of this attitude of the 
father to the daughter-in-law did not fail to leave a 
painful impression upon the son. It did not help him 
to deliberate judicially upon his own grievances. 

3. Mr. Herbert Booth adopted the Australian view 
as to the proposed transfer of " submerged men and 
women of England to the Colonies," and, in the opinion 
of the General, this was rank heresy. There were other 
embarrassing circumstances, all of which culminated 
in the resignation of the two leaders. Once more the 
Army was plunged into bewilderment, and the General 
mourned over the loss of Herbert with a deeper sorrow 
than he did that of Ballington. 

General Booth had to experience the bitterness of 
death in yet another secession from the shrine of his 
family, the saddest, the most pathetic of all. His 
eldest daughter, in company with her husband and 
their family of ten children, tore themselves away from 
the comradeship and platform of a movement for 
which they had suffered persecution, trials, imprison- 
ments, and endured the wear and tear of twenty 
years' fighting on the most disappointing battlefield 
that the Salvation Army has in the Western Hemi- 
sphere. 

When "The Marechale," as the General's eldest 
daughter was affectionately designated in France a 
prefix that the French honoured without placing in 
quotation marks and Commissioner Booth-Clibborn 
left the Army, it is no exaggeration to say that the 



^256 GENERAL BOOTH 

movement on the Continent became like a helpless 
widow. Religiously fanatical as Commissioner Booth- 
Clibborn was, he was nevertheless an extraordinary 
evangelist : a man with a burning call to men to repent 
and do their first works, and to come out from the 
world of strife and fashion and politics and money- 
making, and live the simple Christ-life. 

A man of immense physical stature, his head covered 
with a shock of fine brown hair, with dazzling eyes, 
and a voice strong and musical, he went through 
France and Switzerland like a prophet resurrected 
from mediaeval times. He sang like a bird in the 
heavens, and played upon the emotions of Latin and 
Teuton congregations with commanding skill. He was 
a winner of souls. When he preached a note of wrath 
reverberated in his denunciations of sin. He laboured 
incessantly, translated and Vrote books, composed 
hymns, and devised campaigns of evangelistic con- 
quest. When he sat down to the real business of a 
Commissioner of the Salvation Army which is to 
direct and guide the troops rather than stand at the 
front of the battle and bare the breast to the fire of the 
enemy he was a paradox. He would not be bound 
by the regulations of London. He was ever in hot 
water over some memorandum or rule ; and as time 
wore on Headquarters began to lose patience with their 
stormy and critical representative. 

Latterly he expounded what were, in the judgment 
of the Army hierarchy, dangerous doctrines, and in 
the Army heresy is a mortal offence, its theological 
dogma being as immovable as flint ; there is no 



COMMISSIONER BOOTH-CLIBBORN 257 

elasticity in its beliefs, and no room for enlightenment, 
beyond the limits of boiled-down Methodistic articles 
of faith. Moreover, the one interpreter of doctrine is 
the General ; and in doctrinal disputes he and he 
alone decides what is and what is not correct. When 
Commissioner Booth-Clibborn, therefore, began to 
preach faith-healing as it was taught by the Bethshan 
School, and the doctrine of the leading of the Spirit as 
it is held by extreme Quakers Mr. Clibborn was him- 
self a minister of the Society of Friends previous to 
joining the Salvation Army he fell foul of the General, 
and there was war behind the scenes. 

Commissioner Booth-Clibborn took offence at some of 
the social developments of the Army and the seculari- 
sation of week-night meetings, by means of cinemato- 
graph shows and sales of work, as well as exhibitions, 
workshops, and other auxiliaries which the Army has 
added to its paraphernalia during the last twenty 
years. He denounced these things as subversive of the 
Army's spiritual power. And again there was war 
behind the scenes. 

He preached Quaker views upon war, and he who 
countenanced the men who earned their living in 
organising engines of death was a veritable arch- 
enemy of Christianity in his eyes. Once more there 
was war behind the scenes, for the General is a 
Paulinist. He is all things to all men : he considered 
his son-in-law guilty of crass folly in propagating this 
extreme view of war in a country where conscription 
was the chief bulwark of its independence. 

Once more Commissioner Booth-Clibborn ran amok 



258 GENERAL BOOTH 

with International Headquarters, this time over the 
late impostor of Zion City, the Rev. John Alexander 
Dowie, who ascribed to himself the prophetic role of 
an Elijah. Commissioner Booth-Clibborn enquired 
into Bowie's claims and, in proportion as he sym- 
pathised with the views of that American conjurer 
in high-flown mysticism and manipulator of shady 
financial companies, there was fierce war behind the 
scenes. And one day an ultimatum was put to Clib- 
born and he left the Army ; and, to the intense sorrow 
of the whole Army, the Marechale, the General's 
beautiful daughter, left with him. 

One can easily appreciate and even applaud this 
act of self-sacrifice on her part. She was the saving 
clause in the domestic upheaval involved in Mr. 
Clibborn's acceptance of Dowieism. If she remained 
steadfast to her Army marriage vows, perhaps she 
ought to have stood by the Flag of the " Blood and 
Fire." The articles of marriage in the Army are cruelly 
explicit on the superior place to which they put the 
Army as such in contrast with one's obligations to 
wife, home, children, and Fatherland. Here is one 
clause to which the Clibborns subscribed when married 
by the General in Congress Hall : 

" We do solemnly declare that we have not sought 
this marriage for the sake of our own happiness and 
interests only, although we hope these will be furthered 
thereby ; but because we believe that the union will 
enable us better to please and serve God, and more 
earnestly and successfully to fight ancl work in The 
.Salvation Army. 



A SALVATION-ARMY MARRIAGE 259 

:< We here promise that we will not allow our 
marriage in any way to lessen our devotion to God, 
our affection for our comrades, or our faithfulness in 
The Army. 

" We each individually promise that we will never 
do anything likely to prevent the other's doing or giving 
or suffering anything that is in his or her power to 
do, give, or suffer to assist The Army, believing that 
in so doing we shall best promote the glory of God and 
the Salvation of souls. 

" We also promise that we will use all our influence 
with each other to promote our constant and entire 
self-sacrifice in fighting in the ranks of The Army for 
the Salvation of the world. 

" We also promise always to regard our home in 
every way as a Salvation Army Soldier's (or Officer's) 
Quarters, and to arrange it accordingly, and to train 
all in it who may be under our influence and authority, 
for faithful and efficient service in The Army. 

;< We promise, whether together or apart, always 
to do our utmost as true Soldiers of Jesus Christ to 
carry on and sustain the War, and never to allow The 
Army to be injured or hindered in any of its interests 
without doing our utmost to prevent it. 

" Should either of us from sickness, death, or any 
other cause cease to be efficient Soldiers, we engage 
that the remaining one shall continue to the best of 
his or her ability to fulfil all these promises." 

What was the wife and mother to do then ? 

If she had resolved to remain with the Flag, she 
would have been lifted above the struggle that was to 
be hers, of having to face the world and earn as a poor 
evangelist bread for a sick husband and large family. 
The General too would have been spared the shame 



260 GENERAL BOOTH 

of seeing his daughter's name dragged into publicity as 
one who, but for her evangelistic labours, must have 
had to face destitution, if not starvation. Two diffi- 
culties then stood before this devoted wife, mother 
and Salvation heroine. She too was dissatisfied with 
the system of the Army which had led her brother 
Ballington to resign, and which was to lead Herbert 
to do the same. She did not share her husband's 
opinions as to the leading of the Spirit, faith- 
healing, and other non-essential doctrines. She was 
the daughter of the General. Like her noble 
father, she only cared for one thing souls, bringing 
them to Christ, urging them to love God, good- 
ness, truth, mercy. The dogmatic never appealed 
to her. She revelled in preaching in her coal-scuttle 
bonnet to the demi-mondes of Montmartre, in Paris. 
Her heaven on earth was, and is still, in pouring forth 
words of tender sympathy in a theatre, or music hall, 
or cafe, to the derelicts of humanity, and telling them 
that it is all cant and superstition and dogmatism that 
makes out the world to be full of sin, or religion to be 
something merely for the grave and eternity. Her 
idea of Christ is that He is the Son of Man, and unless 
He was so He could not have brought healing to the 
broken hearts of men. For this view of the Divine she 
contended with infidels, anarchists, and the most sensual 
and the most aesthetic in the land which she loved and 
to which she had devoted the best years of her life. 
For this she suffered many things. She endured im- 
prisonment in Neuchatel ; had been mobbed and 
robbed and threatened with violence and things worse 



MRS. BOOTH-CLIBBORN 261 

than death. With this gospel she broke down walls of 
prejudice, won an entree to the haunts of the vilest, as 
well as to the confidence of Catholic priests, who could 
not be expected to endorse such a waste of sanctified 
affection upon an organisation that, in their estima- 
tion, with its schisms and perversions of truth and 
lapses of morality, springs from an inherent lack of 
Divine authority. Father Lassere called her a holy 
light. 

This woman chafed against the metallic spirit of 
International Headquarters, its high-sounding assump- 
tions and deification of regulation. Her soul abomi- 
nated the thing. " Christianity is life," she argued, 
" not a system in which free souls are caged in by a 
netting of rules, as trumpery as some of them are 
impertinent." And so, when her husband doffed his 
Army uniform for ever because of views that she had 
no sympathy with, she too turned her back upon it, 
conscientiously believing that its London leaders were 
blind to the process of fossilisation and spiritual death 
that to her were everywhere apparent. Husband and 
wife and children therefore marched away from the 
Flag to which they had brought a world of lustre, and 
by that act forfeited the fellowship of the patriarchal 
man at the head, a father and a grandfather no longer. 
A black day indeed for this family, and a sad, sad 
day for the weary General in his solitude at Hadley 
Wood. 

In all these controversies one unsatisfactory feature 
has been the chasm created between the General as a 
father and his children. He has no personal intercourse 



262 GENERAL BOOTH 

with them, his view being, as I understand it though 
it is difficult to understand that he has no children 
outside the Salvation Army. If they return to him 
repentant, he will welcome them to his arms and once 
more to the service of the Salvation Army. But the 
public, who honour the General's name and fame and 
consider that with all his limitations he has raised 
a work which is destined to become a subject of wonder- 
ment for all time, cannot but be pained, that as the 
evening shadows of life fall, he does not recognise, as all 
leaders in political and religious life do, that differences 
of opinion as to methods ought not to interfere with 
the courtesies and duties of social and domestic obliga- 
tion. It is not a happy reflection that the General 
of the Salvation Army, who is spending his last days 
in visiting the sick and fatherless, should deprive 
himself because of some fantastic interpretation of 
the line of Providence of the consolation of seeing 
freely his children, all of whom are engaged in Christian 
work, and in their own sphere are happily being 
honoured with the esteem of good people, 
i I believe there ought to be a reconciliation, and there 
are two men at the International Headquarters who, 
if entrusted with the task of drawing up the conditions 
of a reconciliation based on family considerations alone, 
would in a few weeks' time prove successful in bringing 
about a permanent termination to the present estrange- 
ment, and thereby close a sad chapter in the General's 
career. 

And why not ? This is a question not for the public 
to discuss ; it is put by a " wanderer from the fold," 



NEED FOR RECONCILIATION 263 

whose perspective has been rightly adjusted since he 
ceased to follow the Flag of the Army, and who hopes 
that the tribute he has paid to former comrades will 
be sealed by a successful attempt on the part of the 
Staff to repair the rifts in the family lute of the 
Booths. 



CHAPTER XII 

GENERAL BOOTH THE MAN 

His Appearance A man of Action and Intuition His Loyalty to 
Friends Contradictions His Moral Courage A Striking 
Episode The Qualities of a Statesman 

As a man the General of the Salvation Army is pyra- 
midical. His mind and body are built on a large scale. 
No one ever thinks of him, and he certainly does not 
think of himself as capable of looking at the world with 
the binocular of his perspective power reversed. He 
takes a large view of most things, especially of every- 
thing done to promote the work of the Salvation Army. 
In physique he was a striking figure, until old age 
and the care of the Churches shrivelled and bent his 
once erect, tall, and symmetrical frame. In a crowd 
of men, whether in the street or in a public assembly, 
he would be accepted at sight as a Colossus. His 
leonine head, adorned with a wealth of snow-white 
hair, denotes a magnetic personality. It rests upon 
broad shoulders, and as it is moved by the dynamic 
force of an active mental and physical energy, one 
is at once impressed with an extraordinary sense of the 
man's importance. A glance of the face is indicative 
of a man under some great dominating influence. In 
repose it is the human window of a soul who has been 
subdued into an unnatural resignation to fate. His 

264 



ACTION AND INTUITION 265 

fine, healthy, pinkish skin would, had he preserved the 
buoyancy of middle life, impart a serene and benignant 
dignity ; but in his eighty-third year the face conveys 
the impression of one who has just received the news 
of some bereavement. A tinge of sorrow is diffused 
over the countenance. 

As he paces a room or talks to his secretary, his 
body jerks, the fingers twitch, and there is a rapidity 
of motion in his deportment that suggests that these 
little excrescences of character are the result of a 
strenuous life. An inveterate worshipper of men of 
action, one can discern almost at a first acquaintance 
that he is not likely to brook delay or a long explana- 
tion on a subject. He is an old man in a hurry, with 
a young man's energy. 

Engage him in a conversation, and the man, able 
to put himself en rapport at once with a stranger, 
intuitively perceives the point of your address and 
compels instant attention and decision. The large, 
piercing, quick, luminous eyes arrest and command 
your thought. You feel that these eyes are scanning 
your very soul. There is a mannerism about the old 
man's optics that suggests the deductive aptness of a 
Sherlock Holmes. Your dress, jewellery, and face are 
swept with their searchlight power, and at times his 
gaze may kindle a spark of resentment. But the 
face warms into a contagious brightness when your 
words convince him that your heart is in the right 
place with respect to his work. The eyes dance with 
ihe pleasure that you afford him. The firm, thin, and 
wittily shaped lips relax, and if you pass an original 



266 GENERAL BOOTH 

remark, or ask a sympathetic question, or should he 
think that you hold in your hands the reins of a new 
driving power for his organisation, the old man will 
be transformed. The intentness of his purpose will 
animate his talk, and when he has measured your 
equation, and knows how to match the bait of know- 
ledge to your palate, he becomes all-absorbing. 
Humour impregnates and saturates his conversation, 
and the practical is never once absent from his thoughts. 
He is not only impressive he is aggressive. He talks 
for effect ; and the effect that he aims at producing is 
that you may see as he sees, feel as he feels, and act as 
he acts. If, on the other hand, you display a cynical 
spirit, he will be curt and abrupt. He is a miser of 
minutes, and when you have gone, and if the unfortu- 
nate secretary has been responsible for introducing 
you to his attention, the General will use expletives 
that cannot be misunderstood. 

Get into the General's heart, however, and there 
is no warmer and more indiscreet lover. He will trust 
the greatest Judas with the confidence of blindness if 
he makes the mistake of taking him to be a saint, 
which explains the bitter disappointment that he has 
experienced in some of the officers who have been his 
private secretaries. 

For years a Major acted as his confidential secretary, 
whom he trusted implicitly, in face of the united dis- 
favour of the whole British Staff. The man eventually 
sold him for a mess of pottage, and lost to the Salvation 
Army the richest and most influential friend that the 
General ever had to stand by his side ; how rich will 



CONTRADICTIONS 26? 

be gathered from the fact that at the close of a power- 
ful meeting in which the General had delivered an 
address sparkling with humour and point, this friend 
took him aside and said, " General, you will do me 
a favour by kindly accepting this cheque as a small 
mark of my appreciation for what you have been the 
means of doing for me." 

The General unfolded the slip of paper, and per- 
ceiving that the gift amounted to 20,000, he embraced 
the giver ! And the Pharisaical secretary was respon- 
sible for the loss of this friend to the Salvation Army ! 
But General Booth is now utterly incapable of learning 
and applying the moral. It is a defect in his knowledge 
of human nature that has led him to trust men and re- 
ceive their slavish devotion. His faith in men is often 
without reason, and his reason, when he is driven by 
force of circumstances to rely upon that alone, is with- 
out faith. 

This contradiction, or combination of opposites in 
a complex nature, is illustrated in other ways. He 
can be as stern and unbending as a royal high execu- 
tioner one hour, and as merciful as an indulgent mother 
the next. A Colonel in charge of South Africa did not 
rise to the General's expectations in extending the 
Army, and on his return to London to give an account 
of his stewardship the General reproved him very 
severely, without the officer having been tried or heard 
in his defence. Being by nature a sensitive, nervous 
man, with little of the steel of anger in his composi- 
tion, he gave way to his emotions and told the General 
that he was cruel. The General has no use for men who 



268 GENERAL BOOTH 

shed tears except over the transgressions of mankind, 
or unless they spring from a spirit crushed by repent- 
ance, and the leader of the Salvation Army said so to 
his officer. This strong aversion to this form of emo- 
tion, which the General inherits by nature, and which 
has been nurtured by the exercise of his power as a 
General, has so developed that at times it is exercised 
in an arbitrary manner. 

His first visit to a distant colony, where he was 
revered as a god by Salvationists, was in danger of 
ending in a tragedy by a display of this same spirit in 
the presence, unknown to the General, of a number of 
minor officers who at the time had only had an oppor- 
tunity of seeing this side of his character. They were 
simply dismayed, confounded and saddened, by what 
they overheard, and so grieved were they that they 
actually met in secret and drew up a letter for presenta- 
tion to the General, in which they demanded to know 
whether the remarks that they had overheard were 
consistent with the doctrine of holiness to which they 
listened later on ! 

Fortunately 1 happened to hear of the secret con- 
clave, and asked to be allowed to read the document. 
When I had imparted to the officers a little light upon 
the General, and argued that if they thought he was 
a meek and mild saint who would gloss over a manifest 
failure to apply Salvation Army principles which was 
really what the old man was denouncing in very strong, 
perhaps a little too strong language they had mis- 
understood the meaning of the term " General," and 
that the officer concerned might thank his stars that 



A RESTLESS NATURE 269 

he was getting off without a more severe castiga- 
tion, the complaining staff saw their leader in 
a new light and asked me to destroy the letter, 
which of course I did, and kept the matter in the 
dark. 

Incidents of a similar nature could, however, be 
multiplied by the thousand, illustrative of the General's 
indifference to what his officers may think when he is 
convinced that he is right and that it is his duty to 
administer some disagreeable medicine. In this re- 
spect the General is worthy of his title. Saintship and 
soldiership with him are synonymous terms. As a 
result he is often misunderstood, especially by that 
order of Christians whose notions of an exemplary life 
are after the ideal of Madame Guy on. Quietness is 
their strength, and if it be possible they live at peace 
with all men. General Booth is seldom at peace, 
because he finds so many occasions for proclaiming 
war. There is a right and a wrong way of doing a thing 
his way is sure to be right ! and as the majority 
of us open a door too furiously, or are ignorant of the 
best methods of packing a portmanteau, or entering a 
cab or train, or giving precise instructions to our ser- 
vants, General Booth's daily life is interspersed with a 
host of sermonettes to all with whom he comes in con- 
tact on these and other matters. Oh ! the poor rich 
who have entertained him, and have, with the best in- 
tentions in the world, served up tea that has been cold 
and toast that has been heavy and scarcely browned ! 

There is an element of courage, not petulance and 
mere bigotry, in this characteristic of the General. 



270 GENERAL BOOTH 

Some have declaimed against it and called it evidence 
of bad manners and of a dyspeptic temper. I contend 
that it supplies the key to his courage, for courageous 
General Booth undoubtedly is. 

Let me relate a couple of incidents that demon- 
strate his splendid disregard of popular feeling, 
when that feeling is running contrary to his ideas. 
One such incident transpired in Berlin during the 
prevalence of the pro-Boer agitation then carried on 
in Germany. The General was announced to give 
a lecture in the Germania Salle upon the Salvation 
Army, and as the neighbourhood in which the hall is 
situated is one of the Socialistic centres of Berlin, a 
large proportion of Socialists were present. The hall 
was crowded, and the police authorities were a trifle 
uneasy about the gathering, on the ground that the 
Army had not held such a large meeting in the neigh- 
bourhood before. Extra police were called in to aid 
in maintaining order. 

About an hour before starting the General received 
a private telegram that King Edward's Coronation had 
been officially postponed owing to His Majesty's ill- 
ness, and that he was then lying dangerously ill at 
Buckingham Palace. The news sent a thrill of appre- 
hension through the English-speaking members of the 
General's Staff, and as late editions of the Berlin 
papers were out with the news, Commissioner Oliphant, 
the Army's chief representative in Berlin, at once con- 
ferred with the General and advised that no reference 
should be made in the meeting to the unfortunate 
news, 



HIS MORAL COURAGE 271 

It was possible, almost certain, he suggested, that 
the Socialist element would use the event to demon- 
strate their antagonism to the British, and that would 
complicate their standing with the police. The General 
sought the advice of other members of his Staff, and 
all were agreed, as well as the representative of a lead- 
ing London newspaper, that it would be most unwise 
to refer to the subject publicly. 

" What," asked the General, " do you mean to say 
that Germans whether they are Socialists or anar- 
chists would in the face of such a world calamity re- 
sent a non-political statement of the fact and a request 
that they should pray for the distressed nation and the 
sick monarch ? I have more faith in the humanity of 
the Germans than to doubt their sympathy on such an 
occasion. I am going to mention the fact and call 
upon them to pray. I am going to act according to 
the dictates of my own feeling on this matter." 

And he did. 

Only those who are familiar with the deep-seated 
bitterness felt towards the English in Germany during 
the Boer War can appreciate the decision of the General 
of the Salvation Army and understand the temerity of 
his officers in Berlin. 

There was a buzz of expectant sensation when the 
General, before starting his meeting, asked the audi- 
ence for permission to make a special statement. 
Then amidst a death-like calm he proceeded to describe 
the preparations that had been made for the Corona- 
tion of King Edward, the gathering of great and royal 
personalities from all parts of the world, the illness 



272 GENERAL BOOTH 

of the King, the postponement of the ceremony, and 
the dangers of the situation created by this unexpected 
blow to the Royal Family of England, among the rela- 
tives of whom was their distinguished Emperor of 
Germany. 

" Under such circumstances," he went on, "I am 
sure that you will all feel that I would be wanting in 
good feeling if I did not ask you to sympathise with 
the Royal House that has been so suddenly plunged 
into anxiety. Our sense of common humanity prompts 
us to at least pray that the life of this great monarch, 
who desires to live at peace and in goodwill with all 
men, may be spared." 

Without another word the General called his 
translator to his side and asked all to bow their heads 
in prayer, and the audience, composed one half of 
Socialists and avowedly hostile to England, obeyed 
like children the wish of this great Englishman. The 
moral effect of his strong announcement took the 
Berliners unawares. As one of the policemen remarked 
when the incident closed : " There is no need for us 
here now. The General is a brigade of policemen in 
himself." He possesses the highest form of courage, 
which is moral and unmoved by the frown or favour 
of Demos. 

His first visit to Australia supplied an opportunity of 
demonstrating the same quality. His " Darkest 
England " Scheme was vehemently assailed by the 
Press of the various States, which were not then 
federated, on one point, namely, the introduction 
of the submerged, converted or otherwise, to Australia. 



AUSTRALIA AND THE SUBMERGED 273 

The policy of a " White Australia " was being pushed 
and exploited by all parties in the State. The evils of 
Kanaka labour were being resented by the labour 
groups, and the contaminating influence of even the 
industrious Chinese combined to mould the thought of 
Australian statesmen against the incoming of any but 
the best strain of European blood, while the party 
whose motto was " Australia for Australians " was 
making its voice heard somewhat effectually among 
the councils of party politicians. The Boer War, 
with its imperialising influence, was then undreamt 
of, and it was at such a moment that the General 
of the Salvation Army announced a propaganda with 
a hankering after Australia with its limitless bushland, 
uncultivated and uninhabited, as a site for his " Over- 
sea Colony." 

In vain did he reason with the people ; in vain did 
he promise not to send criminals or converted criminals, 
and in vain did he diplomatically remind the Aus- 
tralians that Australia owed something to their fore^ 
fathers, who were not selected from the aristocracy of 
morality ! But the more he argued in favour of even 
a trial, the keener became the criticism of the Press. 
Some threatened to retort in unpleasant ways. 

The General's soul rose in wrath against all this. 
He thought the mean and selfish view that Australian 
statesmen took of their great trust was fatal to the 
expansion of the country, and at his farewell meeting in 
Adelaide he gave a reply with which, for dramatic power, 
boldness of tone, and biting sarcasm, I have heard 
nothing to compare by any statesman or preacher, 
T 



274 GENERAL BOOTH 

It was delivered in the Exhibition Buildings, 
Adelaide. The great building was packed in every 
corner. The poorest and wealthiest of the city were 
represented, as well as the Government and the 
Opposition, all sworn enemies of the policy of " con- 
verting the submerged " of England and sending them 
across the seas to occupy the pure and virgin soil 
of such a land as Australia. In a great address, 
pulsating with an enthusiasm for humanity, the 
General described the conditions of the submerged. 
He extolled Stanley's penetration of the Dark 
Continent, and the track which he had made for the 
introduction of British enterprise. " Why not," he 
asked, " perform a similar task in the interests of the 
enslaved sons and daughters of the Motherland ? 
We denounce the horrors of the Siberian mines, 
and we send our choicest spirits to conquer barbarian 
and heathen races by the charm of the gospel of Love. 
What about a more practical application of the same 
gospel to the emancipation of the dwellers in English 
slums ? " In a vein of this character he pursued his 
theme. The audience applauded. Then, when he had 
delivered his submerged, he continued his interroga- 
tions. " Where shall we send them, in order that they 
may have a fresh start in life ? " 

The audience was at once chilled by the question. 
The General perceived the change in the temperature 
of the meeting, for there was no mistaking the fact 
that Australia wanted and badly needed population, 
but " every man and woman must be accompanied 
with a certificate of good character. They must all be 



THE GENERAL'S COURAGE 275 

George Washing tons." Drawing upon his imagination, 
the General indicted the whole nation in a parable that 
contained every element calculated to wound the 
pride and convict the people of their little imperialism. 

His picture was that of a British emigrant ship in 
mid-ocean, filled with happy families bound for 
Australia. She was flying the Union Jack. All had 
gone prosperously till now, when she had sprung a 
leak and was in danger of foundering with all on board. 
With no sign of a white sail, captain and crew did their 
noble best to calm the fears of their great family. At a 
critical moment the ship was overtaken by a mammoth 
liner, the smoke curling from its funnels, and clearly 
bound for the same destination. As she neared the 
ill-fated craft, it was seen that she was also flying the 
flag that has floated so long as a symbol of freedom 
and hope for the weak and unprotected. Signals of 
distress were run up to the masthead, and the crew 
and passengers laughed and wept for joy that a 
merciful Providence had brought such sure and certain 
deliverance to them. Nearer and nearer the vessel 
came, till she was discerned as the good ship Australia. 
Ah ! all was well ! 

But suddenly she veered off. The captain signalled 
for a reason, and received the agonising answer : 
" We have neither place nor room for you." Across the 
bow of the emigrant ship was written in bold letters 
the name Darkest England, for she was sailing 
under no false colours. At the appearance of that 
name, the crew and first-class passengers on board 
the Australia were not going to be contaminated 



276 GENERAL BOOTH 

by the presence on board of people from White- 
chapel and the New Cut ! It was unthinkable ! 
And so the emigrant ship, with its immortal cargo of 
British fathers and mothers and happy, jolly children, 
was left to slowly settle in mid-ocean and find a haven 
in the heart of the deep ! 

" But," cried General Booth to Australia, his whole 
frame quivering with passion, and his audience pent 
up with emotion, " there is a Judgment Day ! We 
shall meet again," saying which he sat down. 

The audience, smitten with remorse and concealing 
their anger, sat silent for a few seconds, and then, 
realising the greatness of the speaker's cause, and the 
intensity and sincerity of his humanity, broke into a 
loud, ringing cheer. I question if any other man, 
with so much to gain as General Booth had at that 
moment by saying nothing, and so much to lose by 
setting his teeth against the policy of the entire nation, 
would have had the courage to have said what he did, 
and employed such a method of bringing home the 
nation's guilt and the shallowness of their imperial 
sentiment. 

We may differ, and many do most emphatically, 
with his ideas, and the machinery by which he is 
seeking to realise them, but everyone must respect 
the pluck of the man who risked the standing of his 
organisation in the estimation of a country where 
it was more popular than it was in the Motherland, 
rather than stifle his conscience. He has the courage 
of his convictions, and, although I think that since he 
became the guest of princes, and has had to trim his 



THE GENERAL AND THE CHURCH 277 

sails to suit the winds and moods of political parties, 
in order to secure for his movement facilities to carry 
on philanthropic work, the old adamant lies at the 
foundation of his character. 

He was sorely tempted once to surrender his position 
for the prospect of a great gain. The General and 
Mrs. Booth had delivered speeches in different places, 
Mrs. Booth in St. James's Hall and the General in 
the Free Trade Hall, reminding the Churches of their 
duty and deploring the fact that, in spite of their 
efforts to avoid making another sect, it appeared 
as if the Army were to be treated as if they were. 
The General threw out the suggestion as to whether 
the Churches could not ally themselves with the Army 
and help it to accomplish at greater speed its own 
particular work. 

The late Archbishop Tait read these allusions to 
the possibility of a working concordat between the 
Salvation Army and the Churches with great sym- 
pathy, and he and the late Bishop of Durham met 
the General at Headquarters, and made such overtures 
as led the General to seriously consider the wisdom 
of placing the Army under the aegis of the Church of 
England. 

What transpired at these conferences has not been 
reported in detail, and rightly so. But I am in a 
position to state that these representatives of the 
Churches were prepared to grant to the Army : 

1. A full and complete measure of self-government. 
Nothing would be interfered with in matters of 
administration, organisation, or leadership. The 



278 GENERAL BOOTH 

Army as such could exist as if it had no connection 
with the Church of England. 

2. No alteration of its creed or its orders was de- 
manded, nor would any conditions be imposed as to its 
development. 

3. No pledge would be required that its members 
should, on being introduced to the Army, be called 
upon to sign anything that required that they should 
attend the Church of England services. The Archbishop 
was prepared to advocate assisting the Salvation Army 
with funds, and place the influence of the Established 
Church at the service of the Army, on condition that 
the Corps in their corporate capacity attended a 
Church service at least once a week. 

The temptation to accept such a generous offer 
was great. If carried out the Army would be delivered 
from a great deal of financial anxiety. It would stand 
on a higher footing in the religious world, and it 
would help to put a stop to the persecution to which 
it was subjected all over the country. He also per- 
ceived that it would prevent the formation of a rival 
Army, if I may say so, by the Church. Besides, the 
General felt a strong leaning towards co-operation with 
the Churches, and this might prove the beginning of 
a new era in the efforts to bring about general Church 
unity. 

But he also saw that he had created a new thing 
under the sun. Constitutionally the Salvation Army 
must be itself. Its cosmopolitanism was already 
stamped upon its converts. Besides, by this time the 
Army had spread to Sweden, France, and other 



RECEIVES THE D.C.L. 279 

countries, where the same conditions did not prevail. 
How could it be imagined that there could be any such 
unity with the Lutherans in Sweden or the Catholics 
in France ? Archbishop Tait's proposal had come too 
late. General Booth said so explicitly and sorrowfully, 
and thereby lost, no doubt, the encouragement, 
practical support, and co-operation of a great moral 
and spiritual force ; but by the manner in which he 
first entertained and then abandoned the proposal 
William Booth showed himself to be a truly strong man. 

Within the limitations of his office he has the 
qualities of the statesman. Had he been schooled 
hi the realm of party politics he would have made a 
Gladstone with the imperialistic glitter of a Disraeli, 
for no man could have called an Army into being 
and decorated men and women with the titles of 
Captains and Colonels unless he had been endowed 
with an almost effeminate weakness for colour. 
His own uniform, with its gold braiding, golden- 
threaded crests, scarlet vest, and undress military coat, 
savours of a compromise between the cardinal's robes 
and the plumes of the general on parade. 

This little weakness for display came out very 
innocently at Oxford on the day he received, at the 
hands of Lord Curzon, the honorary title of D.C.L. 
A galaxy of public men received the honour at the 
same time, including Mark Twain, the late Sir Henry 
Campbell-Bannerman, Sir Edward Grey, the Bishop 
of Armagh, and Lord George Hamilton. The students 
behaved with rare good-humour, the only suggestion 
of playfulness being " Now for the collection, General," 



280 GENERAL BOOTH 

After the ceremony was over the General at once 
returned to London, and instead of packing his 
doctor's robes in his portmanteau, he wore them all 
the way to London ! He was as proud of the honour 
as if he had been an undergraduate who had passed 
his final exams, with flying colours or had won a 
Senior Wranglership. In fact, the General carried the 
robes across the Atlantic, and in a private council 
of officers at New York he appeared in all the glory 
of the dazzling robes of his D.C.L. ! 

The Americans were delighted as much with the 
vanity of their veteran Commander as the significance 
of the degree. Huxley had called him Corybantic 
in his religious fanaticism, but Lord Curzon described 
him as " a man of compassion for souls." 

But, as I have pointed out in the opening chapter, 
the key to the alpha and omega of his character and 
career is his religion. He takes it wherever he goes, 
and as the years have introduced him to the realities 
of other worlds besides his own, much of his own 
severity toward others has been modified. He is more 
subdued and less concerned about what a man 
believes, and more liberal as to the spirit in which he 
acts according to his convictions of right. 

The General's chief charm, which endears him to 
his people, is his simplicity. The love of simplicity 
is stamped on all he does. He avoids the use of words 
of more than three syllables, and he writes in short 
sentences. His diet is simple and vegetarian. His 
home at Hadley Wood is a model of comfort without 
a luxury or an ornament. He uses no stimulants 




Copyright, Bolak. 



WILLIAM BOOTH, D.C.L. 



HIS SIMPLICITY AND TRUST 281 

except a glass of water diluted with bi-carbonate of 
soda. He is quite blind in one eye and can scarcely 
see to hold his pen, and he remains cheerful, satisfied 
that he has done the will of God, and that his legacy 
to mankind the Salvation Army will be safe in the 
hands of Him who inspired it. General Booth is a poor 
man. Wesley's one article of jewellery consisted of a 
silver spoon. William Booth will not have so much as 
that to include in his will. General Booth is a good 
man, and serves God with all his heart and mind 
and strength. 



CHAPTER XIII 

GENERAL BOOTH'S ELISHA 

His Skill as Organiser The Army will Endure His Habit of Com- 
mandA Fervid Orator Mr. Bramwell Booth and Mr. \V. T. 
Stead Is Brought to Trial and Acquitted His High Aims in 
Slum Work His Business Capacity 

IT is a legal fiction to state that the successor to the 
founder and first General of the Salvation Army is 
unknown. The name of the next General is well known, 
and amongst officers of the movement at least is a 
household word. Indeed, it would be correct to say 
that he is the pattern saint of the field officers. There 
are the General's men and the Chief's men men who 
swear by the General and men who swear by the Army. 
There is only one officer in the Salvation Army qualified 
to succeed the General, and he the eldest son, Mr. 
William Bramwell Booth. By ability, experience, and 
the confidence with which his word is accepted through- 
out the Army, he is far and away the most fitted for 
the post. When the General announces, as is his 
practice when addressing large audiences, that no one 
but himself knows who his successor is, he rather 
emphasises the method by which the Army's law of 
succession will be carried out than the fact itself. The 
officers are not only convinced that Mr. Bramwell 
Booth will succeed the General ; they dare not con- 

282 



MR. BRAMWELL BOOTH 283 

template the possibility of anyone but the son wearing 
the old prophet's mantle. Elisha must succeed Elijah. 
Mr. Bramwell Booth is the indispensable J^itchener of 
the Salvation Army, the chief engineer and resolute 
administrator of Salvation rule and of the will of the 
Commander-in-Chief. 

Of course, the son's career has not filled the public 
eye as the father's has done. 

It is only those who have been or are closely asso- 
ciated with the inner councils of the Salvation Army 
at Headquarters who are aware of the enormous power 
vested in Mr. Bramwell Booth in his position as Chief 
of the Staff and his ability as an administrator. I have 
no hesitation in declaring that without his executive 
nous and skill, and his contentment to occupy the most 
onerous and thankless of offices, it would have been 
humanly impossible for General Booth to have given 
cohesion and uniformity to the many departments 
that had to be created after a new and almost dangerous 
pattern. 

Any Rowton or Levi can start a shelter and run it 
under the Common Lodging House Act, but genius is 
needed to make a shelter religious, as well as a net for 
dragging wastrels and prodigals from the muddy walks 
of depravity, and converting them into men with a 
love of work and a measure of religious faith. A MAN 
was needed to DO that sort of work, and in Mr. Bram- 
well Booth the General found the man. 

Assuming the soundness of General Booth's theory, 
without a strong man at the wheel capable of guiding 
the movement in harmony with the course mapped 



284 GENERAL BOOTH 

out for it by the General, it is obvious that the social 
work generally might have altogether degenerated 
into what some of its departments have undoubtedly 
become mere commercial concerns. 

In this high encomium I do not suggest that Mr, 
Bramwell Booth took up the sketch supplied by the 
designer and filled in the details with his own hands. 
Far from it, he was assisted by men and women who 
were better qualified for the rough and heavy labour 
than he or the General was. But as Chief of the Staff, 
Mr. Bramwell Booth kept his hand upon the progress 
of the work and saw that it was developed in con- 
formity with the specifications, and he had the 
courage to make amendments when experience forced 
him to recognise that the General himself was out 
on any matters of detail. A man of supreme faith in 
the principles of an experiment not then proved the 
success that it now is, was required, and in his son the 
General found that man to perfection. 

So that in Mr. Bramwell Booth we have a General 
already made ; in fact, for the last ten years he has 
for all practical purposes been the Commander-in- 
Chief of the Salvation Army. In the absence of the 
General from Great Britain, Mr. Bramwell Booth acts 
for him under full powers of attorney. When he enters 
upon the titular command of the organisation, he will 
therefore have already served an extensive apprentice- 
ship for the position. 

In view then of the power that will, in the order of 
Providence, pass from the first to the second General, 
and the possible effect of the next General's rule upon 



GREAT RESPONSIBILITIES 285 

the destinies of the Salvation Army, it becomes a 
question of public importance whether the Army, as 
an experiment in the socio-religious life of the world, 
is likely to be fortified or weakened by a change of 
leaders and the method by which the change is effected. 

It should ever be remembered that the Salvation 
Army is not governed by a conference or a board 
of philanthropists selected from the Churches, other- 
wise the question of a new president might be dis- 
missed in a few lines, The organisation makes great 
spiritual one might add sacerdotal pretensions. 
The leaders claim that the Army is, as I have more 
than once observed, a divinely created movement ; 
that the authority in which the spiritual control of the 
General is vested is as sound and as sacred as that of 
the Pope or the Archbishop of Canterbury ; that the 
Army's system of government is suited to the con- 
quest upon which it has entered and is consistent with 
Biblical teaching ; and that the underlying principles 
of the Army's operations are calculated to secure for 
it permanence and unity throughout the world. The 
insignia and symbols of the Army portray these pre- 
tensions. The Army has a creed very exacting on the 
practical side of things and it depends to a large 
degree upon public support for the maintenance of its 
social and spiritual operations, while its complex 
system is held together, directed and inspired by one 
man. 

Hence the man who is to succeed the present 
leader becomes at once an object of curiosity and some 
importance. His personality cannot but awaken 



286 GENERAL BOOTH 

kindly feelings at least among the thousands and 
millions who up and down the land have spoken of his 
patriarchal-looking father with his flowing beard, 
snow-white head, genial smile, and glowing eyes not 
as " General Booth of the Salvation Army," but 
" The General." Then some, not of his fold, even go 
further and call him "Our General." The Pope is 
the only other figure in Christendom who is spoken of 
and accepted with the prefix of the definite article. 

Who is he then who will step into this heritage of 
respect and religious veneration ? We may well ask. 
Will he be a worthy successor to the originator of the 
Army ? Has he that progressive genius which a 
Joshua requires to possess in a fuller degree than a 
Moses ? Will the next General be able, with the 
growing demand for complete self-government, to 
maintain and develop the control of the world-wide 
organisation from one common centre ? Will he 
modify or confirm the Army's present attitude toward 
politics and its Chauvinistic relation to the Churches ? 
Will it be more as many devoutly pray or less 
religious, or evolve into a mere, though vast, social 
ambulance, or help to give it a new lease of spiritual 
life, and raise up men and women who will denounce 
with new and clarion vehemence the madness of sin 
and proclaim in a new way the wonders of the grace 
of God ? 

These are questions that are germane to the welfare 
of a movement that advertises its claim, as no other 
has ever done in the history of Christianity, to be con- 
sidered as raised up by God for a special work. 



THE GENERAL'S SUCCESSOR 287 

I have no bias in favour of the role of the prophet, 
and therefore am not disposed to say that Mr. Bram- 
well Booth is either the man that will " rise to the 
occasion " or signalise the beginning of the end of a 
great endeavour. I simply say there is no other man 
at present fit to follow General Booth in the leadership 
of the Army. Some predict that the movement will 
begin to disappear from the stage of religious life from 
the very day that the grand old Evangelist-General 
passes away. I do not believe it. 

If on no other account, the Army is too materialistic 
in its organic life to wither so easily. A myriad self- 
interests tend to preserve it, and up to the present, with 
the exception of the Church Army, it is without a rival. 
The spirit of the Army has permeated the family and 
social customs of thousands of people. To them it has 
become a fetish, and as nothing is so tenacious as super- 
stition, or veneration for the prophet of a religious 
system, the Army is not going to fall to pieces simply 
because the death of the General may give it a shock. 

Then, as I shall presently show, Mr. Bramwell Booth 
has been sufficiently sagacious to foresee the possibility 
of a lapse of the public trust in the Army when the 
idol of the movement is laid to rest by the side of his 
partner in Abney Park Cemetery. 

The son long ago contemplated such a contingency, 
and had his lines well laid to meet any serious exigency 
that may follow that inevitable event. It may be that 
the change will bring into being new forces that will 
rejuvenate the work of the Army. Indeed, it will not 
surprise some officers who know Mr, Bramwell Booth 



288 GENERAL BOOTH 

should the religious world receive a greater surprise 
when the second General gets well into the saddle than 
it did when the Rev. William Booth doffed the white 
tie of the cleric for the scarlet jacket of the Salvationist. 
England certainly needs some strong religious impetus, 
and some circumstances point to the possibility of the 
Army breaking out in a new place and endeavouring 
to supply that impetus. At any rate, we may dismiss 
the thought that the Salvation Army will receive its 
death-knell when the announcement is flashed to the 
world that General Booth is dead. 

Mr. Bramwell Booth may prove a strong General. 
He possesses at least the essential pluck needed to 
perpetuate the Salvationism of the movement. But 
has he the unprejudiced insight into the moving 
thought of all grades of the working and lower classes 
of society ? That is a question of more importance 
to the Army than may at first appear. 

Many years ago I was asked to meet Mrs. General 
Booth at St. Pancras on her return from a lecture at 
Oxford. I was then under orders to accompany the 
General on one of his Scandinavian campaigns, and 
being a novice at " managing " the General, the kind 
and tactful lady warned me of one or two dangers that 
I might be liable to fall into. 

" The General is rather severe at times," she said, 
" and if you let him down he will let you know it, even 
if it is only over a trifle." 

I thanked Mrs. Booth and said that I hoped I under- 
stood the difference between the man who had the 
right to command and the man whose privilege it was 



MR. BRAMWELL BOOTH 289 

to obey. She seemed pleased with the answer and 
then launched into a homily upon the capacity to 
command. 

" Herbert [her youngest son] has got it," she said, 
" to a fuller degree than Bramwell. Bramwell is slow 
and conciliatory. Herbert is quicker of apprehension 
and readier to demand and require obedience. He is 
a born leader he has the General's spirit and will be 
heard of." 

I presumed that she was aware of the fact that, in 
common with many other officers at the International 
Headquarters at that time, I rather resented the dicta- 
torial spirit of this younger Booth. We considered he 
v was too daring, too cocksure hi his calculations, and too 
fond of stamping his personality upon his exploits in 
favour of the Army. Mrs. Booth was mistaken. Her- 
bert years later left the Salvation Army, and the elder 
brother has demonstrated that the Army required the 
very qualities that Mrs. Booth had belittled. Mr. 
Bramwell can and does exact obedience. 

On one occasion I accompanied him to Paris when 
the state of the work there was, I understood, causing 
the General some concern. He found the Staff at Paris 
obsessed with a fear of the authorities and afraid to 
adopt measures out of the ordinary rut. 

" If I were in command of this city," he said to one 
of the Staff, " I would go out into that boulevard and 
take my stand in front of the Grand Opera and shout 
at the pitch of my voice, ' Jesus Christ is the same 
yesterday, to-day, and for ever ! And He saves me 



290 GENERAL BOOTH 

The French staff officer smiled and said, " In 
London that might be possible, but here in Paris it 
would be madness." 

I have known Mr. Bramwell Booth do " madder " 
things in London. He once preached from a coffin on 
the stage of the Army's platform at Holloway. I have 
walked with him more than once through crowded 
streets of provincial towns while he has been dressed 
in sackcloth, and jeered at by boys and sneered at 
by respectable members of Christian society. I have 
seen him jump off a public platform on a Sunday night 
and walk round and round the aisles crying in a 
strained, excited, and pitiful voice, " Eternity ! 
Eternity ! Eternity ! " and I have watched men and 
women stricken with the fear of sin walk and 
even leap to the penitent form and cry, " What must 
I do to be saved ? " And this by General Booth II ! 
He is fired with the Salvationism of his father. 

Mr. Bramwell Booth's platform oratory belongs to 
the fervid style. His coffin-sermon was one of the most 
dramatic appeals to the emotion of Fear to which I 
have ever listened. Preceded by a calm discourse upon 
the certainty and uncertainty of death, the finality of 
all hope of the soul that has passed out of the world 
unforgiven, the preacher drew a vivid picture of 
mortality in the grave, Entering the coffin and lying 
on his back, he quoted Paul's death-defiant gospel 
while describing the soul at peace with God. 

" O Death, where is thy sting ? O grave, where is 
thy victory ? " And in these words he raised his voice 
in loud, appealing tones : 



A SERMON IN A COFFIN 291 

" Are you prepared to meet the Messenger ? Are 
you ready for the white shroud, the last call of the 
undertaker, and to lie down in this cold, narrow, lonely 
bed ? Backslider, you, you who have afresh driven 
the nails of rebellion into the Saviour's hands and feet, 
trampled on Divine mercy, mocked the Blood, and 
rejoined hands with the enemy of souls ; oh ! are 
you you ready ? Sinner, brother and sister, friend, 
listen : Has sin so numbed your reason that Death 
has so lost its terrors that you take the numbing effect 
of contempt to imply the possession of a courage that 
is as strong as the faith of the saint ? " 

The audience meantime gazed at the platform as if 
hypnotised. Neither the dramatic garb of the speaker 
jior the gruesome object on the platform evoked any 
resentment from the scoffers in the back rows, who 
had a few minutes before been fortifying their nerves 
with glasses of beer at the bar of an adjoining public 
house. The man was in terrible, deadly earnest. In 
that moment he seemed to combine the zeal of a 
Xavier with the morbid imagination of a Richard Bax- 
ter, and had he been on this occasion morally sustained 
by a corresponding faith and sympathy on the part of 
his officers, this sermon alone might have inflamed the 
zeal of the average London Salvationist. But it fell 
flat though incidentally it clearly revealed that Mr. 
Bramwell Booth, the gentlemanly Chief of the Army, 
dabbler in science and philosophy, writer to The Times, 
and keen bargain-dealer, is also a practical believer 
in the wisdom of rank sensationalism as an auxiliary to 
the evangelisation of the people. The Salvationist of 



292 GENERAL BOOTH 

to-day still admires the officer of this type, and all this 
and more than this stands to the credit of the man who 
more than any other is likely to succeed General Booth 
in ruling the Salvation Army. 

His association with Mr. W. T. Stead in the reckless, 
sensational, and yet successful effort to raise the age 
of consent under the Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 
brought Mr, Bramwell Booth at the time (twenty-two 
years ago) into notoriety and showed another side of his 
character. For some days he remained with his com- 
patriots under the opprobrium of having been an 
accessory to the procuration of a child for immoral 
purposes, until he was exonerated not only without a 
stain on his character, but his conduct in the case was 
held by Justice Lopes to be that of a Christian gentle- 
man. What he actually did was to introduce to Mr. Stead 
a woman at one time a keeper of a house of ill-fame 
who he believed was in possession of facts bearing 
upon a hideous traffic in girls of a tender age. The 
whole force of the Army's organisation was called up 
to ventilate the need of an amendment in the Criminal 
Law. Five thousand Salvation soldiers marched 
through London to the House of Commons with Mr. 
Bramwell Booth on horseback, and presented a mam- 
moth petition in favour of the Bill. 

Writing from the dock at the Old Bailey, we get 
an introspective view of the next General of the Salva- 
tion Army from his own pen : 

" MY DEAREST MOTHER, 

" This morning we are here again, and the 



AT THE OLD BAILEY 293 

enemy is all in array against us. Just got your kind, 
brave telegram. It has cheered me. I confess last 
night I felt very much distressed indeed. I think of 
the Army, of course, and it seems so hard to have all 
this sort of thing twisted against us. I care very little 
about myself, but others do and will suffer through me, 
Russell is making a most splendid speech for Jarrett. 
Many people in the court cried when he spoke of her 
desire to do something to make amends for her former 
life. I cannot tell what effect he is making on the jury. 

" Only think how we are making history ! We are 
the first prisoners put into the box to give evidence 
for ourselves for a thousand years ! The thing is quite 
new. I expect I shall go into the box about noon to- 
morrow, or perhaps later. I know you will pray for 
me. I am so nervous about the most ordinary things 
that I am certain to be extremely shaky. The strain 
has been very great since we began, and I am all of 
a tremble before I go in. However, God will be with 
me and give me what I shall answer. 

" In any case, and no matter what the result, I am 
not ashamed to be here. I did all I did because the 
wail of the oppressed and the imprisoned had come 
up into my ears and gone down into my heart, and 
because I could not help it, and if I had done any other 
I should have gone against my conscience." 

There never was any case against Mr. Bramwell 
Booth. But for the negligence of a member of the 
Army's editorial department, who carelessly misplaced 
a letter that came into his possession by mistake and 
kept it there for a month, Mr. Booth would never have 
been charged at all. These extracts, however, supply 
a few cameos that reveal the son's strong attachment 



294 GENERAL BOOTH 

to his mother, a physical nervousness from which the 
strenuous life he has led since has not quite freed him, 
the self-appeasement of his conscience, and the ruling 
passion of his life the Army first and the Army last. 
Writing after the verdict to his Army friends, he 
said : 

" I am aware that those who expose the doings of 
immoral men must expect to be attacked in return, 
and that those who snatch the prey from the destroyer 
must suffer as well as their Lord and Master." 

In his own way it has been defined as masterly 
opportunism Mr. Bramwell Booth was as good as his 
word. Immediately after the trial he organised an 
Investigation Bureau, by means of which he has dug 
up out of the social morass of London probably as 
much information as to the haunts of vice as is lodged 
in the pigeon-holes of Scotland Yard ; but which Mr. 
Bramwell Booth has made entirely subservient to the 
rescue of women and the working of a system for 
exacting privately a measure of justice from the chief 
culprits. 

Thousands of unfortunate women have been cared 
for in a maternity hospital and restored to friends, 
some having been happily married and provided with 
a fresh start in life in a new world across the seas. This 
incident in his career redounds to his honour as a man 
and as one of the guides in a great work of mercy. 

But he might have taken fuller advantage of the 
publicity which his place in the dock at Old Bailey pro- 
vided. The department might have become a useful 



SLUM WORK 295 

vigilance agency. The General restrained his Chief, 
however, insisting that the salvation not the dis- 
covery and punishment of criminals was the supreme 
concern of the Army, and from that day to this Mr. 
Bramwell Booth has allowed his ardour for the reform 
of the law in relation to this question to be regulated 
wholly and solely by philanthropic, as distinguished 
from legislative, considerations. 

As an organiser of forlorn endeavours the second 
in command of the Salvation Army is probably seen 
at his best. The slum work of the Army was mainly 
his creation. When much younger he frequently evan- 
gelised in the slum quarters of Hackney, " Donkey 
Row," East London, and other places. He has visited 
and nursed the sick, tidied up rooms in rookeries, and 
preached salvation and held prayer-meetings with the 
neighbours. He formed the idea in those days of sub- 
duing black patches of our city life by the sheer moral 
and sweetening influences of clean, happy, self-denying 
Christians who should voluntarily come out of their 
ordinary homes and go down and actually live amongst 
the poor and degraded. 

In company with the writer he wandered about the 
slums of South London night after night studying the 
habits, customs, and character of the occupiers of 
squalid and overcrowded tenements, dilapidated 
rookeries, and blind, dismal alleys. An article followed 
in the War Cry, giving a word- vision of this neglected 
London, and calling for the consecration of the fol- 
lowers of the Friend of sinners to save the people. 

He dreamed of a nether London honeycombed with 



296 GENERAL BOOTH 

sanctified fathers and mothers, living the Christ life 
among the hovels of the poor and the black localities 
of vice by day, and preaching the Gospel at night. A 
beautiful dream ! inspired by an idealism far, far 
beyond the matter-of-fact Christianity of modern days 
and even the predisposition of the Salvationist to suffer 
for Christ's sake. 

Two warm-hearted sergeants of a large and easy- 
going Corps in Battersea, Mr. and Mrs. Webb, felt the 
call of Heaven in their hearts to this work, and made 
a heroic attempt to apply Mr. Booth's notion of Christ 
in the slums ; but while they were undoubtedly the 
pioneers of the slum work of the Army, the original 
plan was found to be impracticable. Nevertheless, it 
is interesting that at a period in the evolution of the 
social idea of the Army and before the Darkest Eng- 
land Scheme was as much as dreamt of Mr. Bramwell 
Booth, the Chief of the Staff, was endeavouring to 
grapple with that problem of all problems, how to 
Christianise the heathen of England by the force of 
moral example, and by holy and self-sacrificing men 
and women living, not occasionally visiting, but actually 
living in the slums. 

Undaunted, this Salvation Stanley shall I say ? 
rushed on through the dense forest of social 
desolation, poverty, vice, and crime, till at length 
he attained a working basis and founded what were 
called " slum posts," from which happy, bright, and 
devoted sister officers of the Army operated upon a 
given neighbourhood, visiting the sick and degenerate 
by day, and at night attracting many of their neigh- 



HIS EARLY YEARS 297 

bours into small halls, where salvation was proclaimed 
with results that drew from the late Cardinal Manning 
the high encomium, " They are God's angels of hope 
and mercy." Since then the slum posts have been 
superseded by district visitation and nursing, but 
whether the latter is an improvement upon the former 
I cannot say. 

Here, then, is a man with the predilections of a 
practical, social alchemist, and who, in the providence 
of God, will be the next General of the Salvation Army. 

There is the strain of the mystic in his temperament. 
His library and books from which he most frequently 
quotes testify to a strong preference for the dogmatic 
theology of the low evangelical school, and the contem- 
plative literature of the order of Lacordaire, Upham, 
and Madame Guy on. He was given the Christian names 
of William Bramwell by his parents as a mark of their 
regard for the writings and reputation for holy living of 
that old Methodist divine. 

The association of his name influenced the boy at 
school and at play. He was always "a good boy," so 
good indeed that he had to endure much inconvenience 
while a pupil of the City of London School. Refrain- 
ing from vulgar language and many innocent games 
because of the questionable character of some of his 
schoolmates, he was speedily made the object of that 
" pin-pricking " order of annoyance at which British 
lads are such experts ! 

At the age of thirteen W. Bramwell Booth gave his 
heart to God, and at fifteen the exigencies of the 
Christian Mission movement as well as ill-health some- 



298 GENERAL BOOTH 

what interfered with his education. Had he pur- 
sued his studies and had his parents sent him to college, 
he probably would have revised some of his crude 
ideas of humanity and of New Testament teaching, 
for inculcating which his parents were largely re- 
sponsible. Mrs. Booth held " strong views " as to 
education generally, and considered that the colleges 
and universities were ruinous to real religion. Bram- 
welPs education suffered in consequence, and at 
seventeen he found himself assisting his father in 
the " poky " offices adjoining the People's Market, 
Whitechapel Road, then the Headquarters of the 
movement. It was here he saw the world with the 
eyes of his father. It was here, amidst squalor and 
poverty, that he imbibed aggressive aspirations after 
a more militant form of Christianity. It was here, too, 
that he proclaimed a standard of holy living that at- 
tracted to him thousands of Christians belonging to all 
parts of London. Every Friday night he conducted 
holiness meetings, at which he persistently, vigorously, 
and with much scriptural reference tried to prove that 
it is possible for men not only to have a conscious 
sense of the pardon of their sins, but a definite assur- 
ance of a clean heart. He believes it to be possible 
for men in London to live without sinning, aye, with- 
out sin. Here are his views on this subject expressed 
in his own words : 

" To restore men to the image of God means also to 
bring men to will what He wills. Thus jestored, they 
will do His will on earth, as it is done in heaven. Then, 
instead of separation and contention between man 



AN INVETERATE WORKER 299 

and God, there will be submission and harmony and 
union. And to be renewed again in His likeness means 
to be made perfect in love to love supremely what He 
loves, and to hate what He hates." 

The aspiration of these gatherings is even better 
defined in one of a few hymns that Mr. Bramwell Booth 
has composed : 

" Oh, when shall my soul find her rest, 

My stragglings and wrestlings be o'er ? 
My heart, by my Saviour possessed, 
Be fearing and sinning no more ? 

" Now search, and try me, O Lord, 
Now, Jesus, give ear to my cry ; 
See ! helpless I cling to Thy word, 
My soul to my Saviour draws nigh. 

" My idols I cast at Thy feet, 

My all I return Thee, who gave ; 
This moment the work is complete, 
For Thou art almighty to save. 

" O Saviour, I dare to believe 

Thy blood for my cleansing I see, 
And, asking in faith, I receive 
Salvation, full, present and free. 

" O Lord, I shall now comprehend 

Thy mercy so high and so deep, 

And long shall my praises ascend, 

For Thou art almighty to keep." 

Like all the Booths, the Chief of the Staff is an in- 
veterate worker. Here is a page from my diary that 
tells of the average day in his life : 

"Breakfasted with the Chief of Staff at Hadley 
Wood at 8. Busy all the way in train and cab to Head- 
quarters. Chief severe on an officer for imparting in- 



300 GENERAL BOOTH 

formation to General about trouble in States. He 
lectured Cadets at Clapton at 11 o'clock. Address 
upon ' Faith ' in relation to works. Returned to 
International Headquarters for conference with lawyers. 
Had a bad quarter of an hour with Trade Department 
over their debts. Caught 5.10 p.m. for Luton. He 
conducted All Night of Prayer in Citadel. Not at all 
in good form ; hammered the people too much. Denun- 
ciation of sin in abstract too rackish. Results practi- 
cally nil. Telegrams during meeting pestered him. He 
went to bed at 1 a.m. wearied and tried about America." 

It is no disparagement of the son that he does not 
possess the human touch of the father. As a speaker 
Mr. Bramwell Booth is serious, impressive, lucid, and 
as we have described, melodramatic. But he lacks 
what he fancies he possesses the dry humour of his 
father. It is but right to remember, however, that 
he has not been privileged with the opportunities of 
keeping in practical contact with the people to the 
extent that the General has. He does not understand 
the inner, psychological meaning of the word Demo- 
cracy. Observant as he is, the labour and social 
movements of the hour are retrogressive in his judg- 
ment. If I am correct and I think I am this is a 
most unfortunate shortcoming in the coming General, 
for there was a time when the working classes looked 
on at the evolution of the Army in the hope that it 
would result in the organisation of a movement that 
would voice the bitter cry of the British toiler, and use 
its unique influence in industrial centres for lifting 
the working-man question on to a high platform. 

as it may appear, although the Salvation 



THE ARMY AND THE WORKING MAN 301 

Army is essentially a people's movement, it is only so 
in a religious sense. The Booths, including the General 
and especially Mr. Bramwell Booth, have failed to at- 
tract the working class as a class to their standard. 
The Army lacks the democratic atmosphere ; its 
leaders have not " gone down " to them, or sought 
admission to their clubs, or listened to the men's own 
version of their social and industrial grievances, or 
tried to grapple, in the spirit which they exhibited 
toward the human submerged, with their peculiar 
circumstances and aspirations. 

They have opened shelters and soup-kitchens for the 
out-of-works ; but through prejudice, or as employers 
of labour, they have held aloof from the working man. 
At any rate, for some reason or another, they have 
done little to harness the working man as such to the 
Blood and Fire Flag ; he stands off from the Army. 
There is nothing in an Army hall that is socially at- 
tractive to him week-night or Sunday. The meetings 
are now largely composed of women, principally of the 
shop-girl and servant class, and the fear that many 
friends of the Army entertain about the next General 
is that he will be too old to strike out on this matter 
and enlist the sympathies of any important number 
of the labouring and artisan classes to the Army, i 

They respect the old General and speak>-fi!nec- 
tionately about the ambulance operations of the Army 
down among the poor we all do that but what has 
the Salvation Army to offer a hardworking man at the 
end of a day's nawying, or when he is being "bested " 
in his attempts to better his circumstances, and thus 



302 GENERAL BOOTH 

prevent his children from falling into the ranks of the 
submerged ? 

It has a charter for the hooligan, but nothing for the 
honest man. Will Mr. Booth has he the courage ? 
take hold of this question ? Unless he does in a 
statesmanlike fashion, the Army must eventually be 
confronted with a serious dearth of men capable of 
being trained into successful officers, For the Army 
is drifting into a large charity organisation as a result 
of this aloofness and ignorance of the modern working 
man's mind toward Christianity. 

For over twenty-five years Mr. Bramwell Booth has 
reigned and ruled at Headquarters. While other officers 
have been subject to the law of change of appoint- 
ment he has, unfortunately for the movement, remained 
at his desk. He has been a partner to sending his 
brothers and sisters hither and thither throughout the 
world, while he himself has not once visited the United 
States, or allowed himself sufficient time to mingle with 
the great democratic spirits of France or endeavour to 
understand the German on his own ground. A huge 
blunder has been committed with the Chief of the Staff, 
which he has done much to make almost irreparable 
by taking upon himself the oversight of the command 
of Great Britain, that ought to have been given, by 
every right of Salvation Army development, to men 
who are well known to possess as sound qualifications 
as himself for these positions. And while he remains 
in it he is guilty, in the opinion of many of his officers, 
who dare not say aloud what they think, of something 
approaching an insult to long-service men. 



THE POWER OF VETO 803 

It is now too late. The Army has suffered, and un- 
less Mr. Bramwell Booth does violence to himself and 
at some risk puts more trust in his top men, the result 
may be grave to the power of the organisation. 
His executive skill is, no doubt, a source of admira- 
tion, but it is marred by a form of priestliness which 
blinds him to the morality of some of his actions. For 
example, he exercises the veto upon all matters re- 
lating to the development of the trading departments 
of the Army. No special contract for Salvation 
bicycles or extension of the Salvation tea department 
one of the established hypocrisies of the movement 
and no departure either in management or depart- 
ments can be passed without his consent. He controls 
the printing department. Except for the routine, 
his is the brain that shapes the thought of the 
Training Home. The War Cry is but a gramophone 
for registering his judgment. He wields absolute 
power over the policy and administration of the 
Farm Colony. 

What did Mr. Bramwell Booth know about dairying 
and the care and stalling of milch cows when the General 
decided to add that as a department to the Hadleigh 
Farm Colony ? What did he know then about brick- 
making, market-gardening, fruit-farming, and the 
industries that have come to grief in the development 
of the experiment of founding a Land Colony for the 
submerged tenth ? 

It is true that expert advice on these undertakings 
was put on the tables of the councils of the Army and 
paid for. But Mr. Bramwell Booth had the veto of 



304 GENERAL BOOTH 

deciding what should be done with that advice, and 
what is more serious, his was the responsibility of 
appointing Salvation Army men to carry out the 
recommendations of experts. Mr. Bramwell Booth 
applied himself with amazing assiduity to master the 
principles of all these industries and paid personal 
visits to farms and other places where they were deemed 
successful, and now Mr. Bramwell Booth can give his 
officers an occasional wrinkle on how to make a depart- 
ment a success where it may be a failure. And I repeat 
that but for the abuse of the sacred name of religion 
with which he clothes his reference to all these secular 
arms of the Army, he would be considered a commend- 
able man of the world. But when he talks of the 
piggery at Hadleigh as part of the Kingdom of God, 
and the tea-selling agents of the Army as the servants 
of the Most High God, he adopts the language of ex- 
aggeration. He is the initiator of the company that 
sells tea under a name that veils its connection with 
the Salvation Army, and is responsible for allowing 
that company, the profits of which go into the coffers 
of the Salvation Army, to be promoted by officers of 
the Salvation Army who go about the country dis- 
guised as ordinary civilians, and who make publicans 
agents of the company while at the same time the 
Army denounces a glass of beer as distilled damnation ! 
He is no doubt satisfied as to the purity of his 
motives and the righteousness of this unsalvation 
Salvation Army Tea Company, and I certainly give 
him credit for being actuated by motives that he thinks 
are the essence of unselfishness. I am not impugning 



INCONGRUITIES 305 

his motives. It is the policy he has adopted and the 
position in which he stands that are objectionable. 

One hour he is studying the profit and loss 
account of a tea company that is ashamed to show 
its connection with the Salvation Army, and the next 
hour he is standing on the platform of the Congress 
Hall and grandiloquently declaiming to cadets the 
rottenness of the business world and the sanctity of 
their Israel. With all his reputation and undoubted 
ability, can Mr. Bramwell Booth sustain the general- 
ship of the Salvation Army when the commercial 
immorality of this amalgamation of the World and 
Religion is better understood ? 

Mr. Bramwell Booth is the most complete paradox 
that the Army has evolved. He is as exacting as 
Shylock when a stake belonging to the Salvation Army 
is in danger, and generous to foolishness when raising 
some fallen brother. He and his agents can be guilty 
of exceeding in zeal for their Zion that of the Spanish 
Inquisitionists, and yet weep over a wretched back- 
slider who kneels at the penitent form and confesses 
his sin, while the man who disgraces the Flag is cast 
outside the camp and damned for all time. 

But all this is the natural result of the long 
practice of the doctrine exposed in the chapter "Is 
General Booth Infallible ? " Infallibility after the 
order of the Salvation Army is synonymous with 
an authority that must not be questioned. Mr. 
Bramwell Booth has developed, as a consequence, 
the vanity of a Wolsey and the unctuous manner of 
a Puritan, the skill of a dealer in stocks and shares, 



306 GENERAL BOOTH 

with the compassion of a Samaritan, minus his anony- 
mity, for no leader of the Salvation Army now acts the 
part of the man with the balm for the broken body 
of a Lazarus or the wounded heart of a forlorn soul 
without acquainting his publicity department. There 
is no such thing as a good deed speaking for itself in 
the twentieth century in the philosophy of the latter- 
day head of a Salvation Army department. 

Mr. Bramwell Booth will, of course, be shocked at 
one of his old lieutenants writing in this terribly 
true manner. I shall not blame him, because in 
the complex mechanism of his moral constitution the 
interests of the Salvation Army have blinded him 
to the truth about himself and others, including the 
officers who have gone under. He could no more arrive 
at a just equation concerning the true character of a 
man outside the Salvation Army who was once within 
its ranks, than he could measure a cubic inch of 
compressed oxygen with an eyeglass. How can it be 
otherwise ? He has to study from day to day, from 
January to December, one interest and one only, 
namely, the Salvation Army, and it is not to be 
wondered at that he is a paradox : a good fellow, and 
an understudy to the Czar of all the Salvationists. 

Fortunately, Mrs. Bramwell Booth may save the 
Chief of the Staff when he ascends the throne of the 
Salvation Army, and thereby avert the possibility of 
a calamity. She has a freer mind on many subjects 
than her husband, and is not cursed by such a fetish 
worship of the Salvation Army as such. She is 
essentially pious. But for her influence and a brave 



MR. B. BOOTH INDISPENSABLE 307 

conquest of a natural aversion to public work, the 
Army's religious horizon would have been consider- 
ably lower than it is to-day. She has been a distinct 
success as the mother of seven boys and girls. Train- 
ing her family to embrace the principles of a simple 
life, she has set an example to the world as a mother, 
a Christian, a practical philanthropist, and a wise, 
careful, painstaking, trustful administrator. The 
Women's Social Work under her guidance has become 
one of the greatest if not the very greatest marvels 
in religious and social redemption. Her influence must 
have been invaluable to her husband in times of doubt 
and perplexity. 

There is no other officer to succeed the General but 
the son. After all that I have said which I submit 
is conceived in a spirit of genuine concern for the 
future of the Army he remains the indispensable. His 
health is precarious and he carries more on his shoulders 
than he has any moral right to do. He ought to be re- 
lieved of a considerable amount of detail, and be per- 
mitted to study the Army for, say, twelve months 
without having to do a day's work in its ranks, and 
in the light of new light such as he can only obtain 
away from the atmosphere of Queen Victoria Street. 
The Army now belongs to mankind. Should it fail as 
its enemies desire, the cause behind it will suffer. It 
should be made a success, and delivered before it is too 
late from the spirit of bigotry, the worst form of autoc- 
racy because religious, and a system of government 
that is out of harmony with the science of democracy. 
Otherwise it may eventually become submerged in the 



308 GENERAL BOOTH 

sea of exclusiveness and rank sectarianism which now 
threatens to destroy it. The opportunity is no longer 
with the good man at the head of the movement. His 
work is nearing its completion, and a noble work it is. 
The opportunity is with the son. Will he grip it ? 



CHAPTER XIV 

THE SALVATION ARMY EMPIRE 

General Booth's Imperial Views Centralisation Failure with the 
Latin Races Some Measure of Success in Scandinavia and 
Protestant Countries Among the Hindoos in India Failure in 
Japan and Korea His World-wide Empire 

THE avowed intention of the General of the Salvation 
Army to found an Empire, composed of States through- 
out the world, conforming to the laws and customs of 
the country in which they are formed, paying homage, 
obedience, and tithe to a central power, is not an idle 
dream. The Empire, though comparatively insig- 
nificant in numbers and in influence as a political 
power, is nevertheless an organic unity. Each State 
is co-related to each and all are amenable to one law, 
one oath of allegiance, and the command of one General. 
Sweden cannot enter into communication with France 
except through the recognised channel at the centre. 
India cannot so much as plead independently for men 
or money direct from America except through the 
medium of Queen Victoria Street. The Salvation 
Army World Empire is founded on the principle of a 
Federated Autocracy, and the dream of the General 
is to leave behind him such a force, dependent upon 
the resources of the International Headquarters for 

309 



810 GENERAL BOOTH 

leadership, that without it the particular State would 
crumble to pieces. We must leave any comment 
upon the wisdom and possibility of realising such a 
dream to the next generation of Salvationists. The 
hour has not arrived when the verdict of those con- 
cerned can be ascertained, and present experience is 
too limited and the information too one-sided to be 
of any value to the student of this movement. It 
is enough to know that the General has passed beyond 
the stage of intention in regard to his Empire : he has 
settled the principle and made legal provision, as we 
have already noted, for the succession, and in every 
country where the Army is at work the property is 
held in such a way that it cannot be used, sold, or 
mortgaged except for and in behalf of the Salvation 
Army. 

What the public, I take it, is most interested in, 
so far as the Army in other lands is concerned, is not 
the ideal behind the operations, but the actual position 
of the Army itself. What is it abroad as well as at 
home ? 

Perhaps the most characteristic attempt that the 
Army has made up to the present, in forming this 
Empire, is among the Latin races. I have made 
several efforts to reduce to three or four simple pro- 
positions the policy of the Salvation Army among the 
Latins and have failed, and I am inclined to imagine 
that the General himself is still groping in the dark 
for a policy, despite the thirty years during which 
his battalions have been at work among them. 

The movement has stations in France, French 



A WORLD-WIDE INSTITUTION 311 

Switzerland, Italy, French-speaking towns in Belgium, 
and in French Canada, while it has a few posts in the 
Argentine Republic and one or two other countries 
in South America. 

No serious opposition has been meted out to the 
Army in these countries, either by the authorities 
or by the people. In contrast to the general disposition 
of Protestant nations, the Latin peoples have rather 
welcomed the visit of the Salvation Army officers as 
interesting and well-meaning people. The Army cannot 
complain that the people have not attended their ser- 
vices. In proportion to the size of the halls they have 
engaged in their propaganda, and the towns in which 
they have endeavoured to establish posts, the con- 
ditions have been altogether favourable to the Army's 
ideas of the main essentials to success. The Army, 
in another respect, has had the advantage of not 
entering upon the experiment as avowedly Protestant. 
The Salvation Army is not, strictly speaking, a Protes- 
tant society at all. It has no quarrel with the Church 
of England or the Roman Catholic Church or the 
Presbyterian Assemblies. 

The nearest approach to a declaration of a line of 
attack upon Latin or Roman Catholic communities 
was once given by General Booth to a representative 
of the Press in these words : 

" The Salvation Army is neither French nor English, 
Indian nor European. It is of mankind and for man- 
kind. We are not Protestants. We are not sent into 
the world to convert Catholics from their errors any 
more than we are at work trying to turn Protestants 



Sit GENERAL BOOTH 

into Catholics. The only thing that we protest against 
is sin, and we find that that is the deadliest enemy 
of the human family. We are against sin and are 
anxious to save men from it. That is why we are at 
work in France and other Roman Catholic nations." 

Twenty-five years ago the Marechale, the eldest 
daughter of the General, started work of this class 
of Protestantism in France. And what has the Army 
to show for it ? In Paris the Army is not represented 
by a hundred members. A rescue home and a shelter 
are no test of the moral influence of the Army in that 
great democratic and open-hearted city. The Army 
has expended tens of thousands of pounds, and with 
what result ? If it were tabulated it would sound 
ridiculous. The effort is a failure in Bordeaux and 
Marseilles, where one would naturally conclude that the 
Army would find splendid opportunities of winning its 
way into the confidence of the many who have lost 
all faith in religion. 

The Army has tried all kinds of methods to make an 
impression on the minds of the people by colportage, 
popular services, lectures, meetings in casinos and 
other resorts. The General has tried to make for him- 
self a platform in such places, and officers who thought 
that France could be won for God and the Army by 
striking out on lines similar to what obtained on the 
other side of the Channel, have made conspicuous 
names for themselves as prodigious impossibilities. 
In one or two towns the Army has a pretence of a hold, 
but the recruits have been largely drawn from the 
children of Protestant parents, and it may be safely 



FAILURE WITH LATIN RACES 313 

asserted that so far as the Army in France is concerned 
it is a sad and general failure. 

There has been no failure on the part of the officers 
in their devotion, courage, and continuity of faith in 
the teeth of stern and incontestable failure. If the 
General were content to accept it as a sign of success, 
or as compensation for all that the Army has expended 
upon France over the period in which it has been at 
work, then he would have it in the fact that the Army 
is better respected than is the average Protestant 
society, and console himself with the common apology 
that in Catholic countries Protestant effort is slow and 
uphill. But, fortunately for his Army, General Booth 
is not made of that material, though why he should hide 
the facts about the Army's work in France, and leave 
the religious public to conclude that because so many 
officers are at work therefore the Army must be in- 
valuable, is somewhat singular. 

Italy affords a more striking illustration of the im- 
potence of the Army to gather adherents than France. 
Major Vint, a clever officer, endeavoured to organise 
a Corps in Rome and was starved out. Then the 
General sought the more congenial atmosphere of 
the Waldensian valleys, but even here the Army that 
began with a fair measure of hopefulness is as good as 
defunct. I am unaware what the outcome of its in- 
vasion of Genoa, Naples, Florence, and Turin is. It is 
possible that these places have shown more religious 
acceptance of the Army teaching, but it is certain 
that if it has won any respect from the general mass 
of the people, this has arisen from the impression 



314 GENERAL BOOTH 

that the Army is a charity. When Messina was laid 
in ruins by the earthquake the General despatched 
Commissioner Cosandey, a French Swiss, to administer 
relief to the sufferers there. One would conclude that 
the Army was represented in its regular work in that 
city. Nothing of the kind, and uncharitable as it will 
be called, I cannot refrain from forming the view that 
behind the act of mercy was the hope that it might 
break down some of the barriers that stand in the way 
of turning the Italian into a Salvationist. The charity 
of the Salvation Army has always a handle to it. 

A futile struggle was planned and carried out for 
establishing a Corps in Spain, but that came to an 
ignominious end. General Booth has alwa}^ given the 
Portuguese a wide berth, and Lisbon has been saved 
a revolution engineered by a regiment of Salvation 
invaders. 

In the French-speaking areas of Belgium the success 
of the Army, if Brussels and Liege are not mentioned, 
has been a trifle more encouraging. The same applies 
to the hold that the Army has gained in Catholic 
towns in the Netherlands. But when the most favour- 
able construction has been placed upon the fruit of 
the Army's labours among the Latin populations of 
Europe, the reflection is forced upon any practical 
mind that if the same lesson were given to any other 
enterprise it would have been accepted as notice to 
quit, and to place the money spent in sustaining a 
forlorn hope in some more successful undertaking. If 
I am not mistaken, the General once thought of acting 
in that way. Had he done so no one with any regard 



A FIELD IN SCANDINAVIA 315 

for the voice of experience would have raised a finger 
of protest against him. But the Army believes that 
somehow, sooner or later, a miracle will happen, 
and that it will be recognised as the deliverer of the 
country and the race. 

If we study the Army in the French districts of 
Canada as a converting agency we see naught but 
failure. The French-Canadians have no use for the 
Army. Neither have the Argentines ; in fact, away 
down there the Army is only a sort of ambulance 
waggon for indigent Englishmen, and those to whom 
a profession of religion, whether Mahomedan or 
Salvation Army, is measured by the amount of cash 
that can be got out of it. 

The Army, on the other hand, has discovered that 
among the Scandinavians it has a people who answer 
to the call that is made upon them. Some of the ablest 
officers in the Army are Swedes or Finns or Nor- 
wegians. The Governments of these nations at first 
demurred to the Army's extravaganza in the name of 
religion, and the Salvationist had to fight for the 
liberty which he now enjoys. In the cities of Stock- 
holm, Christiania, Gothenburg, Bergen, Copenhagen, 
among the inhabitants of Lapland, and among the 
Esquimaux, members of the Army will be found 
acting on similar lines to their comrades in England, 
only that they cannot storm the forts of darkness 
by holding processions in the streets. In all other 
respects the Army carries on rescue and shelter opera- 
tions, and by slum posts, which are more analogous 
to what Mr. Bramwell Booth first established in 



316 GENERAL BOOTH 

London, it has gained the good opinion of royalty 
and local and national authorities. General Booth 
has made a practice for the last twenty years of 
carrying on Salvation campaigns in these northern 
countries. He is invariably accorded a warm welcome. 
He has been received by the present King of Denmark, 
the King of Sweden, and the King of Norway. It is 
said that in the royal circles of more than one Court 
the War Cry is welcomed; at any rate the uniform 
of the Army is respected, and when the hat is passed 
round in proper form it is made heavier by the contri- 
butions of several members of blood royal. 

Among the Saxon communities the Army is on the 
whole well received, though one must here again judge 
of the Army, not by the toleration that is extended 
to it by the force of public opinion, but by the recruits 
it gains. In Holland the Army is a success. The 
phlegmatic temperament of the Hollanders has not 
at all resented the free-and-easy order of service of the 
Salvation Army, and here the social agencies would 
appear to have done some really excellent work. 
The chief strongholds of the Army in Holland are 
Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Utrecht, Haarlem, Gronin- 
gen, and the Hague. 

The people take a kindly interest in what the Army 
is doing in the Dutch Colonies. The Government 
find that among the natives of Java, as well as the 
Dutch Colonists living there, the Army officers are 
successful experts in handling the criminal and leper 
populations. 

In Germany the progress of the Army has been the 



FAIRLY SUCCESSFUL IN GERMANY 817 

most remarkable of any on the continent of Europe. 
On Repentance Day the largest congregations that will 
attend religious services will be those of the Heils 
Armee, if the old General is in command. In the 
Circus Busch he has addressed as many as twenty 
thousand persons in the course of a day. In the big 
cities of Germany the Army has small followings 
in no place outside Berlin is there any really large 
Corps and its social operations are commendable. 
In one or two towns the Army attempted to keep going 
all the year round a Drunkards' Brigade. This con- 
sisted of a body of men patrolling the streets and 
handling special cases of alcoholism. Many remarkable 
results are said to have attended the efforts of this 
method of taking drunkards out of danger, but whether 
it is the success claimed for it I do not happen to have 
sufficient data by my side to know. One thing is 
certain, however the Army has not succeeded in 
enlisting the mechanic as a recruit, and it is highly 
creditable to the Army that they have been able to 
sustain the work by the human material that has 
formed the backbone of the movement. The Municipal 
City of Berlin subsidises the social work of the Army. 

If we leave the Army in Europe and examine it at 
work among the semi-heathen populations of Asia 
and Africa, we shall meet with some strange and com- 
plex issues. India is at once the most inviting field of 
foreign missions that the Army possesses. It is at 
present under the able direction of Commander Booth- 
Tucker and his wife. If one accepts the reports of the 
Army's organs, it is destined to surprise the missionary 



318 GENERAL BOOTH 

world by the results of its operation among the criminal 
classes and the hill tribes of India. Commander Booth- 
Tucker would seem to be contributing his quota to the 
making of a Salvation Empire by aiming at three 
things : 

1. The establishment of a network of social agencies 
that will bring the native within the influence of the 
Army officer day by day, such as banks, medical 
dispensaries, hospitals, and industries. 

2. The formation of brigades for reforming the very 
lowest of the pariah classes, and transferring them 
to colonies where they will become automatically 
officers and soldiers of the Army. 

3. Corps and schools for the education and salvation 
of the people generally. 

Has the Army succeeded in pointing to a new way 
of Christian conquest in India ? The Army has main- 
tained until late years that it has. The question is 
somewhat difficult to answer. There is a reticence 
on the part of Commander Tucker to acquaint his 
European friends with the hard facts relating to 
members and the character of the work. If the Army 
cannot sustain its reputation in India it may as well 
be closed as an authority on missionary work, inasmuch 
as the larger portion of the money allotted from the 
Self-Denial Funds has gone to the maintenance of 
the cause in India. It is on the strength of what the 
Army has accomplished among the heathen in India 
that enthusiasm for the Self-Denial Week has been 
kept so high. In some parts of India, and these the 
easiest to work, the Army is not a success except at 



NATIVE DRESS ADOPTED IN INDIA 319 

catching the converts of other missions. Its converts 
are unreliable, the Corps work is fluctuating, and the 
officers un-Christian in their spirit and conduct. As 
in Europe so in India the work has been stripped of 
much of its spiritual power by the too frequent use 
of the collecting-box, which India has to rely upon 
European officers to carry out. So that, although 
the methods adopted by the Army in evangelising the 
heathen may at first sight seem likely to enlist and call 
for the entire sympathy of the native, it is questionable 
whether the Army has been as successful as the ordinary 
British or American mission, whose methods do not 
convey the impression that the missionaries intend to 
eat and dress as do the heathen. 

These ways are sentimentally attractive. The 
officers, on being appointed to India, adopt an Indian 
name, and from that time they are called, gazetted, 
and corresponded with under an Indian name. The 
European garb is also discarded, and a robe, yellow and 
red, takes the place of the conventional trousers and 
the cumbersome coat. Boots give way for the more 
hygienic sandals. Such impedimenta as collars, ties, 
cravats, rings, and other non-essentials to the happi- 
ness of man are also completely put aside. The officer 
must live, if not in the very thick of heathenism, at 
any rate as far away from the padra as possible. 
But the Army could not succeed in changing the colour 
of the Britisher, his skin and his speech. The high 
caste remained obdurate, and the low caste timorous 
or carried to the other extreme of enthusiasm, and 
became almost worshippers of men and women who, 



820 GENERAL BOOTH 

to gain their confidence, were prepared to throw off 
the Western fashion for the Eastern. 

In any case, the Army in India has shown that the 
law of adaptation in itself is insufficient to capture 
the Oriental for Christ. S. Francis Xavier, before 
Booth-Tucker dreamt of Christianising India, had gone 
further than he in adapting the ancient forms of the 
Church to the legitimate customs of the Hindoo, but 
he realised that without the spirit of God, and very 
much of that spirit too, they only served to make the 
task the more difficult. The missionaries of 350 years 
ago knew what the missionary of to-day appears to 
forget, that they had to speak with authority and not 
as the scribes. They taught divinity with intelligence 
and power. They were at pains to acquire not only 
the language, but the spirit and inner thought of the 
native mind. They undermined the superstition of 
his faith by the mighty weapon of historical reference 
and reason, while living the Christ life, knowing that 
the Indian on matters of religion is essentially a thinker, 
and that unless you can convince his understanding, 
such is the power of custom, that even if he be swayed 
by emotions to-day he will return to his gods to- 
morrow. Even the Salvationist converts in Guzerat 
evinced this truism. When the portrait of their great 
white Sahib appeared in print for the first time, many 
of the ignorant (and the majority are profoundly 
ignorant) cut out the picture and had the same pasted 
on to bricks and pieces of stone, and worshipped it 
once or twice a day ! 

The greatest authorities upon Indian missions 



A FAILURE IN JAPAN 321 

to-day declare that Christianity is making progress 
in India in proportion as its exponents are felt to be 
reliable in their knowledge, character, and in their 
deeds. Is that the dominating note in the religion of 
the Salvation Army in India ? 

Looked at farther east, the Salvation Army is, 
what Count Okuma, of Japan, described it, " very 
young in its faith." In Java, as I have hinted, it is 
a fair success. It has not attempted to hoist its flag 
in China. In Japan it has completely failed to find 
a way into the heart of the young Japanese. Its 
converts come from the Christianised section of the 
towns, very unreliable indeed. Japan has one religion 
which will probably serve its highest interests for some 
generations to come, and it is not Shintoism or Bud- 
dhism, but education. The colleges and schools are 
the centres of the nation's zeal. The youth have but 
one ambition to learn. They have the craze of the 
German for knowledge with twice as much plod in their 
composition. 

The General was well received in all the big cities, 
and if one were to judge by the hospitality of its sons, 
and the eulogies of its ministers of State and merchant 
princes, General Booth might have been considered 
as a modern Buddha. But that is the Japanese way. 
It is questionable if the General's meetings added a 
hundred new soldiers to the roll-call of the Army. 

In Osaka, for instance, at the conclusion of the Gen- 
eral's address Colonel Lawley made an appeal for the 
audience to decide to seek Christ. The response to 
that appeal was a wholesale flight from the benches 



822 GENERAL BOOTH 

on which the people sat to the penitent form, some 
even kneeling in tears. I was carried away by the 
sight. One would conclude that if this manifestation 
of repentance was sincere, and was indeed what it 
appeared to be, the capture of the nation for Christi- 
anity could only be a matter of months. We were 
informed that the crowd were typically Japanese. 
But within a few months not a dozen out of the 
hundreds who professed in this fashion to have thrown 
what they had of another religion to the winds were 
found saved or connected with other denominations. 

The Army in Japan tried to adapt itself to the Japa- 
nese style, but it was a lamentable exhibition of con- 
forming to the letter and losing sight of the fact that 
only the spirit can quicken the dead soul of man. The 
one thing that the Salvation Army has done to make 
a mark upon the thought of the nation is not what 
the General is never tired of telling the world about, 
namely, the passing of an Act by which twelve thousand 
girls were freed from the horrors of the Yoshiwara 
a measure that was framed by one of the most success- 
ful missionaries in Japan but the translation of the 
Gospels into the language of the common people 
by Brigadier Yamamura. He received little counte- 
nance at the time for doing so, and was considered to 
be scarcely orthodox. He has proved how uncharitable 
were the home authorities by refusing again and 
again the finest offers that any young Japanese could 
wish for in his walk of life, and the result is that the 
Army leaders let the lesson of the success of this book 
pass into the hands of others. In the Far East, as in 



SMALL RESULTS 323 

the West, knowledge is power. The General and his 
coming successor will prove it. Neither Japan nor 
Korea is to be won by enthusiasm. If they are to 
be Christianised it will be by the overwhelming evi- 
dence of the reality of the Christian teaching, backed 
up by the superb testimony of unselfishness and bra- 
very. Are the officers whom the General has sent out 
to Japan and Korea equal to the task ? Up to the 
present the Army, in the former country at least, 
has been mainly characterised by " kow-towing " 
to the powers that be, and by the employment of what 
influence could obtain through the missionaries. The 
Army in Japan is well-nigh a mistake. 

I might dwell upon the Empire that the General is 
drawing together by further references to the opera- 
tions of the Army in America, Australia, and Canada, 
and among the Crown Colonies of the British Empire 
where it is at work. Something might be said about 
the possibilities of the Army in Africa, but as a matter 
of fact in all the countries named, with the exception 
of Canada and Australia, the Army is still in an experi- 
mental stage. And I say so, fearless of contradiction. 
In America the position of the Army is nugatory. 
It has no numerical following worth naming, and yet 
the other day President Taft and Mrs. Taft honoured 
the movement by attending a meeting addressed by 
the eloquent Miss Booth, and the General signified 
his sense of the importance of the event by sending 
a special cablegram of thanks. If the fact were appre- 
ciated that the Army in America is but an organised 
charity, and not a religion that has recruited its forces 



324 GENERAL BOOTH 

from the outside world or the world outside the 
Church, there would be a different phase of feeling in 
America towards the organisation. 

The moral of all this interesting endeavour must be 
clear to the dullest mind. General Booth is attempt- 
ing to run his Army throughout the world on the same 
principle as he did the Christian Mission in its first 
or second year. He has his hand on it for a given 
purpose. Then it was that he might be saved from the 
bondage of government by committee. Now it is that 
he may establish a Hierarchy that shall use its power, 
whether secular or spiritual, to foster the organisation 
called the Salvation Army. His Empire stretches 
from the warm flat land of South America to the 
volcanic coast-line of far Japan, from the region of the 
everlasting snows to the deserts and forests of Africa. 
His iron will moulds the thought and activities of his 
followers everywhere. But is he not forgetting one 
thing, that whether they succeed or fail, these same 
States will fall away simply because they have not the 
power to carry on their work according to their own 
ideas ? 



CHAPTER XV 
AND WHAT OF THE FUTURE? 

The Growth of Toleration The Array Respected General Booth on 
the Future of the Array Is the Army Faithful to Itself ? An 
Example 

THE prophet has not arisen who can be relied upon to 
predict what the future of the Salvation Army will be. 
The business of prophet has, moreover, gone of late 
into bankruptcy, and when one recalls his failure in the 
past as it concerns this organisation, it behoves one, 
especially if he has convictions, to tread carefully while 
venturing to suggest what may transpire in the fortunes 
of the Army should this or that occur. 

Let us see how far some of the prophets of days gone 
by have been justified by the logic of events in their 
prognostications of the place that the Army would 
occupy in the public estimation. The British 
journalist, in his capacity as a seer, reckoned that it 
would have a meteor-like existence, a sensation that 
would last so long as the novelty could be sustained. 
Well, the novelty has ceased to " draw," and yet the 
Army is with us and means to stay. Granted that the 
mob no longer follows it to its barracks, and that 
skilled players on divers instruments do not charm 
many of the baser sort to its citadels more's the pity 
- the contingent of faithful witnesses to the Flag may 

325 



326 GENERAL BOOTH 

be seen to-night in fifteen hundred cities, towns, and 
villages of this country alone. It has its own following, 
and the respect and goodwill of a modicum of the 
community wherever it is represented. The prophecy 
of the scribe, with his readiness to measure new move- 
ments by the rule of precedent, proves how dangerous 
it is for anyone who has a leaning to this class of 
dogmatism to assume the role of the prophet. 

Then the Church treated the movement with dis- 
dain and unctuous pity, though founders of those 
Churches went about " turning the world upside 
down." Exceptions there were, of course, and they 
were principally among the Bishops and Archbishops 
of the Church of England, and it is to their credit that 
they perceived the moral significance of the big drum 
and the tambourine. Other cures of souls saw no 
beauty in the red-vested brigades of General Booth 
and said he was dragging religion in the gutter he 
made answer that they had kept it too long in the 
clouds and that he was assuming to himself and his 
followers prerogatives for which they had no warrant. 
Again he made answer, " Do not judge us by our 
creeds, or our mistakes, or by the critics who have 
nothing to show that they are lifting the people out of 
their slough of despond, but by results." 

Then came Darkest England and the Way Out. 
The false prophets were discomfited and rejected by 
their flocks. The tide of Christian charity swept away 
bigotry and prejudice, and many who before were 
against General Booth became his friends. They 
opened the gates of their sanctuaries to him and to his 



A CHANGE IN PUBLIC OPINION 

sergeants, and tried to make, and in many ways suc- 
ceeded in making, the amende honorable. 

The Churches have long ceased to label the Salva- 
tion Army by any other name than that of a regiment 
of the great Army in the forces of Christianity that 
is making a way and a highway for the coming of the 
King. 

The prophet of science poured the vitriol of sarcasm 
upon the sensationalism of the Salvation Army, and 
emptied a tornado of sarcasm upon its titles, preten- 
sions, and miracles. Huxley voiced the sentiment 
of many of his cult when he described the religion of 
William Booth as " Corybantic Christianity." But 
somehow the Army does not seem as if it were to fulfil 
the prediction of the wise men who then sat in the seat 
of learning and called it by unholy names. William 
Booth has since then been granted the Freedom of the 
City of London, the honorary degree of D.C.L. in the 
University of Oxford, has been received by the late 
King Edward, and welcomed into the heart of the 
philanthropic and political world as a benefactor of the 
race. Even the Gamaliels of science sit now at his feet 
and bid him God-speed in his schemes of social regenera- 
tion. It was unwise of them to be so unscientific as 
to declare the work of the Army "a mere flash of 
veneered fanaticism "until they had allowed sufficient 
time to elapse by which to put their theories to the 
test. 

Of late years other denouncers of the Salvation Army 
have arisen. They do not greet the shouting enthu- 
siasts of salvation with derision. They have no objec- 



328 GENERAL BOOTH 

tion to their proclaiming their views, wherever and 
however they choose ; but they protest against the 
Salvation Army interfering with the work that ought 
to be done by the State, and that the aim of its founder 
is not to organise a charity that will be synonymous 
with mercy and Good Samaritanism, but to found 
an institution that will become a menace to the State, 
and will tend to perpetuate systems of servile labour 
from which all the allied forces of reform should strive 
to deliver the worker. They are at war with the 
Salvation Army's Social Scheme and prophesy that 
it is bound to fail. It deals, they aver, with effects 
and does not do violence to the causes from which these 
evils spring. They denounce the Hanbury Street 
Joinery Works as a den of sweating, and the rag- 
shops and paper-sorting works as nothing short of a 
system that degrades the very men whom the Army 
seeks to ameliorate. But the sign of the Army's 
coming down as a social agency does not seem to rise 
on the horizon, and General Booth goes on multiplying 
workshops, shelters, and hotels for the sale of cheap 
food. Each year finds the public unmoved by all these 
attacks upon the wizards of this social salvation, as 
attested by the Self-Denial Week Citadel Funds 
and other evidences of public esteem. It is possible at 
the same time that there may be more accuracy of 
judgment in the predictions of these men, for they are 
men who do not theorise in views they are the fruit 
of much thought and knowledge of the needs and cir- 
cumstances of the poor and the working classes and 
General Booth might do worse than set apart a few 



AN EARNEST ENDEAVOUR 329 

of his officers to study the practical politics of men 
who are exploring in their own way a " way out " for 
the people who are imprisoned in poverty and social 
darkness, not through any fault of theirs, but by the 
fault of systems that have been in existence from time 
immemorial. On the other hand, this class of critic 
would be well advised to be careful lest their theories 
receive from Father Time a verdict somewhat different 
from what they expect. A few thousand years may 
pass before humanity discovers that there is some- 
thing more than a historical fact in the life and death 
of the Man Christ Jesus, and that the inner meaning 
of that cry, " My God, why hast Thou forsaken Me ? " 
may have in it a message of healing and salvation for 
the whole world. That gospel is not played out, and 
while the Salvationist pins his faith to it it is well not 
to be too dogmatic as to what his future will be. 

General Booth has a right to be heard upon the future 
of the Salvation Army. It is to his interest, his highest 
interest, and to the honour of his name in the religious 
history of the world, that the Salvation Army should 
be, a hundred years hence, a power that makes for 
righteousness. Has he not given his life to make it 
permanent ? Has he not sacrificed the just emoluments 
of his labours that its reputation for unselfishness 
might remain untarnished ? He has travelled the 
world again and again and seen the principles on which 
it is founded put to the test. He has seen the triumph 
and the apparent failure of these same principles under 
varied conditions of social life. 

What has he to say as to its future ? It is one of 



330 GENERAL BOOTH 

his favourite themes in public. When General Booth 
speaks of the future of the Salvationist without his 
uniform when he has not to stand before the world 
as an apologist then he is entitled to a most respect- 
ful hearing, and I have heard him speak in that fashion. 
It was six } 7 ears ago. He was journeying to the other 
end of the world. The good ship bearing him to the 
hospitable shores of a favoured clime in the British 
Empire had sighted land. Passengers were absorbed 
in the small details of their packing up, discharging 
bills, and passing farewell compliments to old and new 
friends, when the news was unexpectedly handed round 
the saloon that the vessel could not enter dock till next 
morning. This rather demoralised the General's plans 
he lives by system and so he betook himself into 
a flight into the past, and talked of the days when he 
had not a friend to whom he could go and with cer- 
tainty receive a five-pound note to help him forward. 
Next day he would be the recipient of a thousand tele- 
graphic messages of welcome, from the Premier to the 
converted bushranger. The old man put his travelling- 
rug round his knees and ensconced himself in his deck- 
chair, and speculated as to the future of the people who 
were proud to call him their leader and their com- 
mander. 

" Whereunto will this thing grow ? " he asked, and 
then made a cursory review of the forces under his 
command in all parts of the world and dilated upon 
the signs of the times. 

\ " We are better understood. We are no longer 
tolerated. We are respected and feared. The day has 



GENERAL BOOTH ON THE FUTURE 331 

arrived when she the Salvation Army must adhere 
to its work with more tenacity than ever. We must 
make Salvationists, we must make " with the em- 
phasis on the " must " " Salvationists ; people who 
do not know anything but the Salvation Army. They 
say that persecution makes a people, but you cannot 
always be persecuted, and persecution is not the best 
method for raising our strength so far as it affects 
numbers. We have had to contend in the past with 
the spirit of the Church. The spirit of the Church is 
not the spirit of the Salvation Army. I say nothing 
against it ; it has its work to do, and I hope it will 
wake up and do all the good it can in the world. But 
the Salvation Army is a Red Cross. Let us keep to 
that. That will carry us to our goal or whatever the 
good Lord has for us in the future. 

" And what will that future be ? My comrade, I 
seldom think of what we are. I am bound to tell the 
world what we have done. They demand to know. 
But I am all the time thinking of what the Salvation 
Army will be. I look upon the Army as I do the land 
whose shores we shall touch to-morrow. That land is 
in its infancy. It is suffering from the mistakes of 
youth, and its leaders are not always wise. But 
nothing can stop the clock of progress in this land. 
For the moment a party may be in power that is 
determined to make it the garden for only such as 
they choose to take inside its borders, but that party 
will pass away. The nation has the soil for sustaining 
millions and millions. It has untold wealth in minerals, 
and it has not entered into the heart of its present-day 
statesmen to conceive what is laid up for their children 
and their children's children. 

" In a similar strain of thought I have been thinking 
of the Salvation Army to-day, I have been looking 



3S2 GENERAL BOOTH 

into the coming years, and what do I see ? Bramwell 
writes me about his Staff College. That is a further 
development of a cradle of Empire. He is doing more 
for the realisation of my dream for a University of 
Humanity than he wots of. Our power to carry out 
our mandate given to us by High Heaven, and our 
power to make the most of the opportunities that 
are rising in the United States, India, and on the 
continent of Europe, depend upon training men and 
women for the work of the Salvation Army in all 
its branches. 

" We must have a world's University : a great centre 
to which Salvationists from all parts of the world will 
come to be trained for all grades and sections of the 
Army's Red Cross work. I see it coming. The nucleus 
is with us already. If Carnegie could only see the 
educational advantage of such a University he would, 
I believe, give me the million pounds necessary to 
make it a success. We should train experts for dealing 
with criminals, harlots, paupers, tramps, hooligans, 
and would-be suicides. We should train men and 
women to become experts in finance, trade, languages, 
arts, sciences, where they would be useful for our work, 
and generally train a staff of experts in salvation 
sociology whom the Governments of the world would 
look to us to do their prison and similar work. A 
Prime Minister told me that he would recommend his 
Cabinet to hand over the prison department of his 
State to the Salvation Army. That would shock some 
people, I have no doubt. But that is what the Salva- 
tion Army is coming to, and must come to if it is 
faithful to itself. If it is not, then I hope God will wipe 
it off the face of the earth and raise up some other 
system that will carry out the Divine purpose that for 
the present seems entrusted to us. 



GENERAL BOOTH ON THE FUTURE 333 

" The criticisms of the Salvation Army as to its 
future are in vain. The people who indulge in them 
are, as a rule, ignorant of the conditions under which 
the Army has been created, and they are blinded by 
prejudice. Are our principles sound ? Up to the 
present I have not met with anyone who has dared to 
assert that they are not suited for such a work as we 
are engaged upon. 

" The future of the Army is in the hands of God. 
All the talk about what will happen when the General 
is gone although he is not gone yet ! is so much 
moonshine. The death of the General will make no 
difference to the Salvation Army. The Army is now 
going of its own momentum. You remember it used 
to be said when we changed officers in command of 
Corps that the Corps would fall to pieces if Captain 
Mary Jane were taken away from the town, but in 
course of time the town discovered that there were 
more Mary Janes than one, and that the second had 
qualities that the first did not possess. So it will be 
with the second and the third General, I believe. The 
people are pleased to see the old man wherever he goes. 
It is but natural, and when they find out, as they will, 
that the Salvation Army is going on, and that the old 
flag is waving, that the old songs are being sung, and 
that drunkards are being made sober and harlots are 
made chaste, and that dishonest and idle men are being 
turned into honest and industrious citizens, they will 
say in the same spirit as they bless me, ' God bless the 
Salvation Army.' 

" I have made an Army that is independent of the 
personality of one man, whether a General or a Chief 
of the Staff, to keep it alive. It has a system that will 
keep it alive, and one of the surprises of the future will 
be I will not see it unless I do from the other world 



334 GENERAL BOOTH 

that the Salvation Army, while it will miss its first 
General, is going ahead all the same without him." 

And the old man, musing further in the same strain, 
reclined in his chair, closed his eyes as if in prayer, 
and rose and told his secretary that he had wasted too 
much time in dreaming. 

" We have hard work before us to-morrow ; let us 
look at that brief again. I think we can improve upon 
the part that relates to the staff officer in relation to 
worldliness," and in that last sentence is disclosed the 
spirit of the man who never forgets the aim of the 
Army, which is to make a people after a certain 
pattern. 

Will the General's dream come true ? 

The only answer to that question is supplied in the 
language of the General himself : " // it is faithful to 
itself." One thing is as clear as day to me, namely, 
that it is folly and blindness to imagine that because 
the income of the Salvation Army continues to in- 
crease, that is any criterion of the Salvation Army being 
true to itself. It is equally fallacious to assert that the 
Army is true to itself because its discipline is enforced 
with less friction than it was. The discipline of the 
Salvation Army has become a habit with officers and 
local officers and soldiers, and the material from which 
the Corps are mainly recruiting its forces now is sup- 
plied by junior work. The percentage of converts from 
the " outside " gets smaller with age, and to that ex- 
tent the evidence is against the idea that the Army is 
true to itself. The organisation of the movement is 
also more complete, and yet the Army may not be 



IS THE ARMY TRUE TO ITSELF? 335 

making that headway which is leading to the realisa- 
tion of a future that the General dreamt of. 

Personally I do not believe that the Army is as true 
to itself as it was, and, painful as I feel having to say 
so, I do not believe that the Salvation Army is con- 
scious of the loss of its moral power. It is suffering 
from a deep-seated spiritual decline, which the leaders 
are unable to deal with, not because of any serious 
reluctance to do so, but because they have no longer 
the cohesiveness that brings to the top of the move- 
ment with all the force of spontaneity the moral weight 
of individual dissent with things as they are. Head- 
quarters is departmentalised to such an extent that the 
interest of the whole Army is lost sight of. 

This phase of my study of the Salvation Army re- 
quires plain speaking. I believe that, if a census of 
opinion were taken on the issue from field officers 
the only grade of officer whose opinion is worth listen- 
ing to they would more than confirm what I have just 
stated. 

In order to put my own convictions to the test, I 
visited a Corps in North London a few weeks ago 
which stands in the first grade. I think it is next to 
Congress Hall in respect of membership and Self- 
Denial income. It has an excellent brass band, a 
band of songsters, a well-organised Junior Corps, and 
the hall in which the meetings are held is situated in the 
heart of an industrial population on a site that is among 
the best in the neighbourhood. It has an excellent 
history and is respected by the people as a whole. Few 
people can be found in the neighbourhood to say an un- 



336 GENERAL BOOTH 

kind word about it, although if the question was put to 
them if they visit the Corps, the answer would be that 
they " see the Corps pass by with its band, and some 
years ago, when Captain So-and-so was in charge, I 
occasionally looked in." 

What did I see and hear ? A small audience, in- 
cluding officials, of about a hundred people and this 
Corps has a membership of some four or five hundred 
a humdrum service without life hi the singing, or 
originality of method or thought in the leadership, 
such as would not do credit to an average mission-hall 
meeting of twenty or thirty years ago. But for the 
music of the band and the singing of a brigade of twenty 
songsters the Corps would be defunct. The outside 
world was conspicuous by its absence. The audience 
was made up of regular attendants. When the pre- 
liminaries were over, the Captain in a strident voice, 
as if the heart had been beaten out of him and he had 
to make up for the lack of natural feeling by the extent 
of his vocal power, announced that the meeting would 
be thrown open for testimony. 

As no one seemed inclined to get up and testify the 
surest sign that the Corps was no longer true to itself 
he informed the audience that he would sing a hymn. 
He gave out the number and the singing went flat. 
A sergeant, observing two young men without hymn- 
books, went to the platform and picked up two and 
was about to hand the same to the strangers, when he 
was ordered by the Captain to put them back. 

" Let the young men buy books," he said. 

I shall not forget the look upon that sergeant's face ; 



IS THE ARMY TRUE TO ITSELF? 337 

but being accustomed to the discipline of the Army, 
and being in a registered place of worship, he did not 
express what he evidently felt. 

A song was next sung from the Social Gazette news- 
paper, one of the Army's agency, and the Captain 
stated as an incentive to buy that "last week I had 
to pay five shillings loss on my newspaper account. 
For pity's sake buy them up." The appeal did not 
seem to me to strike a sympathetic chord in the 
audience. 

Testimonies followed. Two or three were so weakly 
whispered that I could not catch the words another 
sign of the loss of that enthusiasm without which an 
Army meeting is worse to the spiritual taste than a 
sour apple to the palate. 

Among the testimonies was the following given by 
a Salvationist of some standing : 

" I thank God for His grace that enables me to con- 
quer trials and temptations ; I feel the lack of en- 
couragement in this Corps. My work is to lead the 
youngsters. In that work I get no encouragement 
whatever. The songsters take little interest in their 
duties and it is impossible at times not to feel that they 
have lost their hold of God. The Corps does not en- 
courage me, and though our Adjutant will not care 
to hear me say so, he does not encourage me." 

A woman got up and screamed a testimony about the 
lack of the Holy Ghost and the spirit of backbiting in 
the Corps, during which the two young men referred 
to walked out, and several soldiers in uniforms smiled, 
whispered to each other, and the meeting degenerated 



838 GENERAL BOOTH 

into a cross between a school for ventilating scandal 
and cadging for " a good collection." And I declare 
that this spirit of the meeting is the spirit of the 
Corps in the Salvation Army throughout England and 
Scotland. It has ceased to be true to itself, and as a 
consequence, no matter how the Army organises and 
disciplines its forces, the future of the movement is 

black indeed, and will become blacker unless But 

that is not my business. 



CHAPTER XVI 

THUMBNAIL SKETCHES OF MODERN 
SALVATIONISTS 

Mrs. Bramweli Booth Miss Eva Booth Mrs. Booth-Hellberg Com- 
mander Booth-Tucker Thomas McKie Adelaide Cox John A. 
Carleton Elijah Cadman George Scott Railton John Lawley 
David Lamb 

MRS. BEAMWELL BOOTH, daughter of the late Dr. 
Soper, Plymouth, was educated at a private college. 
At nineteen, attracted by the addresses of Mrs. General 
Booth, although brought up as a member of the Church 
of England, she was convinced that she had not under- 
gone a change of heart. Once " converted " she felt 
that the lives of such women officers as the Marechale 
(Mrs. Booth-Clibborn), Miss Emma Booth (later Mrs. 
Booth-Tucker), and others were nearer her ideal of a 
follower of Christ. To the disappointment of her 
parents, she decided to join the Army and volunteer 
for service in France. 

The Army at this time had just begun its work 
across the Channel, and was meeting with the ridicule 
that the French are accustomed to spend upon a novel 
religion. Miss Soper was accepted, but only remained 
a few months on the Continent. The experience was 
valuable to her. 

She was married in 1882 to Mr. William Bramweli 
Booth, the General's eldest son, and Chief of the Staff 

339 



340 GENERAL BOOTH 

of the Army. She took little prominent part in the 
work of the Army in England for some time after her 
marriage, and then only in the capacity of general 
superintendent of a small Rescue Home. 

Contact with the realities of poverty and the rami- 
fications of vice in the metropolis (and no doubt 
inspired by the constant toil of her husband in the 
interests of the Army), and realising that in the flight 
of time she might be called upon to fill a responsible 
position in the movement, she gradually appeared on 
Salvation Army platforms and proved an acceptable 
speaker. The development of the social idea and the 
launching of the " Darkest England Scheme " com- 
pelled her, when freed from domestic duties, to devote 
the larger part of her time to guiding a staff of women 
officers in opening shelters, receiving and rescuing 
homes, and other agencies that gradually followed 
the evolution of the General's social programme. 
This onerous work freed her entirely from a natural 
reluctance for the platform, and as she grew in experi- 
ence and ability to master difficult problems connected 
with the care of the homeless and the regeneration of 
the vicious, she was raised in status in the councils of 
the Army and was given the rank of a Commissioner 
and a department at the International Headquarters. 

During the past twelve years she has had a large 
share of responsibility in raising workers and money for 
the movement, and has addressed meetings in all the 
large cities of Great Britain. In all matters that con- 
cern Women's Social Work in other countries she has a 
voice. A special feature of her work is the exposition 



THUMBNAIL SKETCHES 341 

of the Army's chief doctrine of holiness. In propagating 
this doctrine she has held drawing-room meetings and 
spoken in the Portland Rooms, Steinway Hall, etc. 

As a speaker she is not self-reliant, having to write 
out and adhere, rather continuously for a Salvationist, 
to her notes. Nevertheless, she is a winsome, unique, 
convincing talker. Her personality is attractive, and 
unspoiled by any attempt at pose. 

She contributes largely to the Army's literature, 
and edits a rather self-advertising magazine for the 
promotion of the Army's principles in the reclamation 
of homeless and vicious women. 

In her home Mrs. Bramwell Booth is one of the most 
remarkable women of the age. The mother of seven 
children four daughters and three sons she has 
trained and educated them at home, personally aiding 
in their instruction in French and mathematics. All 
the seven can talk and sing in French and German. 
They possess gifts for music, and one has the touch of 
genius as a sculptor. They have been brought up on 
vegetarian principles and accustomed to live in the 
open as much as possible. Two of her daughters are 
already commissioned officers, the eldest, Catherine, 
being attached to the Staff of the International 
Training College at Clapton. Mrs. Booth has given 
evidence before State Committees upon subjects con- 
nected with her work. She is a diligent reader of 
high-class religious works and a warm lover of animals. 

Miss EVA BOOTH. Commander Evangeline Booth 
(United States). Third daughter of the General. She 
is the most dramatic speaker, one might almost say 



342 GENERAL BOOTH 

actor, of the Booth family. At the age of seventeen 
she was placed in charge of a branch of work in the 
training of officers. This was resented by older 
officers, but before she was twenty she had shown 
extraordinary powers of command and oratory. She 
was then placed in charge of a Corps in the district 
of Lisson Grove, London, where, disguised as a flower- 
girl, she visited the haunts of shame and homes of 
poverty, and finally disclosing her identity, made in- 
roads into the affection of the people, and won a few, 
professedly at least, to the Army's roll. She was soon 
afterwards placed in actual command of the entire 
training of officers, with the general oversight of the 
Corps work in London. She made a dashing Com- 
mander, and one of the greatest mistakes the General 
ever made was in transferring her to Canada, where her 
gifts as a people's leader were wasted. The London Sal- 
vation Army has never quite regained the position that 
the Army reached under the leadership of this woman. 
She has imagination, daring, and the gift of infusing 
others with her spirit. Her first command outside 
England was in Canada, where she succeeded in 
raising the prestige of the movement among Govern- 
ment circles. For the last five years she has been 
Chief Commander of the Army's operations in the 
United States. Though somewhat hampered in her 
work by uncertain health, she has succeeded in 
consolidating the Army's position, winning back 
many of the friends that the Army lost when Mr. 
and Mrs. Ballington Booth seceded from it, and in 
bringing about a more reliable financial state of affairs, 



THUMBNAIL SKETCHES 343 

She is held in special esteem by the Scandinavian 
portion of the Salvationists, who figure large in the 
membership of the American wing of the Army. At 
the time of her brother's secession, she was sent by her 
father to use her influence in restoring her brother and 
his wife to the Army. But she arrived too late, if in- 
deed she could have succeeded under any circumstances. 

When the majority of the staff officers virtually 
pledged themselves to follow the seceder, Miss Booth, 
by the charm of her personality and a splendid diplo- 
macy, succeeded in urging most of them to pause, 
and nearly all of these are occupying important offices 
in the American Army to-day, with her as their Chief. 
She is a keen Bible student, and fond of dogs and 
horses. Her chief passion is talking. Her voice is a 
powerful instrument, and her lung power has been 
equal to the strain of addressing ten thousand people 
in the open air for over two hours. She is not married. 

MRS. BOOTH-HELLBERG, youngest daughter of the 
General, like her sisters, entered the Army when quite 
a girl, and was entrusted with administrative respon- 
sibility without having had any previous field expe- 
rience. She had uphill work in consequence. 

At the time she had assumed this responsibility 
there were many officers better qualified to train the 
minds and guide the characters of hundreds of young 
men and women cadets. This was one of several 
appointments that strengthened the impression that 
prevailed at one time, that the Army was more or less 
a family concern. Miss Lucy Booth married a highly 
gifted Swede named Emmanuel D, Hellberg, for many 



344 GENERAL BOOTH 

years the Chief Secretary and virtual leader of the 
Army's work in Sweden. Together the Hellbergs 
had command of the Army's stations in India, Switzer- 
land, and France. To the grief of the entire Army, 
Mr. Hellberg died in 1909. Mrs. Booth-Hellberg is 
now in charge of the work in Denmark, and is reported 
to be a success. Though possessing few of the gifts 
of her more brilliant sister Eva, she is quite an effective 
platform speaker and a diligent worker and a most 
loyal upholder of the Army. The intention of the 
General is probably to make her leader of the move- 
ment throughout Scandinavia. 

COMMANDER BOOTH-TUCKER. The most versatile 
and brilliant officer in the Army. He gave up a lucra- 
tive position in the Indian Civil Service to become a 
Salvationist, and came to London in 1880 ; and having 
decided to be an officer, was sent to India with a small 
band of officers to organise the work there. He was 
arrested in Calcutta and imprisoned for causing disorder 
in the streets. His family having borne an honoured 
name in the history of British rule, a wave of indig- 
nation swept over the country and he was liberated. 
His moves and measures aroused considerable oppo- 
sition among the Europeans. He adopted native names, 
native dress, native food, and many native habits. 
For a season these measures attracted the natives to 
the flag of the ' ' Muktif au j . ' ' Startling reports appeared 
in the Indian and English War Cries that tens of thou- 
sands were being converted and were abjuring their 
religion. The work, however, like the Welsh revivals, 
did not sink very deeply into the native mind, and the 



THUMBNAIL SKETCHES 345 

majority of officers raised up from the movement be- 
longed to semi- Christian classes a fact that was disputed 
for some time by Mr. Tucker. There is no doubt that 
his bold policy prepared the way for the Army to win 
a place among the low castes. One of Mr. Tucker's 
methods was to make the English officers wear caste- 
marks on their foreheads. Many of the officers suffered 
in their health. Some of the cream of the Army's 
flesh and blood were enchanted by the eloquence and 
devotion of Mr. Tucker to the cause of India and went 
out and died. The subject is dealt with elsewhere. 

Marrying Miss Emma Booth, the General's second 
daughter, in 1891, Mr. Tucker's command was marked 
with more rational care for his officers, and he added 
a social side to the missionary operations of the Army. 
Owing to the sickness of his wife he had to return to 
England, when the General placed the work of the 
Foreign Office in his hands. 

Here he proved a great success and raised the whole 
tone of the Army's relations on the Continent. 

When Mr. and Mrs. Ballington Booth left the move- 
ment Mr. and Mrs. Booth-Tucker took their place, and 
by a series of daring exploits in the social regeneration 
of the submerged he won a high place in the social and 
religious circles of the United States. Mrs. Booth- 
Tucker proved of invaluable service to her husband, 
and at the height of their joint success in saving the 
Army from permanent disunion, she was killed in a 
railway accident while on her way to Chicago to assist 
her husband in the conduct of a Salvation campaign 
there. He married for the third time Colonel Minnie 



346 GENERAL BOOTH 

Reid, a talented and successful officer, and he is once 
more directing the affairs of the Army in India, but 
within certain limits set forth in his memorandum of 
appointment. Commissioner Tucker is the author of 
the official life of the late Mrs. General Booth. By his 
second wife Mr. Tucker has six children, some of whom 
are destined to shine as able Salvation Army officers. 
COMMISSIONER THOMAS McKiE (Sweden). An or- 
dinary Tyneside lad, Thomas McKie was charmed into 
the service by the " Hallelujah lasses," who made such 
commotion in the North of England during the latter 
part of the seventies in the last century. He at once 
displayed remarkable enthusiasm for the cause, and 
at one leap became the idol of the British field as an 
evangelist Captain. He evangelised the biggest halls 
in England, including the Bristol Circus, the " Ice- 
house," Hull, the Grecian Theatre, City Road, London, 
and the Congress Hall. He is a whirlwind Salvationist ! 
On a Sunday night his meetings would last for four and 
five hours. He would often lead them wearing a red 
guernsey, the sleeves of which would be rolled up. 
His preaching was of the old Methodistic order. Like 
a flaming sword, metaphorically speaking, he would 
raise his voice to a loud key and describe mankind 
" rolling down in a lava of shame to the pit of hell, 
the smoke of whose torment ascendeth up now and for 
ever " ; and bending over the rail, with perspiration 
standing like crystal beads on his forehead, he would 
cry, " Will you be there ? Yes ; I will tell you this : 
you may be taking your breakfast to-morrow morning 
amid the raging billows of the wrath of God ! " Thou- 



THUMBNAIL SKETCHES 847 

sands and tens of thousands flocked to his meetings, 
and with one or two exceptions " Tom McKie " has 
probably won more converts to the Army than any 
other officer in the movement. 

COMMISSIONER ADELAIDE Cox, Mrs. Bramwell 
Booth's " right-hand man " in the management of 
Women's Social Work of the Army, was the daughter 
of a Congregational minister. She was won to the 
Army by the eloquent appealings and self-sacrificing 
life of Mrs. Booth-Clibborn, and laboured for some 
time as an officer in France and Switzerland. For the 
past twenty years she has been in her present position 
of careful, conscientious organiser. Of wide sympathies 
and strong convictions as to the soundness of her theo- 
ries for the salvation of the people. Without her aid 
Mrs. Bramwell Booth could not have achieved the 
results now obtained by the Women's Wing of the 
social work. She is a member of the Hackney Board of 
Guardians. She has six hundred officers under her 
direction. The one standing criticism of her depart- 
ment of Salvationists is that it is too exclusive. Com- 
missioner Cox speaks French and German, and she has 
often addressed large gatherings and filled the pulpits 
of Nonconformist churches on Sundays. 

COMMISSIONER T. B. COOMBS. Son of a poor shoe- 
maker in the Midlands. He, like Commissioner McKie, 
was placed in charge of big concerns when but a lad. 
He had charge of the Army's work in Wales, twice in 
Canada, Australia, and in Great Britain. He is a born 
financier, and has a special capacity for finding right 
men to organise departments. He is an acceptable 



848 GENERAL BOOTH 

speaker and singer, and has great influence in drawing 
men and women to the penitent form. In later years 
he has unfortunately vitiated this gift by tactics 
that amount to almost profane tricks. His work as an 
evangelist has degenerated to the level of a third- 
rate American " Cheap Jack " advertiser of Salvation. 
It was stated that he had resigned, but Headquarters 
have treated the very idea as libellous. 

COMMISSIONER EDWARD HIGGINS. One of the rising 
men in the movement. Son of the late Commissioner 
Higgins, one of the early pioneers in money-raising. 
He is a man of considerable executive ability and direc- 
tor of large issues. Won his spurs in the United States 
under Commander Booth-Tucker and Miss Eva Booth. 
A pure office man, but in that line a great strength to 
his chiefs. 

COMMISSIONER JOHN A. CARLETON. An Irish gentle- 
man who has made an indelible mark upon the move- 
ment. For many years he was at the head of the Trade 
Emporium of the Army, and placed it on a business 
foundation, which would have been an even greater 
success than it is, had he been able to exercise something 
of the despotic power wielded by the authorities of 
101 Queen Victoria Street, who treated the depart- 
ment for many years as a sort of philanthropic annexe 
of the Headquarters. In consequence of this a most 
shameful waste of money was incurred by delays in 
printing, and an upsetting of general orders after having 
been passed, induced by a fickle policy that marked 
the conduct of the leaders of the Salvation Army. 
In nearly all the departments with which they did not 






THUMBNAIL SKETCHES 349 

interfere the result was invariably profitable. His 
Celtic nature resented the continual chopping and 
changing, and it was to the mutual advantage of all 
concerned when he was appointed some fifteen years 
ago to the development of the Salvation Assurance 
Society. As the Managing Director of this peculiar 
institution, he has been an asset to the standing of 
the Salvation Army in the city of London. His name 
is a guarantee of reliable business methods. Apart from 
the wisdom or otherwise of the department as a 
business concern, the premium income of fifteen years 
ago was 50,000. It is now 300,000. Commissioner 
Carleton has had a large experience in dealing with the 
legal affairs of the Army. He has a few hobbies, such 
as music, photography ; is a very engaging conver- 
sationalist ; and one of the enigmas of the Headquarters 
is that a man of such fertile brains and such solid and 
consummate ability has not been more to the front of 
the movement. At one time he was the Army's Com- 
missioner for literature. 

COMMISSIONER ELIJAH CABMAN (Travelling Evan- 
gelist). One of the " characters " of the Army. 
He was brought up as a sweep in the town of Rugby. 
He climbed chimneys in the days when boy labour 
was employed instead of the reversible brush. His 
back bears evidence of the cruelty that was then 
practised. He was converted under the instrumen- 
tality of some Primitive Methodists when he had charge 
of a boxing-saloon. Ignorant, and surrounded with 
every social and moral disadvantage, he became a sober, 
industrious, and conscientious worker. As soon as he 



350 GENERAL BOOTH 

saw the Army he felt that it presented to him the 
platform of his life. The General engaged him as a 
Salvation speaker. The personality and originality 
of the man attracted attention wherever he went, 
and he was soon raised to the rank of Major. He 
opened the work of the Army in Yorkshire. For 
years he was scarcely ever out of trouble with either 
police or publicans or hooligans. Of an aggressive 
temperament, he is essentially a despot and bigot, 
but with some of the old-time passion for the glory 
of God and the deliverance of the nation from its 
idols. He is an orator of the Methodists' " Peter 
Mackenzie " order. Gifted with a rich supply of mother- 
wit and the faculty of telling a story with dramatic 
effect, he also possesses a clear, resonant voice. The 
Bible and human nature are his textbooks, and his 
own experiences of a hard and sinful life his chief 
commentaries. Commissioner Cadman is one of a type 
of man rapidly dying out of the Army and other 
organisations. His commands in the Army included 
the Men's Social Wing and the Hadleigh Farm Colony. 
He has visited all the countries in which the Army is at 
work, and in many of these is much better appreciated 
than he is in his own land. 

COMMISSIONER THOS. HENRY HOWARD. An officer 
who has had charge of the leading commands in the 
movement : in Great Britain at the International 
Training Homes, in Australia, and at the Foreign 
Office, A teacher of the Army's doctrines, his chief 
asset is reliability. He is a grand humdrum officer, 
He is in no great hurry to be carried to the seventh 



THUMBNAIL SKETCHES 351 

heaven by the proposals of every Salvation enthu- 
siast, and therefore has suffered undeservedly, 
inasmuch as in an organisation where people have had 
positions accorded them for which their goodness 
rather than their practical knowledge of men and 
things has been their chief qualification, his rigid, 
two-and-two-are-four method of arriving at the kernel 
of a matter has been displeasing. He is an economical 
manager, even to parsimony. A safe financier, his 
defect, and one which has interfered with his advance 
as an actual leader of men, is a halting, nervous man- 
ner, and an over-careful regard for that whimsical 
article called reputation. Nevertheless, he is an in- 
valuable man. 

COMMISSIONER JAMES HAY (Australia). A Scotch 
lad from the banks of the Clyde. He is a type of the 
industrious and climbing Caledonian. Overfed with 
the Salvationism of the movement, all his reading is 
vitiated with the idea that it must be boiled down 
to the platform of the Officers' Council, with the dis- 
astrous results that this young man, one of the Army's 
best leaders, is abusing his rare gifts. Commissioner 
Hay is a first-rate example to younger men to work 
and to conquer. When he entered the Army his hard, 
Celtic brogue placed him at a disadvantage. He was 
not understood, and men said he had a heart like a 
lump of ice and an ambition to fill the whole horizon 
of the movement. With every step onwards, from Staff 
Captain to Major and Major to Colonel and Colonel to 
Commissioner, and from departmental drudgery at 
Headquarters to the plum-appointment in the organi- 



352 GENERAL BOOTH 

sation Australia this young man has gone forward 
showing how he can learn from his mistakes. He is 
one of the most practical preachers and administrators 
and humorists in the Army. His wife is also an 
enthusiastic Salvationist, and as a story-teller of the 
Family Herald type she has few equals, and this 
without disparagement. That class of fiction has an 
important function to fill in the education of the 
people. Together the Hays constitute an answer to the 
question "Where are the leaders of the future to come 
from ? " His training is almost entirely due to the 
faith that Mr. Bramwell Booth had in his possibilities. 
COMMISSIONER ELWIN OLIPHANT (Switzerland). 
Commissioner Oliphant is one of three curates of the 
Church of England who left the Established Church and 
joined the Salvation Army in the year 1883, believing 
that the General had revived that Gospel which Bishop 
Lightf oot described as ' ' the Compulsion of Souls . ' ' Since 
then two of the curates have wandered into other folds. 
Commissioner Oliphant has not only remained, but 
risen to a most honourable and influential position 
in the Army and in the religious world. After a period 
of probation in England, he married the daughter of 
Major and Mrs. Schoch, of Amsterdam, a lady richly 
endowed with the charm and grace of the old Dutch 
aristocracy linguistic, musical, eloquent, and san- 
guine of the ultimate destiny of man. With all her 
learning and literary taste, she retained the simplicity 
of her girlhood when confronted with the tr}dng duties 
that belonged to the wife of an officer of the Salvation 
Army who occupied the first post in continental 



THUMBNAIL SKETCHES 353 

commands. She flung her heart into the warfare. 
She insisted upon taking the first Mrs. Booth as her 
model, and would study finance, property, legal and 
other questions. She leapt to the opportunity that 
was presented to her with the expansion of the Army 
as a social enterprise, and over all the continent of 
Europe Mrs. Oliphant's name is synonymous with 
Christian compassion for the people. She is equally 
at home among the palaces of the wealthy as she is 
with her guitar in a cafe or on the platform of a casino, 
singing and expounding the truth that God loves 
men and women, and that sin is but an excrescence 
of nature that can be neutralised and destroyed 
through faith in the Blood of the Lamb of God. 
Mrs. Oliphant has brought to the side of the former 
Church of England clergyman a Nestor-like influence, 
and in Sweden, where her husband was chief officer, 
and in Holland and Germany, where they lifted the 
Army out of a groove of comparative obscurity, they 
did wonders all, of course, from the Army stand- 
point. In his leisure Commissioner Oliphant has 
studied early ecclesiastical history and written com- 
mendable studies of Savonarola and Terstegen. He 
has also translated several of the Army publications. 
Among his other gifts he is an able administrator, 
and belongs to the early school of Salvationists, 
conducting his meetings by allowing members of the 
Army ample opportunity to relate their testimony. 

COMMISSIONER GEORGE SCOTT RAILTON. He is 
the free lance of the Salvation Army quite an 
extremist. For many years he went about preaching 

2 A 



354 GENERAL BOOTH 

Salvation in the cities and towns of England without 
hat or scrip or funds. A man of superb faith in one 
thing Salvation. Of great physical endurance, he 
has travelled in all parts of the world, by nearly every 
conceivable method, always seeking, by preference, 
the company of the lowest ; he has seldom been known 
to be out of Salvation Army uniform. He has a fana- 
tical faith in the come-and-be-saved-now Salvation. 
While he speaks with a rich command of language, 
always chaste and correct, he nevertheless glories in 
listening to the most ignorant of testimonies. He is a 
strong believer in the penitent form as an aid to the 
development of the spiritual life. He is the one 
Salvationist who looks at the operations of the Roman 
Catholic Church without prejudice. He frequently 
worships in Catholic churches when on his continental 
campaigns. He wears a Lutheran cross on his red 
guernsey. He has written quite a number of clever 
apologies on the Salvation Army, his most important 
being Heathen England. A voluminous writer to the 
papers and magazines of the organisation, he is 
a far too dexterous manipulator of words and ideas, 
which deprives his written word of much of its weight. 
He has not been entrusted with many definite and 
independent commands. 

An interesting illustration of the difference between 
the leader and the subordinate occurred in Berlin, 
when the Commissioner was at the head of the work in 
Germany. General Booth was advertised to give 
an address at the Athenaeum, under police protection. 
The bare fact that the General was able to enjoy such 



THUMBNAIL SKETCHES 355 

a privilege in those days was hailed as a sign of the 
crumbling of Prussian prejudice against the Heil 
Armee. Commissioner Railton, who was in charge of 
the work in Berlin, was nervous about the arrange- 
ments, and eager about everything passing off with 
credit to the concern. In due time the audience 
assembled, principally curious and non-representative 
of the busy crowd. It was in the afternoon. A few 
Salvationists assembled near the entrance to obtain 
a glimpse of their revered leader. As soon as he stepped 
from his cab one rapturous German shouted, " Halle- 
lujah ! " Immediately, and with eyes flashing dis- 
pleasure, Commissioner Railton cried, " Silence ! " 

The General was amazed. As he walked along the 
yard that led to the private entrance, he asked the 
Commissioner why he had checked the natural enthu- 
siasm of the soldier. The Commissioner replied, 
" Highly dangerous, General ; most foolish for the 
man to do so. It might have been used as a pretext 
for the police to close the meeting." 

" What ? " exclaimed the General, " stop a meeting 
for a Berliner praising God ! Then, if that had hap- 
pened, it would have been the best thing for the Army 
in Germany, and I should have considered I had done 
a good day's work in being the cause of it. Let the 
Salvationists shout ' Hallelujah ' wherever they are 
and whatever be the consequence ! " 

Commissioner Railton entered the hall in a rather 
subdued spirit, and the meeting proceeded with as 
much decorum as if it had been held in a cathedral 
city of England, The General was right. 



356 GENERAL BOOTH 

Commissioner Railton has had his differences with his 
leaders and they have had their differences with him, 
but much is tolerated from Commissioner Railton that 
would not be pardoned if committed by another officer. 
His family are, strange to say, not Salvationists. 

COMMISSIONER STURGESS (of the Men's Social City 
Colony). A man of considerable business ability, who 
persists in believing that his chief work on earth is to 
preach. For this high calling he has no natural or other 
gift. But the good man is as sincere as Nathanael. 
He has removed the reproach, for which there was real 
ground, from the London shelters of being overcrowded 
and dirty, and has carried out a more businesslike 
policy in the management of the same. Some assert 
that he has gone to the other extreme. As an inter- 
preter of his Chief's mind and will he has no equal. He 
is preparing the way, it is hoped, for some Commis- 
sioner who will rescue the Colony from much of its 
commercial spirit, Up to the present he has not shown 
the slightest knowledge of sociology in its scientific and 
constructive aspects, and his management of the Han- 
bury Street Elevator dispute caused the General and 
Mr. Bramwell Booth to be placed in a false light before 
the public. Commissioner Sturgess has a genuine re- 
gard for the welfare of criminals, and a man of his 
temperament might be useful among the Prison Com- 
missioners. He was in the service of the London and 
North Western Railway Company previous to entering 
the Salvation Army. His first task as a Salvationist 
at Headquarters was to clean the inkstands in the 
office of Mr. Bramwell Booth, " which I look back 



THUMBNAIL SKETCHES 357 

upon," he says, " as one of the most sacred moments 
of my life." The Salvation Army is his heaven and 
Mr. Bramwell Booth his prophet. 

COMMISSIONER W. J. MCALONAN (Germany). For 
many years second in command of the trading opera- 
tions of the Salvation Army ; a smart fellow, with a 
melodious voice, natural ability for acquiring languages 
and adapting himself to any situation, a keen student 
of the Bible and a lover of discussion. His promotion 
was long delayed ; but now that he is in command of 
continental work he is shining as a preacher, leader, 
and legislator. I hear that since he went to Germany 
he has declared that when he, as Commissioner of the 
Salvation Army, tells his officers that there is danger 
in believing anything that he considers dangerous, 
they should accept it as the Voice of God. 

COMMISSIONER HANNA OUCHTERLONY. Now an 
elderly lady, but in her time a great worker among the 
Swedes and Norwegians. She pioneered the Army's 
entrance to Sweden, and to this day is looked upon by 
her fellow-countrymen as the Mrs. Booth of that 
country. She was brought up in the orthodox fashion, 
and being well connected, had settled down to a 
pleasant social life. Mr. Bramwell Booth went to 
Sweden for a vacation, and while off duty held some 
Salvation meetings at which Miss Ouchterlony was 
present. The experience which he outlined as being 
the normal one for the Christian to enjoy, namely, the 
conscious possession of " a heart delivered from the 
last remains of sin," set her thinking. " If this man 
is correct, then I can understand now why Christ 



358 GENERAL BOOTH 

became the Son of God, and I can see what the Cross 
really meant." So she reasoned. The outcome of her 
enquiries was the possession, so she believed, of that 
experience and her consecration to the life of an 
officer. Though then over forty years of age, she was 
chosen by the General, or rather Mr. Bramwell Booth, 
to " open fire " upon her own Fatherland. And she 
succeeded. Encountering at first the persecution of 
the baser sort, the objects of the Army's mission 
gradually dawned upon the authorities, and it only 
needed the imprisonment of a few officers, and the 
intervention of the late King Oscar, to compel a re- 
spectful hearing from all classes of the community. Miss 
Ouchterlony retired from active duty a few years ago. 
COMMISSIONER WILLIAM EADIE. One of many 
Scotchmen who have ascended to leading commands. 
Burly, straight, and severely practical and pointed. 
When the Army captured his affections he was plying 
the occupation of a fisherman off the Humber. His 
early career was marked by a dogged determination 
to succeed in making his converts understand that un- 
less they became Salvationists there was very little 
hope of their retaining the grace of God. His message 
was " Save your soul and save others." And in his 
hammer-stroke style of talking he won his way, as does 
everyone who adheres to his text and works. And 
William Eadie worked. His chance came when he 
was brought back from a colonial command and given 
an English appointment on the field staff. No man 
had a bigger list of complaints and quarrels on his 
agenda than Eadie when divisional officer, but while 



THUMBNAIL SKETCHES 350 

his fellow-officers were inclined to blame him and his 
national love of a skirmish, those behind the scenes 
knew that he was a thorough worker. At a moment of 
extreme tension in America he was appointed Chief 
Secretary to Commander Ballington Booth. Here 
his little faults rather than his undoubted virtues were 
freely advertised. The Americans had not much use 
for the gruff Scotchman who knew Salvation Army 
law from A to Z. So it happened that when the 
" split " occurred in the States Mr. Eadie was well, 
hated by the recalcitrants. But he lived to bear down 
much of their opposition, and by those who really know 
him he is considered a just administrator of the law of 
the Salvation Army. He is the protege of the General, 
who has a devoted infatuation for a man who rules hard 
and well. Long acquaintance with Salvation Army 
government at the top has softened his nature, and like 
many men who learn life's sweetest lessons in middle 
life, Commissioner Eadie should be at the beginning of 
an interesting career. He is supported by a wife who 
has done good service in the Salvation Army. 

COMMISSIONER RICHARDS (South Africa). A rough 
piece of human flint quarried out of the common soil 
of mining life. Saved from a career of self-indulgence 
more than thirty years ago, he was attracted to the 
Army platform, and after a period of probation as an 
officer on the field, Richards was given a staff ap- 
pointment and from that moment he made progress. 
Imagine a rough, blatant, conceited miner turned into 
a suave, well-informed, and capable leader of the 
Salvation Army in polished and refined Denmark ; 



360 GENERAL BOOTH 

and that is Commissioner Richards. He has had 
several foreign appointments, but will never learn a 
language should he live to be the age of the patriarchs. 

COMMISSIONER DAVID REES. Successor to Commis- 
sioner Coombs in Canada, and like him, Commissioner 
for the second time. 

Commissioner Rees is a handsome encouragement 
to the men in the Army whose talents are not numerous. 
This man has made the most of his and will continue 
to do so. There is a capital story told about his 
management of the Training Home, for which he had 
very meagre scholastic ability. Grammar is not his 
strong point, and he has a certain disdain for the 
aspirate, which hurt the superior in Canada when he 
was last in charge of the Army's work there. He has 
the capacity for taking pains with individual break- 
downs in human nature. He will spend days and 
nights with men in order to " get at " the core of their 
weakness. One day he was relating for the benefit of 
his fellow-Commissioners one of these problems, in 
the person of a young man who was always quarrelling 
with his Captain. This young man was a Lieutenant. 
" I was convinced," he said, " that the lad had 
something more than a twist in him. He was not 
right in his soul. I determined to find out. I took him 
into my room yesterday, and resolved that he should 
not leave it till I was satisfied that he was right or that 
I was right. I spent exactly three hours and fifteen 
minutes no, I beg pardon, three hours and seventeen 
and a half minutes with him when I found that I was 
right." Commissioner Rees goes by the clock. 



THUMBNAIL SKETCHES 361 

"Now, Commissioner," replied one of his comrades, 
a bit of wickedness twinkling in his eye, " are you 
not mistaken ? Perhaps you spent three hours and 
eighteen minutes ! " 

COMMISSIONER HENRY HODDER (Japan). An able 
man who began life as a potman. With a sensible wife 
he has made rapid progress in his career, and if anyone 
is needed for the Army in China strange that the 
Army has not yet begun there this man and his wife 
will probably be found to be the safest and most 
successful pioneers. He belongs to the phlegmatic 
order of Salvationist, but goes on all the time and 
thinks out his business with care and prudence. A 
valuable man anywhere. 

COMMISSIONER W. RIDSDEL (Holland). One of the 
few remaining members of the Christian Mission 
occupying a big position in the Salvation Army. A 
safe man. He is keen on buying and selling property 
in the interests of the organisation. He has an in- 
veterate love of sermonising, and yet rumour has it 
that as a speaker he has not proved a Demosthenes. 
Here is a sad story about the good and faithful warrior. 
Twenty-five years ago Colonel Lawley heard him 
deliver a sermon from the text " How shall we escape, 
if we neglect so great salvation ? " It was delivered 
with muscular emphasis and much prancing on the 
stage. It was considered a good address. Five years 
ago the same officer heard him preach in another 
country one Sunday night. At the close Mr. Ridsdel 
asked his comrade what he thought of the delivery. 
The text was the same and the wording the same, even 



362 GENERAL BOOTH 

the muscular part not being omitted. The wicked 
officer made answer, " William, not so well done as 
when I heard the same sermon preached by the General 
thirty-two years ago and by yourself in Plymouth 
twenty-five years ago." Notwithstanding, Commis- 
sioner Ridsdel has done good work for the Flag, and 
the General will swear by him to the end. 

COMMISSIONER COSANDEY (Argentine). One of the 
few foreign officers who have risen to the dignity of a 
commissionership in the Salvation Army. A French 
Swiss, he is one of the most engaging orators in the 
organisation, has great natural capacity to manage 
men, administer affairs, and kick over the traces 
occasionally. 

COMMISSIONER T. ESTILL (Chicago). A capital man 
for a storm. He and his wife have together rendered 
sixty years' service to the Salvation Army. He had 
charge of the work of the Army in South Africa, Japan, 
and Holland. His wife is a matchless worker in behalf 
of lost women. 

COLONEL ARTHUR BATES (Auditor-General). Tra- 
velled three hundred thousand miles inspecting the 
accounts of the Army. An encyclopaedia of Army 
work in all lands. 

COLONEL SAMUEL BRENGLE (Travelling Special). 
Author of the choicest and ablest books issued from 
the Army Press. An American. 

COLONEL A. M. DAMON (United States). A well- 
balanced mind, organiser, and an effective speaker and 
disciplinarian. 

COLONEL MILDRED DUFF (London). Editor-in-Chief 



THUMBNAIL SKETCHES 363 

of Young People's papers. A gracious personality 
who has served the cause in many of its uphill fights 
on the Continent and in England. An ambassador for 
Mr. Bramwell Booth on difficult and personal matters. 
A lady of sterling qualities. Had charge of the slum- 
work in London for some time. 

COLONEL CHARLES DUCE. A promising and able 
leader, with the true missionary ideas and instinct. Has 
been kept back for some reason or other. A cruel waste 
of time to retain such a man in any part of the Western 
world. 

COLONEL WILLIAM EVANS (United States). Been 
Chief Secretary of America. Very popular ; has 
raised more officers for the Salvation Army than anyone 
in the States. His administrative achievements are 
national monuments in the social philanthropic work 
of that country. 

COLONEL F. F. FORNACHON (France). A coming man 
for continental work ; has already done good service. 

COLONEL W. H. ILIFFE (Boxted). The General's 
representative in working out a scheme for the closer 
settlement of the people in small holdings. Seen ser- 
vice in India. Well informed about everything he has 
undertaken. Was successful as Chief Secretary of the 
Army's Colony at Hadleigh. A man of the future. 

COLONEL WILLIAM HOWARD (Finland). Son of the 
Commissioner of that name. A wise and careful officer. 
Musical and linguistic. 

COLONEL THEO. KITHING (International Head- 
quarters). Greatly trusted by the General and the 
Chief of the Staff. Head of the Army's Publicity De- 



364 GENERAL BOOTH 

partment. Has travelled much with the Chief and the 
General. Acts as the Chief's literary secretary. Occu- 
pies a seat on the Foreign Office Board and many 
similar institutions at International Headquarters. 
Has dressed in rags and tatters and preached in that 
garb upon the Social Scheme. 

COLONEL GEOKGE MITCHELL (International Head- 
quarters). Head of the Property and Finance of the 
Army. Able and far-seeing. Credited with having 
more weight with the Chief of the Staff than any other 
man at his elbow. The " Sousa " of the Salvation 
Army, and the staff bandmaster of a highly trained 
band of brass instrumentalists who have visited all 
parts of England and several countries on the Continent. 

COLONEL JOLIFFE (International Headquarters). 
Head of the collecting and money-raising departments 
of International Headquarters. An able and accom- 
plished speaker. Chairman of many boards for the 
revision of expenses. Head of the Staff Department. 

COLONEL JOHN LAWLEY. Wherever the General is 
to be found there is Colonel Lawley also. A man after 
the General's own heart. Leads the General's prayer- 
meetings, sees to his platforms and billets, and gener- 
ally acts as agent in advance. No engagement is fixed 
for the General until Colonel Lawley sees it. He solos 
for the General, and has sung one solo fifteen hundred 
times, " Hark, hear the Saviour knocking ! " There 
is a capital story told of the General's chaplain. It was 
in Australia. The General had been complaining of 
the bad ventilation no building was ever invented 
to satisfy the General and could not call Lawley 



THUMBNAIL SKETCHES 365 

to see to it, as he was then engaged singing his im- 
mortal song. Lawley overheard the remarks. When 
he came to the line in the solo 

ie Backslider, will you listen?" 

Lawley paused, sang the line again, and aside said to 
one of the staff officers sitting near to the General, 
" Brigadier, go and pull the string and let the air in." 
The General forgave Lawley many transgressions for 
that timely and thoughtful aside ! The Colonel com- 
poses a hymn on an average once a week, and they are 
often used, but not by the General. His selection has 
long been narrowed down to about a dozen. And, by 
the way, the General has tried his hand at composing 
hymns, and with a fair measure of acceptance to his 
officers. Mrs. Lawley was one of the most successful 
field officers before her marriage. 

COLONEL DAVID LAMB is probably one of the best- 
known officers among the general public, owing to his 
connection with the social branches of the Army in 
London. He acted as the Chief's private secretary 
for several years on social affairs. He has a pretty 
complete grasp of Poor Law Reform, and has given 
evidence before select committees on such subjects 
as vagrancy, the homeless, and kindred matters. He 
is a member of the Rochford Board of Guardians, in 
which capacity he is acknowledged to have rendered 
valuable service to the community. 

For five years he had the direction of the Hadleigh 
Farm Colony and gained there an intimate acquaint- 
ance with the causes of pauperism and the limitations 
of the Poor Law. He has done more than any other 



366 GENERAL BOOTH 

officer to bring the Army into relation with the State 
as an auxiliary in handling the vicious and idle sections 
of society. He held the position of Chief Secretary in 
the Men's Colony of London. He was appointed by 
the General to organise the Emigration Department, 
in which, however, he has been a failure ; that is, 
so far as carrying out the General's ideal of emigration 
is concerned. Originally that department was in- 
tended to be a method for transferring people in ad- 
verse circumstances from this country, where they were 
being crowded out of the labour market, to places such 
as Canada and America, where there existed a more 
general demand for labour. This branch of the Army's 
operations for some reason or other has not attracted 
subscriptions, and yet the agency has sent tens of 
thousands of people to Canada, and the publications 
of the Army have boasted that in some instances the 
parties that have been sent under the cegis of the Army 
have carried with them as much as 30,000 & some- 
what different financial reputation from what the General 
expected to belong to the people that should accept 
his hand of help in this way. The department has 
grown to be a miniature Cook's Agency. It simply 
meets the need of a class that prefer to sail to a new 
shore under the guidance of the Army's officials ; 
otherwise it has practically failed to grapple with a 
fraction of the social problem which it was hoped by 
its originator it would partially solve. 

The worst aspects of its operations, however, are 
confined to the Canadian side of the case. The Army 
has no special facilities to offer their clients. Colonel 



THUMBNAIL SKETCHES 367 

Lamb is the officer who has had the shaping of this 
department largely in his hands, and it may be placed 
to his credit that if he had had a freer hand he probably 
would have done something opposed to the general in- 
terests of the Army, but calculated to introduce a first- 
class stream of labour to the Dominion from the ranks 
of those unable to pay their own ocean fare. He is 
nothing if not original in many of his suggestions for 
taking the under dog up out of his extremity, and for 
fearlessly going in the teeth of the conventional ; but 
like all societies that have to consider not one aspect 
of the question, but how one department will affect 
another, he has been handicapped in measures for 
raising money to aid the thousands who have applied 
to the Army and have been refused, on the ground that 
there were no available funds. Colonel Lamb has paid 
many visits to Canada and has done much to teach 
Government officials how to do emigration work on 
a cheap line. 

As a public speaker Colonel Lamb is careful, thought- 
ful, having none of the flamboyant way of appealing to 
men who are " down on their uppers." He talks with 
the calm assurance of a Government official tinged 
with the idealism of the Army. He is one of the few 
officers who religiously reads his Bible at family 
prayers and then dives into The Times. His wife is 
known at Southend as the friend of the poor, and one 
who can always be relied upon to take up the " forlorn 
hopes " of the town. 

COLONEL CLEMENT JACOBS (International Head- 
quarters). Colonel Jacobs is an able manager, and 



368 GENERAL BOOTH 

indispensable as the Chief Secretary of the City Colony 
under the Social Scheme. A great executive officer. 
Spent fifteen years in Canada. 

Mention might be made of many other officers, 
especially those in charge of Corps, who possess quali- 
fications for filling larger positions in the Army. But 
it will be clear, I think, from the above that those who 
foolishly imagine that this organisation is likely to suffer 
for the lack of capable leaders, for the present at 
least, are mistaken. 

Whatever opinions may be held as to the Army as a 
religious organisation, one thing is evident : it has dis- 
covered gold in the dust rich talent among the average 
men of the world, and imbued with religious ideals, 
has made them into thinkers, social engineers, and re- 
generators of a certain class of society. Whether the 
type of man that is denoted " Salvationist " is, in 
the long run, likely to prove a valuable member of 
society is a question that we need not discuss here. 
No one can surely read these sketches of the men 
behind the scenes without being impressed with the 
fact that the Army makes men. And these are by no 
means " picked " men. I have selected them accord- 
ing to no fixed standard. There are others in charge 
of Corps, such as the commanders of local Corps, who, 
after doing twenty and twenty-five years' service on 
the field as missionary officers, are capable if the oppor- 
tunity were placed in their power of being even greater 
successes than those who are occupying exalted posi- 
tions at the various Headquarters. 




THE AUTHOR. 



APPENDIX 



THE ARMY AND ITS CRITICS 

THE Salvation Army has had a fair amount of adver- 
tisement for which it has paid a heavy price, and a 
larger amount for which it has paid nothing at all. 
It is upon the latter that I may be permitted to pass 
a few comments. 

The critics of the Army have, of late years, been 
busy with their pen. In former years they fought the 
Army, as Kipling would say, with their mouth. Now 
they attack the General, Mr. Bramwell Booth and. 
their host of worshippers, with that caustic weapon 
the pen. In earlier times the assailed Commander-in- 
Chief was less sensitive and more worldly-wise than he 
appears to have become of late. Then he rather glori- 
fied in the attention that was bestowed upon the Army, 
even when the missiles employed were more painful 
in their effect than pleasant. Nowadays he and those 
who are responsible for defending the honour of the 
Flag of " The Blood and Fire " have clearly shown 
that they are victims of what is not uncommon in a 
long and strenuous military campaign, " nerves." 
They have betrayed the fact that they can have that 
disease in a very acute form. 

Let us look at the principal things that have been 
levelled against the Headquarters of the Army : 

1. FINANCE. The critics have from time to time 
2 B 369 



370 GENERAL BOOTH 

complained that all is not as clear and as straight as 
it should be. In this respect the Army has a complete 
answer to all its critics. It is untrue to assert, as has 
been done again and again, that the Army does not 
publish balance sheets. The Army does publish balance 
sheets, and has done so from the first year that the 
Trust Deed under which General William Booth holds 
his right to control the property and money of the 
Salvation Army was published. I have seen the 
auditors' clerks at work in the various departments of 
Headquarters. I have seen the original balance sheets, 
and have watched Mr. Bramwell Booth discuss them 
with his own accountants and financial advisers. So 
that there is not a vestige of truth in the statement 
that the General does not publish a yearly statement 
of his financial affairs. If he did not do so, he could 
be sued in a court of law for a serious dereliction of his 
duty as sole trustee of the Army. 

But as I understand the critics of the Army finance, 
they have no quarrel with the Army on this account. 
It is simply that they do not understand several ac- 
counts in the statements. Of course, General Booth 
has not yet posed as a philanthropist for supplying the 
ignorant with knowledge, and many of the criticisms 
upon the finance of the Army are manifestly crude and 
ill-informed. Still, on the other hand, the balance 
sheets, or financial statements, as the Army prefers 
to describe them, are not quite clear on several matters. 
Into these I need not enter. Lack of lucidity is not a 
crime. 

2. THE INCOME OF STAFF OFFICERS. It is not true 
that they are overpaid. The highest salary paid to the 
top staff at Headquarters is 300 per annum. Those 
who call that extravagant do not know what they are 
talking about. The man with 300 is worse off than 



APPENDIX 371 

the best-paid Adjutant on the field. What is not above 
criticism is the fact that while officers at Headquarters 
have their salaries guaranteed, the field officer is poorly 
paid, and hundreds of them eke out an existence on a 
minimum wage which is nothing short of a sweating 
wage. Headquarters know this to be true, but have not 
admitted it in replying to their critics, or while allowing 
others to reply for them. While Headquarters refuse 
to redress this balance, it is but right that it should 
be subjected to criticism. 

3. THE " STYLE " OF THE STAFF OFFICERS. It is 
correct that they live in comfortable houses, but far 
from luxurious. Headquarters supply them with 
furniture and allow a certain amount for depreciation, 
which they make good from time to time. But it is not 
true that the Staff are well off. The reverse is the 
truth. They find it difficult to live in London and keep 
up the appearance that is expected from them. 

4. EMIGRATION. Much criticism has been directed 
toward showing that the emigration work of the Army 
has become mainly a booking agency ; that the grants 
or bonuses that the Army receives from the federal 
and provincial Parliaments of the Dominion of Canada 
are swallowed up in the expenses of the department ; 
that the proportion of money spent upon assisting 
deserving emigrants to a fresh start hi lif e is very small ; 
and that the work has ceased to be philanthropic. There 
is no doubt whatever but that these criticisms are in 
the main supported by the Army's own figures ; but 
the fault lies with the system of tabulating statistics. 
And it is a fault that is not confined to the Salvation 
Army. The philanthropic societies that run an emigra- 
tion department in the interests of the poor, perhaps 
with one exception, inflate their figures, and convey 
to the public an erroneous impression as to the extent 



372 GENERAL BOOTH 

of their work. The Army talks very loudly of the 
tens of thousands of emigrants whom they have sent 
to Canada, whereas the truth is the great bulk of them 
have sent themselves, so to speak, to Canada, pre- 
ferring to go under the umbrella of the Army. This 
they have a perfect right to do. 

As. however, the whole work of emigration will soon 
come under a very searching examination by impartial 
and official minds, this branch of the Army's work may 
be safely left to be finally adjudicated by them. 

The grants made by the Army in recent years to 
assist emigrants have been diminishing, but that is the 
fault of the public. If the Army does not receive 
subscriptions, it cannot be expected to dole out money 
earmarked for some other fund. 

The organisation of the department is well-nigh 
perfect. No one can say that, with the exception 
of occasional breakdowns that are peculiar to all 
organisations alike, the management is weak. The 
fact that Colonel David Lamb is in charge of the 
department is a guarantee that, so far as that 
part of the work is concerned, it will be well and 
conscientiously done. 

5. THE PRISON WORK OF THE ARMY. General 
Booth has taken a step in regard to this department 
that will be of immense value to the public. He has 
agreed to co-operate with the State, along with the 
Church Army and other Prison Aid Societies, in carry- 
ing out certain reforms instituted by the Home Secre- 
tary reforms which will tend to prevent overlapping 
and show the actual amount of work done by each 
society. 

The ticket-of-leave system, as it is at present under- 
stood, is to be abolished. Instead of convicts, on 
their release, reporting to the police, they will have 



APPENDIX 373 

to report, under certain conditions, to the represen- 
tatives of these societies. A Central Board is to be 
established, also under the guidance of the Home 
Secretary, for applying these new regulations. I 
would advise all interested in prison reform generally 
to wait patiently the first report of this board. 
It will shed a flood of light upon the difficulties con- 
nected with this branch of philanthropic work, and 
convince even the societies themselves that something 
more drastic is needed than the transfer of oversight 
from the civil to the voluntary arm. The whole system 
is more or less built upon a wrong principle, and 
General Booth is probably the only man in England 
who quite understands what is required ; but 
whether the Army behind him is capable of applying 
the reform is very much open to question. The system 
as it stands at present is founded upon the barbaric 
idea that criminals must be punished. Until the idea 
of remaking the criminal, and not only by religious 
agencies, is thoroughly woven into the State concep- 
tion of its obligations, and the work and education 
within prison are reconstructed accordingly, very little 
progress towards the diminution of crime and criminals 
will be accomplished. Up to the present the prison 
work of the Army in this country has been on the 
whole well done, but it is on a very limited scale. 
The bulk of prison work is done by the Church Army. 
6. THE MEN'S SOCIAL WORK. For the last fifteen 
years this department has had to sustain onslaught 
after onslaught of criticism and has profited by it. The 
shelters have been placed under the Common Lodging 
House Act, and about 30,000 have been spent 
in bringing these shelters, so far as their structural 
arrangements are concerned, under the requirements 
of the Act and the rules of the Board of Health. 



374 GENERAL BOOTH 

The Army was extremely foolish to kick at first against 
the inevitable, and to contend that these institutions 
were compatible with the circumstances of the class 
of people the Army was raising from the moral and 
social quagmires of the City. It was scarcely fair to 
itself* The shelters in other lands were examples of 
roominess, sanitation, and fittings. The old coffin- 
shaped bunk is practically abolished, and thank God 
for it. It was a most degrading arrangement, worse 
than the casual ward. There the wretched tramp paid 
nothing for his bed. Here he had to pay twopence. 

A more serious question, one which lies at the root of 
all indiscriminate charity, is the value to the com- 
munity of these shelters. So far as the men in the 
shelters are benefited by them, they do not elevate 
them, either physically or morally. A proportion 
what proportion ? are weeded out, entirely by the 
voluntary action of the men themselves, and given 
temporary work in carrying sandwich-boards, address- 
ing envelopes, sorting paper, etc. /jBut the cause of 
their social dilapidation remains ^unaltered. They 
enter the shelter, pay their twopence or fourpence as 
the case may be (and few are allowed to enter unless 
they do), they listen to some moral advice once a week, 
with which they are surfeited inside and outside the 
shelter, they go to bed, and next morning leave the 
shelter to face the streets as they came in. The shelter 
gets no nearer to the cause of their depravity than it does 
to the economic cause of their failure, or to the economic 
remedy which the State must eventually introduce. 

On its religious side, good work is done among 
individuals here and there, though here also, while the 
good is being done, evils are perpetuated that are de- 
basing in their sum total. The shelter officers to a man 
declare that their hardest and saddest work is in pre- 



APPENDIX 375 

venting the hypocrisy that is associated with the peni- 
tent form. A profession of religion is part of the 
carrying equipment of a growing proportion of the 
regular attendants of the shelters. The most honest 
and reliable are those who do not make any profes- 
sion at all. It may be conceded that the good out- 
weighs the evil. 

The workshops of the Army are little better than 
sweating dens, though I do not think that the evil 
associated with these is so serious as it has been de- 
scribed. Until the State can devise something better 
than the casual ward for these out-of-works, it is sheer 
folly for anyone to assail this rough-and-ready method 
of affording temporary aid. It is not the Army that is 
most blameworthy. It is the apathy of the public. 

The fact is that the number of agencies that are 
at work, especially in London, along these lines is so 
numerous that the time has arrived for the State to 
interfere and appoint a Royal Commission for dealing 
with these and these alone. The Labour Exchange 
has shown us the extent and character of the unem- 
ployed. Something is needed to show us what is done 
to meet that need, how it is abused, and how ineffec- 
tive it is. If such a Commission were appointed, Mr. 
Bramwell Booth would be its most competent chair- 
man, for if he collected the facts as they have come to 
light since the Social Scheme was established and placed 
these before the country, there would be an agitation 
for a complete and radical change in our vagrancy Acts 
and the methods of administering relief to the poor. 

7. THE FAILURE OF THE SOCIAL SCHEME. From 
an economic standpoint the social experiment of the 
Salvation Army stands condemned almost root and 
branch. " So much the worse for economics," the 
average Salvation Army officer will reply. Perhaps. 



376 GENERAL BOOTH 

But at the end of twenty years the Army cannot point 
to one single cause of social distress that it has re- 
moved or to one single Act which it has promoted that 
has dealt a death-blow at one social evil. Its work has 
been purely of the nature of the ambulance, jand God 

^ forbid that I should raise so much as a little finger 
against all that it has done and is doing in that respect. 
I have lost a considerable amount of faith since I ceased 
to be a Salvationist in the value of voluntary effort. 
Prevention is better than cure. JThe amazing revela- 
tions of the Royal Commission on the Poor Law 
demonstrate that fact in a negative manner, and until 
a good part of the Minority Report is given fair play in 
actual practice, we shall not be able to adequately 
realise the full force of the old saw that prevention 
is better than cure. We are still babes at the business 

of saving men, women, and children. We have 
stamped out certain diseases which periodically turned 
London into a mortuary, and we have done much to 
awaken the public conscience to the science of moral 
salvation (and the Army has done more in this respect 
than any other Christian organisation). But the 
General would show himself the true statesman if he 
manfully told the world that his social scheme has 
not got to close quarters with the evils which he set 
out to demolish. By doing so he will eventually raise 
himself higher in the public estimation, and what is 
of far more consequence, clear the atmosphere of a 
lot of maudlin sentiment as to the character of the work 
upon which he and others are engaged, and help to 
point the way to another and more effective treatment 
of the social disease. 



WILLIAM BRENDON AND SON, LTD. PRINTERS, PLYMOUTH 






OVERDUE. 

TiiSRT2 1936 




u. c 




0758- 








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